African do.

South American do.


to, settle, and buy lands in India; and natives of India, | luxury, as well as their dexterity in the commerce by of whatever colour or religion, are to be eligible to office. which these are diffused over the world. India affords no direct revenue or tribute to England, An account of the population of the empire has been as conquered countries are in general supposed to do. taken at intervals of ten years from 1801 ; and the fol. The only advantages which we derive from our occu- lowing table will show the gradual increase which has pation of these immense countries, are the undisputed occurred since 1811 :possession of their trade, and the fortunes (sometimes


1841. very large) saved out of their salaries by British subjects who are appointed to discharge the duties of England and Wales, 10,163,876 11,978,875 13,894,569 15,906,741


1,805,688 2,093,456 2,365,807 2,620,610 government. It is to the trade of the country, how


4,500,000 6,802,093 7,734,365 8,175,124 ever, that we must look for any considerable and permanent advantage; and as this can only be made to

Totals, 16,469,564 20,874,424 23,994,741 26,702,475 increase by the cultivation of peace and order through the country, the interest of Britain becomes directly These estimates are exclusive of the army and navy, involved in maintaining henceforth the peace of India. as also of the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, The improvement which a few years of peace effects in which are noticed under another section. The increase these fertile countries is astonishing : the population of the population, as compared with the returns of of a certain portion is supposed to have nearly doubled | 1831, is at the rate of 14:5 per cent. for England; 13 in the period of comparative peace from 1811 to 1830, per cent. for Wales; for Scotland, 11•1; for the islands being in the former year only forty-tive, and in the in the British seas, 196: making the increase for the latter almost ninety millions. Till she canje under whole of Great Britain 14 per cent., being less than that British rule, India never enjoyed twenty years of peace of the ten years ending 1831, which was 15 per cent. and orderly government in all her former history. The following is the latest statement of the extent Many faults and oppressions are laid to the charge of and population of the British Empire :the English in India, from which it is impossible to

Colonial and Foreign Square defend them. The taxes (which fall chiefly upon the

Population. land and the poor peasantry) are very oppressive, and

England and Wales,

57,819 15,906,741 are rendered more so by the unprincipled conduct of


32,167 2,620,610 the natives who are employed to collect them. Justice


32,512 8,175,124 also is administered in a foreign language (Persic), and

Man and Channel Islands,

124,040 the courts are so few, that districts which are larger

European Dependencies,

140,282 than Scotland have hardly one to each. Notwithstand- Asiatic do.

754,637 95,010,000 ing all this, the preservation of public order and of

24,687 1,445,379 peace has conferred advantages on the country of the North American, do.

754,580 1,880,000 most inestimable kind. Latterly, considerable im

89,000 provements have been effected by the establishment West Indies,


792,908 of schools, and by Christian missionaries.


560,000 370,000 As India, by the taxes which it pays to the Company, Protected and Tributary Statesclears the cost of its own protection, and all its other

Ionian Islands,


223,349 East Indian States,

560,000 public expenses, it may be considered as the only foreign

39,900,000 possession of Britain whose trade affords an unburdened


3,146,747 165,278,641 profit to the home country. The forces employed by the Company, partly composed of British regular troops, and Occupations.-It appears that those engaged in the partly of native levies, amounted in 1846 to 250,000 close and vigilant pursuits of manufactures and mer. men. In 1833–4, its annual rerenue was £13,680,165, chandise are, in England and Scotland, as two to one in an enormous sum to be raised in a semi-barbarous numbers, compared with those who apply to the more country, yet no more than sufficient to discharge the leisurely business of agriculture. In 1841 the number annual expenses. The Company at that time was in of those in active life or living independently were debt to the amount of £35,463,483.

7,846,569 — leaving 10,997,865 to be understood as

women and children having no recognised occupations. POPULATION-SOCIAL STATISTICS.

Of those employed--3,110,376 were engaged in comThe people of England, Scotland, and Ireland, re- merce, trade, and manufactures ; 1,499,278 in agricul. spectively, possess certain national peculiarities of ture, grazing, gardening, and other kindred pursuits ; character ; but these, from the general intercourse 761,868 in miscellaneous labour, as mines, quarries, porwhich now prevails, are gradually disappearing, and terage, &c.; 218,610 comprised the navy, national and a uniform British character is becoming daily more mercantile, fishermen, watermen, &c.; 131,464 the army apparent. In this general and happy assimilation, at home and abroad; 63,184 were engaged in the learned the English qualities of mind and habits predominate. professions—divinity, law, and physic; 142,836 were The chief feature in the English character is an ardent following pursuits requiring education, including those love of liberty, which renders the people extremely engaged in imparting knowledge to others; 16,959 tenacious of their civil rights, stern advocates of justice, were in the civil service of government; 25,275 were and patriotic in the highest degree. In their manners in municipal and parochial offices ; 1,165,233 were in they are grave rather than gay, blunt rather than cere- domestic service; 199,069 were alms-people, paupers, monious. In their habits they are enterprising, indus- lunatics, and pensioners; 511,440 were returned as intrious, and provident; in their feelings humane. In dependent; 2424 were afloat and undescribed ; leaving all mercantile transactions the greatest integrity exists, a residue of 10,996,398, in respect of whose occupations and promises are faithfully performed. In the middle no particulars were given. The number of persons and upper classes the highest civilisation prevails, and engaged in, and dependent upon, agriculture in Ireland, all the social virtues and comforts of domestic life are is comparatively much larger than in Great Britain. sedulously cultivated. There are some favourite field. It appears from the census of 1841, that there are sports and boisterous amusements; but the enjoyments 5,358,034 persons directly dependent upon the culture of the English are chiefly within doors, in their own of the soil out of a population of 8,175,124; and taking well-regulated homes. A love of home is a marked into account its subsidiary employments, the depend peculiarity in the affections of the English. The emi-ence on agriculture will even be proportionally greater. nent importance attained by the British in the scale of In considering the number of persons supported by nations, appears to depend mainly upon two features any particular manufacture, it is to be remembered of the common character-the high moral and intel that the numbers given are of actual workers, and not lectual character of the people at large, and their ex. of those who, as wives, children, &c. are supported by traordinary skill in producing articles of necessity and the labour of others. The total number of persons

whose occupations were ascertained in Great Britain | poor-- £899,095 on in-maintenance, and £3,467,960 on was 7,846,569, leaving 10,997,865 as the residue of out-relief. the population, which must be taken to consist of per- In Ireland, similar poor - laws were introduced in sons dependent on the former. Therefore, to the num- 1838, and are likely to prove of great service to that ber given under each employment, we must add another part of the empire. •The chief peculiarity of these laws,' number bearing to it the proportion of about 11 to says Macculloch, is that relief under them is adminis8, in order to ascertain the entire number of indi- tered solely in workhouses; and thus they differ from the viduals whom that branch of industry supports. It is Scotch poor-laws, under which workhouses have scarcely worthy of remark, that, from other reports, the pro- been nade use of at all, except in a few large towns; portion of those workers who are of tender age is de- and from the English poor-laws, which were intended creasing, and the total number of children now cn- by the legislature to be a mixed system of relief to the gaged in the above occupations is only 31,566, under able-bodied in workhouses, and of relief to the impo1-24th of the whole workers. The largest number tent poor, partly in workhouses and partly at their returned under any one occupation is of domestic ser- own homes. They differ again from the English and vants, being 1,165,233, of whom 908,825 are females. Scotch poor - laws in this, that while in England all

The statement of the aggregate population of the destitute persons have a legal right to relief, and in British islands, affords no idea of the force which is Scotland all destitute impotent persons have a similar actually employed in agriculture and manufactures. right, in Ireland, on the contrary, no individual was The effective labourers (men) are estimated to amount intended to have a legal right to relief; but at the to no more than 7,500,000, whereas, reckoning the same time, whether able-bodied or impotent, he may powers exerted in productive industry by animals, mills, equally receive relief in workhouses, provided he is steam-engines, and mechanism of various kinds, the destitute.' Under this law, the expenditure for the force is equal to the strength of between 65,000,000 poor in Ireland for the year ending 1st January 1846 and 70,000,000 working-men.

was £316,026, and the number of paupers 43,293; but Dwellings.- The number of houses in England in in November 1846, in consequence of the potato failure, 1841 were-inhabited, 2,753,295; uninhabited, 162,756; the number was 80,600. building, 25,882. The number in Wales, inhabited, In Scotland, as above stated, only the impotent 188,196 ; uninhabited, 10,133; building, 1769. In or very aged poor can legally claim relief froin the Scotland, inhabited, 503,357 ; uninhabited, 24,307 ; parish funds, which, by a recent act, are managed by building, 2760. In the islands of the British seas, parochial boards, subject to the direction and col. 19,159 inhabited; 865 uninhabited; and 220 building. trol of a Central Board, which is established in EdinGrand totals for the whole of Great Britain, 3,464,007 burgh. In 1846–47, the number of paupers on the inhabited, 198,061 uninhabited, 30,631 building-alto- roll or registered was 85,971 ; casual poor, 60,399– gether, 3,692,679 houses. It appears from the census, making the number of persons receiving relief iu Scui. however, that in Great Britain on the night of the 6th land during the year, 146,370, or about 1 in 18 of June 1841, that 22,303 persons slept in barns, tents, the population. The amount received was £435,367: pits, and in the open air.

of which £336,515 was expended on registered poor; Vital Statistics.-England is now provided with a law £36,340 on casual poor; £12,879 on medical reliei; for enforcing the registration of births, marriages, and £43,158 on management; and £5022 on litigation. deaths; but in other parts of the empire, Scotland in The present condition of society throughout the particular, the arrangements for these useful objects United Kingdom exhibits the spectacle of great and are very imperfect, and demand specdy amendment. valuable efforts at improvement among the more enAt the celebration of marriage, parties are required to lightened classes. Within the last twenty years, the sign their names; and it appears that, on an average, utility of the press has been immensely increased, and 33 in the 100 of males, and 49 in the 100 of females, works of instruction and entertainment have beeu cir. sign with a mark, being unable to write. The average culated in departments of society where formerly noage of men in England at marriage is about 27 years, thing of the kind was heard of. The establishment of and of women, 25 years and a few months. Of 100 mechanics' institutions, lyceums, exhibitions of works marriages, 8 take place with both parties under age; of art, reading societies, and other means of intellectual and it is remarkable that the agricultural districts fur- improvement, forms another distinguishing feature of nish the greatest proportion of early marriages. The modern society. At the same time great masses of the average annual number of marriages for England and people, for lack of education, and from other unfortu. Wales to every 10,000 inhabitants is 78. The average nate circumstances, are evidently gravitating into a of births to every 10,000 for England and Wales is 319; lower condition. From these reasons, and others conof deaths, 221. "It may be worth noticing, that it is in nected with the developnient of our manufacturing and the maritime counties we find the least mortality. commercial system, convictions for crime have been

Pauperism-Crime.-The population of the United latterly increasing. In 1847 there were in England Kingdom thus consists of various classes of persons, 20,833 offenders, of whom 21,582 were convicted; in ainongst whom, with respect to wealth, education, and Ireland 31,209,* of whom 15,257 were convicted; in general condition, even more than the usual differ- Scotland 4635, of whoin 3569 were convicted. Of the ences are to be found-the greatest wealth and luxury offences, 7611 were committed against the person; 4747 contrasting with the most abject poverty and want, against property committed with violence; 43,367 and the most industrious prudence with the utmost against property without violence; 589 malicious negligence and want of self-respect. Without entering offences against property ; 835 forgery and offences minutely into the political and social causes of this against the currency; and 7528 other offences not indistressing difference, it may be mentioned as a general cluded in the above. In reference to these details, it result, that the difficulty of purchasing food leads to must be remarked that the vigilance of our police a corresponding depression of circumstances in the brings to light almost every offence, however trivial; and humbler orders of the community, and either causes it is to this certainty of detection, together with the an extensive dependence on poor-rates for support, or general spread of education, the establishment of inproduces debased and dangerous habits of living. The dustrial schools, and the introduction of an improved poor of England are entitled by law to support in treatment of offenders, that we look forward to sonic werkhouses, according to the provisions of an act of diminution of this painful catalogue of crime. Parliament passed in 1834. In 1847, the number of

* The remarkable amount of crime in Ireland during the paupers (including children) relieved in England, was

year 1847, is attributed, in the explanations which accompany 1,721,350, or about 1 in 9 of the population. Of the official returns, to the famine which prevailed for that these 265,037 received in-door relief; 1,456,313 re- entire period, and the social disorganisation consequent on a ceived out-door relief. The amount received was state of universal distress.' In 1846, the number of offenders £7,117,352: of which £5,298,787 was expended on the I was only 18,492; and in 1845, 16,696.


REFERRING the reader for all that appertains to the other topics usually comprehended under the title of general constitution of the globe to our article on Phy: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. In doing so we shall endeavour SICAL GEOGRAPHY (No. 4), we purpose, in this and to be as systematic as possible, believing that we shall several following sheets, to direct attention to the spe- thereby communicate not only a larger amount of incial features of the respective continents—describing formation, but render that information more precise their territories and states, their natural products, their and accurate, and more readily available for the purcommercial industry, population, laws, religion, and poses of reference and comparison.

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Constituting but a fragment of the old or Eastern nental or foreign states that we now confine our de-
World, and being surrounded on more than three sides scription, reserving the component parts of the United
by water, Europe, strictly speaking, is not entitled Kingdom-England, Scotland, and Ireland--for treat-
to the appellation of an independent continent. But ment in the three subsequent numbers.
though the smallest of the quarters into which geogra-
phers have divided the globe, it is by far the most im-
portant-its inhabitants giving now, as they have long France, one of the largest and most important of the
done, the tone and character to human progress. Its European states, is situated between lat. 42° 20' and
limits are usually comprehended within the 36th and 51° 3' north, and long. 3° 51' east, and 9° 27' west. It
71st degrees of north latitude, and the 10th degree of is bounded on the north by the English Channel, Straits
west and 64th of east longitude; thus placing it of Dover, Belgium, the Prussian province of Lower
almost wholly within the northern temperate zone. Rhine, and Rhenish Bavaria; on the east by Baden,
Including the islands, which contain about 317,000 from which it is separated by the Rhine, by Switzer-
square miles, the land superficies of Europe is esti- land, and Italy; on the south by the Mediterranean
mated at 3,724,000 square miles; its population at and by Spain, from which it is separated by the Pyre-
nearly 240,000,000. At present
(1849) it is divided into nees; and on the west by the Atlantic.

The greatest fifty-eight states ; a few of which, however, are not length of the country is 664 miles, and its breadth 620; altogether independent. The leading states, usually its area, including Corsica and the islands* which stud styled 'the Five Great Powers of Europe,' are Great the sea-coast, is estimated at 203,736 square miles. Britain, France, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. Those

* The Channel islands, though geographically connected with of a secondary rank are Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Hol- France, have been an appendage to the English crown since the land, Belgium, Portugal, Naples, Bavaria, Sardinia, eleventh century. The group consists of Jersey, 12 miles by 5 or Saxony, Hanover, the Swiss Confederation, and Turkey. 6; Guernsey, 9 miles by 6; Alderney, Sark, and several other Those of a third rank are the small constituent prin- islets and rocks of small extent. The larger of these islands are cipalities of Germany and Italy. It is to the conti- fertile, and well diversified by orchards, clumps, and hedgerows; No. 63.


Superficially, France may be described as a flat | stones and shales, and the chalk; and not unfrequently country, the greater portion consisting of valley-like even the coal-measures are absent, and the colitic and tracts or open plateaus, with low hilly ranges or swell- chalk repose immediately on the upper primaries

, ing eminences between. Its scenery, therefore, exhibits The tertiaries generally occupy the great river drainage little of the romantic and picturesque, and with the of the centre, showing that at no very distant epocha exception of the Limousin, and some of the larger river large portion of France was a shallow sea or estuary of courses, is, on the whole, rather flat and uninteresting. deposit. The chief minerals are-coal from upwards of The principal hills which diversify the surface are forty indifferent fields, not exceeding 2,800,000 tong 1. The Vosges, on the north-east, presenting rounded annually ; iron largely from ten or twelve districts; outlines, with gentle slopes, and affording much open rock-salt from Lorraine; gypsum, or plaster of Paris

, pasture; the highest point 4693 feet. 2. The Jura in unlimited quantities; asphalte from Seyssel and the Mountains, lying south of the Vosges, and forming part Jura; abundance of limestone, slate, and granite; el. of the boundary between France and Switzerland, the cellent marble and building stones; mill or burr-stone; extreme height of which is about 6000 feet. 3. The lithographic slate; graphite, jet, and alum; and a large Cevennes, and other portions of the long range which supply of first porcelain, and other clays. With the forms, as it were, the western brim of the valley of the exception of iron, the other metals are of no great com. Saone and Rhone: the highest points do not exceed mercial importance; the total value of lead, silver, 5000 feet. This range may be said to form the great antimony, copper, manganese, arsenic, &c. annually water-shed of France, from which all the large rivers produced rarely exceeding £60,000. flow in a north-west direction to the Atlantic. 4. The The climate of a country whose extreme limits lie clustering hills of Auvergne, or central France, remark- between the 420 and 51st parallels of north latitudeable for their crateriforin tops and recent volcanic whose western region is subject to the influences of the origin, the highest of which is Puy de Sancy, 6200 feet. vast Atlantic, while its central and eastern, exemap: The largest and best-defined river-basins or valleys are from these influences, are subject to those of a bigbe those of the Saone and Rhone on the east, which may elevation--must necessarily exhibit considerable diverbe regarded as one; those of the Adour, Garonne, Lot, sity. Geographers have accordingly divided the whole and Dordogne on the south and south-west; those of into four regions-namely, 1. The most southerly, in the Loire and Seine in the centre; and those of the which the vine, olive, mulberry, and orange flourish, Somme, Meuse, Moselle, and Rhine on the north. The bounded north and west by a line drawn from Bag. soil of most of these valleys is a fine deep alluvium, nères-de-Luchon in the Pyrenees to Die in Drüme; with a greater or less admixture of sand: some, like 2. That through which the cultivation of the vine and the Limousin in Auvergne, are of unsurpassed fertility; maize extends, stretching as far north as a line passing and all, under proper cultivation, are capable of yield- from the mouth of the Garonne to the northern es. ing the ordinary crops in more than average abundance. tremity of Alsace ; 3. That region which terminates There are large tracts of heath in Bretagne, Anjou, with the culture of the vine, near a line drawn from and Maine ; and the Atlantic sea-board presents in the mouth of the Loire to Mezieres in Ardennes; and many places, as in Landes, wide expanses covered with 4. The remaining portion of the country, having a sand-dunes and intervening marshy lagoons, on which climate somewhat allied to that of England, and yieldnothing useful can flourish except the sea-pine, planted ing rich verdant pastures and forest growth. Along there to protect the surface from further drift. the entire western coast the climate is distinguished by

The great rivers exclusively French have all a weg- a greater deyree of humidity than in any other district; terly flow towards the Atlantic; those flowing north- the south and east have about a third fewer rainy ward—the Scheldt, Sambre, Meuse, Moselle, and much. days than the north and west; winter is often pretty coveted Rhine--have only the upper and least valuable severely felt in the north-east; and though snow seldom portions of their courses in France; and the Rhone, the lies in the central and southern regions, yet these are sole large river running southward, has also a great liable to destructive hail and thunder-storms, as well portion of its course in another country. Of those as to sudden inundations. flowing westward, the following are the most impor- The natire vegetation of the country, though number. tant:-1. The Seine, navigable to Rouen for vessels of ing several thousand species, contains few, with the 200 tons, and for barges more than 300 miles inland. exception of the apple, pear, plum, and fig, that are 2. The Loire, the largest river belonging exclusively to of much economical importance. The existing Flora, France, which, although it receives numerous tribu- however, is one of great variety and value, embracing taries, and possesses a considerable volume of water, is exotics from almost every region of the globe, which of remarkably little use in commerce, and can only have become readily naturalised in its fine soil and carry small barges and steam-vessels; a defect resulting under its genial climate. Of grains and vegetables from numerous sandbanks. 3. The Garonne, which is largely cultivated, we may enumerate wheat, rye, oats, navigable for barges about 280 miles of its course, and maize, millet, buckwheat, kidney-beans, pease, carrot, receives a vast number of tributaries. The Rhone dur- beet, melons, potatoes, flax, hemp, and tobacco; and ing its course in France is a noble, but rapid river, and madder, saffron, and hops on a smaller scale. Of though much obstructed by shoals and shifting sand-fruit-trees, the vine, olive, orange, pistachio, fig, apple

, banks, is navigable for flat-bottomed steamers to Cha- pear, plum, peach, apricot, and cherry, with which we lons-sur-Saone, a distance of 275 miles from Marseilles. may also class the mulberry and caper. Of forest

Geologically,' says one authority, the whole of trees, the oak, beech, maple, ash, chestnut, walnut, France may be considered as one extensive basin, the birch, poplar, larch, pine, fir, box, cornel, acacia, and circumference and centre of which consist of primitive cork-tree. As a certain consequence of climate and formations, the intermediate space being filled with soil, these plants are not found indifferently all over those of a secondary and tertiary kind.' Taking this the surface, but are restricted to peculiar localities, statement as a mere proximate outline, we find pri- where they meet with conditions necessary to their mary rocks in the Ardennes on the north ; in the growth and perfection, or where, through accidental Vosges, Jura, and Alpine ridges on the east ; in the causes, they have become objects of especial culture

. Pyrenees on the south; in Bretagne, Maine, and Nor- The forest growth of France is said to cover fully onemandy on the west; and, centrally, in the hilly ranges eighth of the entire surface, or about 17,000,000 British of Auvergne. Lying upon these in many places, with acres-an amount which is rendered necessary by the out the intervention of the transition and older secon- use of wood as the chief domestic fuel. dary strata, occur the coal-measures, the oolite lime- Of the mammalia found wild in France, the principal they enjoy exemption from almost every species of taxation, are the black and brown bears of the Pyrenees, the have a considerable commerce, and are favourite resorts for per- wolf, the fox, the lynx of the Alps, the chamois and sons with limited incomes. Area of the whole, 112 square miles; wild goat of the eastern and southern hills, the wild population in 1841, 76,004.

boar, badger, otter, marmot, ermine, and hamster. 194



The birds belonging to, or at least frequenting France, | Atlantic. The mining departments have been already are exceedingly numerous--the becafico or fig-pecker, alluded to; but though fostered in every manner, the the ortolan, quail, bustard, flamingo, hoopoe, turtle- coal raised does not exceed a tenth, and iron is somedore, nightingale, &c. being the chief of those least what less than a fifth, of that annually produced known to English readers. Of reptiles, the viper, asp, in Britain. In manufactures France ranks next to snake, and lizard; the edible frog, and other varieties Great Britain, the estimated annual value of the goods of the frog and toad; the fresh-water tortoise of the produced amounting to £92,000,000: of which silk, southern rivers, and the green turtle taken occasionally £12,000,000; woollen, £10,600,000; cotton, £9,000,000; on the southern sea-coasts. The fishes and mollusca, linen, £10,400,000; hardwares, £8,700,000; leather, with the exception of the mullet, sardine, carp, horse- £3,000,000; glass, £1,200,000; paper, £1,000,000; and foot oyster, and edible snail, are much the same as porcelain, £300,000. The minor manufactures of the those belonging to England. The insects of any econo-country would be tedious to mention; most of them mical importance are the bee, silk-worm, gall-nut fly, exhibit a greater degree of skill and ingenuity than is and the blistering fly. Respecting the breeds of the to be met with in any other country. Ship-building domesticated animals, if we except the merino sheep is carried on to some extent at Rochefort, Brest, Cherand poultry, it may be safely asserted that they are bourg, &c.; and in engine-building, and other heavy all inferior to those of Great Britain.

machinery, the French are now beginning to attain The inhabitants are generally arranged by ethnolo- considerable eminence. The commerce of France has gists under five distinct heads or races:-1. The French more than doubled since the peace in 1815, her imports proper, constituting nine-tenths of the population, and now amounting to about thirty-eight, and her exports consisting subordinately of the Græco-Latins or French, to thirty-nine millions sterling. Her mercantile navy north of the Loire, and the Romance, south of that is estimated at 15,600 vessels, carrying an aggregate boundary; with whom may be classed the Italians of burden of 700,000 tons. The internal communication Corsica; 2. The Germanic races of Alsace and Lorraine, of the country is carried on by well-kept roads; these and the Flemings of the north; 3. The Celtic or Cymric being classed into royal, departmental, and communal, race (Bretons) of Bretagne; 4. The Basques of the Low according as they are upheld by the government, or by Pyrenees; and 5. The Jews, who are found in all the the departments and communes to which they belong; principal towns. There are thus six distinct languages by river navigation, of which there is upwards of 5616 spoken within the kingdom-- French and Italian (both miles; by 2250 miles of canal ; and by railways, of of Latin origin), German, Celtic, Basque, and Hebraic; which about 2000 miles are constructed. independent of several widely-differing provincial dia- The government of France, until the Revolution of lects of the French and German.

1848, was a hereditary, constitutional, or limited mo. Though the Roman Catholic faith may be regarded narchy, with the succession restricted to males. The as the national religion (five-sixths of the people being legislative power was vested collectively in the king attached to it), yet no form of worship is expressly and the two great national assemblies--the Chamber established or associated with the state. Reckoning of Peers and the Chamber of Deputies. The executive the Catholic population at 28,210,000, and the Protes- was vested in a ministry, appointed by the king, as tants at 6,010,000, the remainder may be regarded as head of the state, and consisted of-1. Minister of the consisting of Jews, Rationalists, Anabaptists, and other Interior; 2. Justice and Public Worship; 3. Public Inminor sects. Both the Catholic and Protestant clergy struction; 4. Public Works; 5. Trade and Agriculture; are paid out of the public revenue—the sum annually 6. Finances; 7. Foreign Affairs; 8. War; 9. Marine and allotted for religious purposes amounting to nearly Colonies. At present (1849) the government of France £1,172,000 sterling. With regard to education, the is Republican; the legislative power being vested in a country may be said to be at present under the opera- Chamber of Deputies elected by universal suffrage; and tion of an efficient and liberal system. By the law of the executive conducted by a President and Ministry, 1833, it is ordained that every commune by itself, or much in the same manner as under the monarchy by uniting with others, shall have one elementary Revenue said to be £47,000,000; present expenditure, school, independent of infant schools; that every com- £72,000,000; debt, £211,000,000; army, 355,000. Capimune with a population of 6000 shall have, in addi- tal, Paris, with a population of 1,053,897. tion, a superior school; and that every department, For administrative purposes, France is partitioned either by itself, or by uniting with others, shall have a into 86 departments, which are subdivided into 363 normal school. Above these are 350 coinmunal or arrondissements, 2834 cantons, and 37,187 communes. royal colleges supported by the state; and higher still At the head of each department is a prefect, named by are the 26 head or chief academies. These, collectively, the government; he is assisted by a council, which sits form what is called the University of France, which is for a week annually to distribute the imposition of under the superintendence of the Minister of Public taxes, and decide on the wants of the department. Instruction, assisted by a council and a number of in each arrondissement there is a sous-prefect, likewise inspectors—the whole machinery requiring an annual named by the executive, and subordinate to the preoutlay of about £520,000 sterling.

fect: the sous-prefect is also assisted by a council. In With respect to national industry, France may be cach canton there is a judge de paix, with judicial regarded more as an agricultural than a manufacturing functions in matters of inferior importance. In each country. By the law of inheritance, the property of a commune there is a maire, assisted by adjoints. father is divided equally among his children; and consequently there is a progressive tendency to more

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. minute divisions and subdivisions of the land. The en- These two perfectly distinct and independent kingtire number of landed proprietors was lately 10,895,000, doms belong to a region so unique in character and of whom about one-half were assessed at less than five situation, that we shall treat them, in regard to their francs annually. A vast number of the properties are physical geography, as one. This region, commonly under five acres in extent, and the result is a gene- known in Britain as “The Peninsula,” lies at the southrally mean condition of rural affairs, and the total western extremity of the European continent, with absence of all high-class systematic agriculture. Ac- which it is connected by an isthmus 230 miles broad, cording to Dombåsle, the total produce of agricultu- and is situated between lat. 36° and 40° north, and ral industry in France amounts to £199,200,000, of between long. 4° east and 10° west. It is bounded on which £108,000,000 are derived from the bread-corns; the north by the Bay of Biscay, and by France, from £32,000,000 from the vine; £8,400,000 from live-stock which it is separated by the Pyrenees; on the east by and wool. The fisheries on the coast are not of much the Mediterranean; on the south by the Mediterranean, importance, the principal being those of pilchards, her the Straits of Gibraltar,* and the Atlantic; and on the rings, mackerel, oysters, and anchovies, employing in all about 5800" boats both in the Mediterranean and * The promontory, fortress, town, and bay of Gibraltar, situ


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