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- e ting, is stopped by the person or the TRI. CE 77 113 mailet, the side opposite to that
Te may choose whether the stroke be taken wain. or the ball remain where it was stopped.
any player, in striking at his ball, 100 rit another with his mallet, he forfeits .:3 turn, and the other ball must be replaced * *te estastaction of the side to which it Longert.
.?: ayer play out of his turn, and e mistakes ciscovered before the next player kes s stoke. the ball played ont of turn Sret be repiaced, and no point made by it is lowed to count; but if the mistake is not
scovered antal after the next stroke is taken, --e tam wrongly played is allowed to stand.
iki player should play with a wrong S i oses his turn, and the balls are re
- in taking aim the player moves his
- inches, he must be considered to have "LE E stroke. But if he should strike his ball --- .t thinking it hit sufficiently hard the - 18. is stroke is forfeited, and his ball 29 : replaced on the spot from which it was
- ayer, at any period of the game,
mre to be informed which is the next . : Ls own proper order, or which is the .. If any other ball on the ground.
e respect to this rule, that the uncer
our as his ball, is allotted to each
Et f the game, and fixed, from time -- . - -bop through which he has next to
is beyond the limits of the ground S e seplaced within a mallet's length
he edge, measured from the spot er I rent off.
S layer may strike his ball in any en he pleases, without either atmurang to pass & koop or to roquet
ESE Sail: but in that case he must, - one stroke, pass the hoop which
e before him, before he can pro
- Then I player, after going through
soops in order, hits the starting poy, me s inished; and when the parties ded into sides, the players who
e he vinning post on completion ser zand vin the game. Almost every point that can crise in eneral piay wil be found provided for it one two dozen las here given; but attempts have beessionally been made so to define every possible contingency in the game, and to legislate upon it, that the number of rules has been swollen by one authority to more than one hundred! Croquet, however, is a simple rather than an intricate game, and therefore does not require to be overlaid by such a numerous and complicated code of laws. A careful
observance of the spirit as well as the letter maging recepted rules will lead to a right decision as
?int that at any time may arise in question on
RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. l is usually composed, like the walls, of alternate layers of cement
and web. One peouliarity must, however, be noted. These THE SPIDER.-PART II.
layers gradually decrease in size, like a series of diminishing EQUALLY wonderful as the structure of the feet of the spider, boxes, the smaller fitting in into the larger beneath. One im. described in the preceding lesson on this interesting insect (see portant result of this arrangement is that the rim of the trappage 303), is the formation of the organs with which the spider door has a conical shape, so that it cannot easily be pushed grasps and kills his prey. The instruments with which this is inwards upon the spider, though readily opening outwards. effected-called the mouth hands, or mandibles or falces—are as This slope of the door-edge is shown in the accompanying illusfitted for their purpose as the fang of the viper. Most readers tration (Fig. 2). must have observed the manner in which the spider seizes a fly; The upper part of the nest is formed with an inclination how firmly the victim is gripped by the two mandibles, which exactly adapted to the angle of the door rim, so that when this act both as spears and poison tubes. The sharp points pierce falls, the entrance to the spider's home is completely closed. the insect; the poison is then injected into the wonnd through This fitting of the door to its frame is not the least wonderful & tube which runs down each mandible from the venom reser-part of the structure. voirs at the upper end. Thus the entrapped fly is assailed in The hinge of the door is formed of the layers of web which four ways at once: pierced by the mandibles, stupefied by the alternate with the beds of cement. The ends of these webs poison, bitten by the mouth of its foe, and fettered by the lines are drawn out at one point and interlaced with the silky lining of web.
of the upper part of the nest, and thus form a strong connectThe circulation of the blood may be clearly seen, through a ing band of tissue between the wall of the house and its trapmicroscope, in the leg of the common hairless spider. The door. The thicker the door the more numerous will be the heart is in the form of a tube, placed in the abdomen, and I web layers, and the stronger the hinge, which will, therefore, beating strong enough for the "pulse"
be always adapted to the weight it has to be easily noted.
to support. Sometimes it happens that The breathing apparatus is not the same
a door, especially in the Jamaica spider's in all spiders, most of them having what
nest, is formed wholly of webs, without a may be called two lungs, some four, and
single layer of earth. The English mason a few eight. Air is admitted to the
species, mentioned above, can scarcely be breathing apparatus through two or four
said to form a door, the strong silky lining openings, called stigmata or spiracles,
of its tube protecting the entrance someplaced on the under part of the abdo
what like a curtain. The insides of men.
these movable nest-covers are generally We cannot find any concentrated mass
lined with the same kind of soft but of nervous matter in the spider to which
tough web, which gives smoothness to the term brain may be given ; but many
the inner walls of the cells. Thus, when “ nerve knots," called ganglions, an.
the entrance is closed, the building spider swer the same purpose. From these,
is most effectually sheltered in a luxuri. nerves are sent off to various parts of the
ously tapestried room. body.
As the door shuts by its own weight It seems desirable that we should here
when the spider goes out, there is no pause to give a fuller accountof the mason
trouble in closing it, and when the animal or building spider, to which a brief allu
wishes to enter, the lid is easily raised by sion was made in a former paper on this
the claws. But predacious insects may subject. This spider belongs to the My
also wish to raise the opening and atgale* family, but only some species become
tack the tenant in its snug home; the masons; others being noted for the great
mason spider has the means of baffling size and strength of their webs. The
such attempts. At the part of the door building spiders are mostly found in tro.
furthest from the hinge, about thirty pical countries, but some are met with in 1. NEST OP BUILDING SPIDER WITH THE ENTRANCE
small holes may sometimes be seen on the south of France, Italy, and Greece;
CLOSED. 2. NEST WITH ENTRANCE OPEN. 3. the inside ; by fixing the claws in these, others have been discovered in New South THE BUILDING SPIDER. 4. THE EYES (MAGNI- and pulling with all its force, the spider Wales, and one (Atypus Sulzeri) has been FIED). 5 AND 6. PARTS OF THE FOOT AND is able to resist such attempts to invade observed near London, and in several CLAW (MAGNIFIED),
its home. parts of the south of England.
Some nests have been found with two The building spider (Cteniza nidulans) + seems in general to doors at the same end, others with a door at each end. Some select a clay soil for its habitation; often the sloping side of a persons have removed the lid, by way of experiment, and in bank, from which water can readily run off. In this earth the such cases a new cover has generally been constructed in a very animal scoops out a tube-shaped hole, varying in depth from short time. Though the nest is so elaborately formed, there is one to six inches, and being about one inch in diameter. When no outward sign of the subterranean structure. The upper surthe cell has been made, the spider covers the rough walls with face of the door resembles the common earth around, and as & layer of very fine cement-like substance. So thoroughly the spider rarely comes out in the day-time, the discovery of its does this harden, that it may sometimes be detached from the singular home is by no means easy. clay walls like a casting, without breaking, notwithstanding its Superstition and popular fancy have not quite neglected the extreme thinness. This first layer of cement is then covered spider. In some parts a small species called Money-spinners with a lining of soft but tough web, resembling fine whitish are deemed a sign of good luck to any person on whom they silk; on this another layer of mortar is placed, and this is may be found; but to ensure this result the money-spinner must also covered by a lining of web, as before. In this manner the be caught and thrown over the left shoulder. The Kentish spider proceeds in its marvellous work, until often not less proverb
“If you wish to live and thrive, than fifteen layers of fine cement alternate with as many of soft but tenacious web.
Let a spider run alive,” Thus one of these wonderful cells often consists of thirty distinct walls. It is no marvel that such also connects this creature with man's prosperity. The Hampa house should be waterproof, however wet the soil in which ton Court Spider (Tegenaria domestica) is a creature of doleful the compact domicile is formed.
aspect. These large spiders were formerly believed to be the The trap-door which covers the nest is deserving of more embodied ghosts of Cardinal Wolsey and his aiders and abettors. attention than the house it protects and conceals. This door It is sometimes called the " cardinal spider."
Spiders were formerly considered in rural districts to be a cure * An ancient name of the small field-mouse ; but now designating for ague: some years ago, those spiders which usually form nests in the ground, like mice.
success in curing people thus affected. It appears that the only Nest-making, comb.clawed-spider,
medicine she employed was a large spider rolled up in treacle. VOL. II.
line C B, produced towards B, while it touches the sphere in a unequal divisions for the measure of degrees on the meridian small circle or parallel of latitude passing round the sphere (as the learner may see more clearly if he will take the trouble through the point F, in which the straight line De touches to construct Fig. 14 on a large scale), in making, for example, the aro A B. We will assume this small circle, which is indicated a map of any portion of the surface of the sphere between the in the diagram by the dotted line FG, EL
35th and 75th parallels, it is merely to represent the 55th parallel of north
necessary to set off equal spaces on the latitude, and divide the whole arc A B
line of the central meridian, as the into eighteen aros of 5 degrees each, in
spaces 65 to m, marked at a, b, c, d, the points marked 5, 10, 15, etc. Now, B 5
and e, each of which is equal to a fourth supposing straight lines to be drawn I
of the chord from 45 to 65. This is from the centre c, through the points in
done to obtain equal distances between the arc marked 45 and 65, cutting D E
the parallels of latitude on the conical in the points 1, K, it is manifest that the
projection as on the sphere. It may be straight line I K, the projection on the
said, indeed, that the great advantages surface of the cone of the arc between 45
presented by the conical projection are and 65 on the surface of the sphere, does
the preservation of equal distances benot differ materially from the arc itself in
tween the parallels of latitude and reolength, and that if this process were
tangular intersections of the parallels adopted for a small portion of the sur.
and meridians, as on the globe; the face of the sphere on either side of the
opposite diagonals measured across any are between 45 and 65, instead of the
space contained by two parallels and two aro itself only, the result on the surface of
meridians being in all cases equal to one the cone, when the cone was unrolled and
another. spread out flat on a table, would represent
As the learner, if he have read careaccurately enough for all practical pur.
fully what has been said above, will now poses on a flat surface the portion of the
A. thoroughly understand why the conical sphere which is thus projected on the cone. The measure- ! projection is far better suited than any other for developing porment on the surface of the cone between places situated on or tions of a sphere on a flat surface, we will proceed with instrucvery near the 55th parallel, would be precisely the same tions for making a projection for a map of Europe, after saying as their distances
that the conical profrom each other on
jection is the easiest the sphere, while the
that a learner can distances between
construct, as it conplaces on the cone
sists of nothing more near the parallels
than straight lines passing through 45
and concentric arcs and 65 would be a
of circles, which can little in excess of
be readily drawn by their distances from
means of a ruler and each other on the
pair of compasses. surface of the sphere.
In Fig. 17 is given If, however, instead
a conical projection of touching the yox /
for a map of Europe, sphere, we suppose 6
which the learner the circumscribing
should construct on cone to pass through
a larger scale by the it, through two pa
process about to be rallels of latitude, as EUROPE
described, on stout
atic] 1. Cir ML, the section of
cartridge paper, the side of a cone
pasted or pinned to which cuts the
a drawing board, sphere in the paral.
taking care that the lels of 45 and 65, it
board is large enough is manifest that we
to include the centre ensure a greater
from which the ares degree of accuracy
representing the js. in delineating the
rallels of latitude features of that por
are to be described tion of the sphere
First draw the basr that are to be de
line, CD, as shown picted on the cone,
in the figure, with a especially when a
fine pencil; bisect larger extent of the
it in E, and through sphere has to be pro
E draw the straight jected on the cone,
line, A B, at right as we have two paral
angles to cd. The lels, namely, those of
straight lines AB 45 and 65, along
CD should be drarı which measurements WEST EAST FROM 1 GREENWrou alo
as far as the paper on the cone are iden
will admit. An in. tical with measure
spection of a map in the sphere.
of Europe will shu cting the arc BA on the surface of the circum- that the whole of this continent is included within the 35th ani te, it is manifest that the distances between every 75th parallels of north latitude on the south and north, and 8 at intervals of 5 degrees would be accurately bisected by the meridian of 20° or the 20th degree of longitude
by drawing straight lines through the centre east from Greenwich. The straight line A B may therefore be us of division, and producing them till they meet the taken to represent longitude 20° east from Greenwich in our proa cone; but as the points so obtained would exhibit ljection, Take any space to represent five degrees, but be careful