heights are indicated only in the elevations. Sometimes when the angle it forms with the ground; therefore man will be equal subject is a simple one-for instance, a plain wall—its course to o an; this was the reason the angle man in Fig. 15 was and thickness will be shown in the plan, and its height marked made 50°. By comparing Figs. 15 and 16, the same letters by indices in brackets at the end, as (10-5 feet), meaning that it being used in both, the corresponding lines will be seen, and it is to be built 10 feet 6 inches high. Fig. 9 is the plan and front will be understood why cd in Fig. 15 is made equal to mn, elevation of a cottage. It will be seen that if the plan be drawn because, as in Fig. 16, mn is equal to no, the distance of the first, perpendicularly dotted lines must be drawn parallel with upper end of the rod from the ground, and no is equal to cd, each other from every angle, and from the terminations and therefore m n is equal to cd. projections of each line, which will determine the extent of the PROBLEM VI. (Fig. 17).The frustrum of a right square elevation and of its several parts, but not its height. If the pyramid rests with its base on a horizontal plane, the lengths of elevation be drawn first, the perpendicularly dotted lines are the edges of the top and base being respectively 1.3 and 2:4 projected downwards to produce the plan. In orthographic pro- inches, and the height 2.8 inches; draw its plan and elevation.-If jection we usually draw a line to represent the meeting or aris a pyramid be divided into two parts by a plane parallel to its of the two planes of projection, the horizonal and the vertical, base, the part next the base is called a frustrum of a pyramid, or which, as in Fig. 10, we have marked sy; therefore it must be sometimes a truncated pyramid. Draw the square abdc, the plan remembered that all above that line is understood to be the of the base 2:4 inches side (see Lessons in Geometry, Problem tertical plane of projection upon which the elevations are drawn, XVIII., Vol. I., page 255), and within it the square efhg, the plan and all below it the horizontal plane upon which the plans are of the top 1:3 inch side. In order to place the plan of the top so drawn. The plan of a circle when parallel with the ground is a that the edges shall be equidistant from the edges of the plan circle of the same size indicated by the scale. The elevation is of the base, proceed as follows:-Draw the diagonals cb and a straight line only, equal to the diameter (Fig. 10). If the circle a d, make an equal to 1.3 inch, and draw nh parallel to is standing on its edge perpendicularly to the ground, then its cgfb; draw gh parallel to cd; the rest will be evident, as plan is a straight line only, and the elevation is a circle (Fig. 11). the angles are in the diagonals, and the sides are parallel to ab To illustrate the positions (Fig. 10), let the pupil hold & penny. and ac respectively. Having drawn the plans, then draw xy, piece horizontally before, and level with, his eyes; he will see the ground line, parallel to one side of the square; draw am and the edge, the elevation; then let him place it upon the ground, bl; draw the lines ei and f k, continuing them above a y equal and look down upon it; he will see the wholo circumference, to the height of the frustrum 2-8 inches; join im, kl, and i k; the plan, Reverse the position of the penny, and do the same mikl will be the elevation. The pupil will observe that other for Fig. 11. We trust there will be no difficulty now in under. elevations can be drawn from the same plan, opposite any standing the position of the eye with respect to both planes of other side, when required for working purposes a common projection. As we intend to devote the present Lesson to the practice in drawing extra elevations for building construction ; consideration of this subject, preparatory to more important in these cases all that is necessary is to arrange the ground line questions in perspective, we will give our pupils a few simple or axis of the planes opposite the side of which the elevation is problems for practice, reserving others of a more complicated required. Fig. 18 is the same subject as Fig. 17: cy is placed nature till they are required in future Lessons.

parallel to one of the diagonals of the plan, consequently two faces PROBLEM Ü. (Fig. 12).- A rod, 4. feet long, is parallel with, of the frustrum are seen, a' and b', shown in the plan as a and 6. and 2 feet from, both planes; draw its plan and elevation. Scale

inch to the foot.-First draw xy, the axis of the planes, and draw ab, 4 feet long, parallel with and 2 feet from æy; then

LESSONS IN FRENCH.—XXXVI. from the extremities a and b draw perpendicular lines to c and

SECTION LXIX.-THE IMPERATIVE. d; mark c and d 2 feet above a y, and join them; e will be the 1. CONJUGATION OF THE IMPERATIVE OF THE REGULAR elevation, and f the plan.

VERBS. PROBLEM III. (Fig. 13).-When the same rod is at an angle

Chant - fin is reç o is rend -S. of 40° with the vertical plane and parallel with the horizontal


render. plane.- Draw a line eg at an angle of 40° with a y, make es Qu'il parle chérisse aperçoive vend -e. equal to 2 feet, and draw fa parallel to xy: a will be the plan

let him speak let him cherish let him perceive let him sell. of one end of the rod 2 feet from the vertical plane; upon eg

Donn -ons fournissons perc -erons tend -On3.

let us give let us furnish lotus gather let us tend. and from a make ab, the plan, equal to 4 feet: draw the per

Cherchez pun issez concevez entend -ez. pendicular lines ac and bd, and draw cd, the elevation,


hear. parallel with and 2 feet above xy.

Qu'ils port -ent saisissent d

o ivent perd -ent. PROBLEM IV. (Fig. 14).-When a rod is at an angle of 40° let them carry. let them seize. let them owe. let them lose. rith the ground and parallel with the vertical plane.--Draw eg 2. The first person singular, and the first and second perat an angle of 40° with my, and draw the perpendicular ef sons plural of the imperative, are the same as the first person 2 feet from my, also s c parallel with xy; cut off cd, equal to singular, and the first and second persons plural of the present 4 feet, the whole extent of the rod : from c and d draw per- l of the indicative. The pronouns are dropped :pendicnlars cutting xy to a and b; join ab, for the plan, parallel with ay.

Je parle, parle ; Je finis, finis. I speak, speak ; I finish, finish.

3. Exceptions.-Avoir, to have, make in those persons of the When the object is at an angle with both planes, the angle of inclination with the horizon is made on the horizontal plane.

imperative, aie, ayons, ayez ; ètre, to be, sois, soyons, soyez ; PROBLEM V. (Fig. 15).--Let the rod have one end on the ground,

savoir, to know, sache, sachons, sachez; and aller, va, and vas and let it rise at an inclination of 50°, and let its plan be at an

before y not followed by an infinitive. angle of 40° with the vertical plane.-Draw the line eag at the

4. Vouloir has only the second person plural, veuillez, hare given angle 40° with the vertical plane; upon this line the plan

the goodness to.... will be represented. Draw ah at an angle of 50° with a g, and

1 5. A third person singular and plural is given in the imperamake a m equal to the length of the rod; from m draw m n per

tive by most of the French grammarians. These parts, however, pendicular to a g; an will then be the plan of the rod when

belong properly to the subjunctive, as they express rather a melined to the horizon at 50°. Draw ncd and ab at right

strong wish than a command. The English expressions, let him angles with ey, and make cd equal to mn; join bd; the line

speak, that he may speak, are rendered in French by qu'il parle. od will be the vertical elevation. That this may be more clearly

6. A droite, à gauche, correspond in signification to the understood, we will draw the eidograph of the problem, Fig. 16,

English to the right, to the left. that is, the figure or appearance it would present when placed in

Allez à droite, à gauche,

Go to the right, to the left. conjunction with the two planes of projection (Fig. 8 is also an

7. For the place of the pronouns in connection with the edagraph). In Fig. 16 a o is the given rod, and an is its plan. | imperative, see Sect. XXVI., 1, 4; Sect. XXVII. 1, 2, 3, 4. Now in order to get the inclination of a o, the rod, which is raised

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. from the paper at an inclination of 50°, must be rabatted, that Prenons la première rue à droite. Let us take the first street to t?e right. 19, thrown down upon the horizontal plane; the course of the Ne cherchez plus à le tromper. Soek no longer to deceive him. dotted arc om will show this. We must construct the angle of Sachons nous contenter du néces. Let us know how to content ourselves the inclination of the rod upon the horizontal plane, that is, the saire.

with necessaries,

[blocks in formation]

do you can prendre un part, to take a determination; prendre du café, du
Tabli, eten, to take cujee, tee, etc.

arayegarker le tapissier. Send for the upholsterer.
www.semir votre parapluie. Go and fatch your u abrella.
1 Tour votre pare.

Eun and see your father.
van in de pous blesser. Lot w take care not to hurt ourselves.
n : WA SIO de dechirer vos habits. Take care not to tear your clothes,

Tavous pus pris le deuil ? Have you not put on mourning ?

ana la peine de vous asseoir. Take the trouble to sit down.
Irana du thé ou du café.

Take tas ar cofee.
We parti avez-vous pris!

What relation have you taken ?




Attend-re, 4, to expect, Git-er, I, to spoil. Robe, f., dress.
to wait for.

Gouverneur, m., go-Soin, m., care.
Chocolat. m. chocolate


Tomb-er, I, to fall. ve pas Courrier, m., courier. Lorsque, when.

Tacher, I, to stain, to D i Sect. Croi-retir'

Sect. Croi-re, 4, ir., to believe. Porter, 1, to wear. 1

spot. (silent.

on the and sers. 5. Déchir-er, 1, to tear. Quelquefois, sometimes. Se tai-re, 4, ir, to be w

w w . now promis à ww

EXERCISE 135. w .tw it, dites.le-lui

Mutt. 9. Parlez. 1. Allez voir mon frère, il a quelque chose à vous communiwas varoa 10. Ayez quer. 2. Courez leur dire que je les attends. 3. Mon frère &

will present venir. 11. | bien pris garde de déchirer ses habits. 4. Votre cousine a-twill be toujours, donnez- elle pris garde de tacher sa robe ? 5. Elle a pris garde do

The word ja donné plus des tomber, car en tombant elle l'aurait gâtée. 6. Ces petites filles de caliente e de serrurier ? 15. ont-elles pris le deuil ? 7. Elles viennent de le prendre. 8. on the past, walaudio-lui sans faute cette Pour qui prenez-vous le deuil ? 9. Je porte le deuil de ma

ob Homeure M. G. 18. mère. 10. Prenez-vous du thé ou du café le matin ? 11. Nous minde i sidanoure dans la deuxièmo prenons du thé et du eafé. 12. Ne prenez-vous pas quelqueL'any w ukolles, dépêchons-nous. fois du chocolat ? 13. Nous n'en prenons orsque nous

wwwmare 31. No we les rapporter sommes malades. 14. Quel parti le gouverneur a-t-il pris? i


dhe do 33. Portons-les-y. 24. 15. Il a pris le parti de se taire. 16. Prendrez-vous mon parti so the tolmu, mais no les lui donnez (my part) ou celui de votre fils ? 17. Je prendrai le vôtre, si

je crois que vous avez raison. 18. Pourquoi ne prenez-vous mit de 134.

pas la peine de lire sa lettre ? 19. Parce qu'elle n'en vaat pas Distancia col. 2. I have already given

la peine. 20. Votre courrier a-t-il pris les devants ? 21. Il are well it. 3. Lond it to him, if you ni pu prendre les devants.

n'a pu prendre les devants. 22. Navez-vo

22. N'avez-vous pas tort de will not loud it to him. 5. Make prendre son parti ? 23. Je n'ai pas tort de le prendre. 24. e muito calook. 0. Have the goodness to

Avez-vous pris le thé (your tea)? 25. Nous n'avons pas pris imew wwwww to your brother. 8. Obey / (our) le thé, nous avons pris le cafe ? prigo lor. 9. Will you not send

EXERCISE 136. 'Strooi model for it. 11. Sond for it as soon

1. Has your brother taken care not to spoil his hat? . de plus eu 12), but write to my cousin. 13.

2. He : has taken care not to spoil it, he has only one. Li ebla), want your lesson. 14. Give him!

3. Go and b !

speak to your sister, she calls you (appelle). 4. Will you not Howrah Hulu sumo ($ 100 (6)]. 15. Do not

take a cup (tasse) of tea ? .

5. I have just taken my tea. . Homes frites) lanao 16. Havo patience, my child,

6. Lot

What have you said to your little girl? 7. I have told her to 4444 ha, 17. Send it to him, if you toinette Writo to him this afternoon without

take care not to tear her dress. 8. Let us take care not to

tear that book. 9. My son has just brought it. jis did nothing he him if I had timo. 20. Let us take

10. Has he

taken his tea? 11. He has not yet taken tea, it is too early. sites that lule 91. Tako the second street to the

12. At what hour do you take tea at your house ? te hui that she has what your brother says. 23. Let

13. We

take tea at six o'clock. 14. Do you take tea or coffee for W e rth the baby w road that book to-day. 25. Pay

25. Pay breakfast (à votre déjeuner)? 15. We take coffee. 16. Is your ta photo galbles 90, Lot us obey our instructor.

courier gone on before? 17. He has not been able to go on og bill to the hole 28. Bring me back the books which

before. 18. What resolution have you taken? 19. I have Der Topth Ibu uot bring them back to me, read

taken the resolution to study my lesson. 20. Have you taken it all, W ho* patience, Wo whall soon have money.

care not to tear your books? 21. I have taken care not to stain Rii kill be the they are at my father's. 32. Tell

them. 22. What has your brother determined ? 23. He has T otal Tudun he wilo lo them to morrow morning. 33.

determined to remain silent. 24. Have you taken my part? till hill Watu uliarului 34. Bring me back my letters.

25. I have taken my brother's part. 26. Are you right to Hot Hub Shuru, but bring them to mo as soon as

take his part ? 27. I am right to take his part, because he is

right. 28. Are you not afraid to take his part ? 29. I am not in

4* MIDRATIVE AND THE INFINITIVE afraid to take his part. 30. Will you take your sister's part IDIOMA, ETC.

or mine ? 31. I will take my sister's part. 32. Go and read hukwu wother verb in the imperative, is put your book, you do not know your lesson. 33. I know any Lina Surowering to general rulo, Seot. XX. 2). The lesson, and I know also that you are my friend. 34. Let us Y

Man nomor botwoon the two verbs in go to our father, he wants us.

Go and speak to the musician.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. Go and do your work. llun and see thone gentlemen.

EXERCISE 42 (Vol. I., page 207). kecure, to take heed, when followed by 1. Où votre ami va-t-il ? 2. Il va chez vous ou chez votre frère. inaunu to take care not to.

3. N'a-t-il pas l'intention d'aller chez votre associé ? 4. Il a l'intention Take care not to fall.

d'y aller, mais il n'a pas le temps aujourd'hui. 5. De quoi avez-vous

besoin aujourd'hui ? 6. J'ai besoin de mon gilet qui est chez le to buto mourning; prondre la tailleur. 7. Vos habits sont-ils chez le peintro? 8. Ils n'y sont psa, Jewellem davant, layo on before ; ils sont chez le tailleur. 9. Ou demeurez-vous, mon ami? 10. Je demeure chez votre belle-s@ur. 11. Monsieur votre père est-il à est-il ? 14. Il est chez Monsieur votre père ou chez M. votre frère. la maison ? 12. Non, Monsieur, il n'y est pas. 13. Où votre domes- 15. Avez-vous l'intention d'envoyer chercher le médecin ? 16. J'ai tique porte-t-il le bois? 14. Il le porte chez le capitaine russe. 15. l'intention de l'envoyer chercher. 17. Ai-je raison d'envoyer chercher Le monsieur qui est avec Monsieur votre père, demeure-t-il chez l'Ecossais ? 18. Vous avez tort de l'envoyer chercher. 19. Allez-vous lui? 16. Non, Monsieur, il demeure chez moi. 17. A-t-il tort de trouver M. votre père l'après-midi ? 20. Je vais le trouver le matin. demeurer chez vous? 18. Non, Monsieur, il a raison de demeurer chez 21. Votre frère va-t-il chez votre oncle to moi. 19. D'où le charpentier vient-il ? 20. Il vient de chez son tous les dimanches. 23. Allez-vous apprendre la musique ? 24. Ma associé. 21. A-t-il deux associés ? 22. Non, Monsieur, il n'en & nièce va l'apprendre, si elle a le temps. 25. Est-ce que je vais lire ou qu'un, qui demeure ici. 23. Avez-vous le temps d'aller chez nous ce écrire ? 26. Vous allez lire demain. 27. Va-t-il chez vous tous les matin ? 24. Nous avons le temps d'y aller. 25. Nous avons l'inten- jours ? 28. Il vient vous trouver tous les mercredis. 29. À quelle tion d'y aller et de parler à Maden oiselle votre sour. 26. Est-elle heure ? 30. À neuf heures moins un quart. 31. Vient-il de bonne chez vous? 27. Elle est chez elle. 28. Avez-vous du pain, du beurre heure ou tard ? 32. Il vient à neuf heures et quart. 33. Qu'allez-vous et du fromage à la maison? 29. Nous y avons du paiu et du beurre. chercher ? 31. Nous allons chercher des légumes, de la viande et du 30. Nous n'y avons pas de fromage, nous n'aimons pas le fromage. 31. sucre. 35. Nous avons besoiu de sucre tous les matins. Votre montre est-elle chez l'horloger? 32. Elle y est. 33. Avez-vous deux montres d'or? 34. Je n'ai qu'une montre d'or. 35. Qui

EXERCISE 47 (Vol. I., page 251). l'intention d'aller chez mon père ce matin? 36. Personne n'a l'inten 1. Are yau going to write to him? 2. I am going to write to him tion d'y aller.

and communicate to him this news. 3, Are you going to speak to EXERCISE 43 (Vol. I., page 215).

him of me? 4. I am going to speak to him of you and of your com1. Where am I going? 2. You are going to the hatter's. 3. Am Ipanion. 5. Do you send them fine trees ? 6. I send them applegoing to the bank? 4. You are going to the bank and to the concert.

trees, pear-trees, and cherry-trees. 7. Do you not send me cherry5. Do I cut your wood? 6. You cut neither my wood nor my coat.

trees ? 8. I do not, you have some already. 9. Are you right to 7. Do I wear a green hat? 8. You do not wear a green hat, you wear

speak to them of this affair? 10. I am not wrong to speak to them a black one. 9. Is your scholar going anywhere? 10. He is going to

of this affair, 11. Come to us to-morrow morning. 12. Come to us church, to school, and to market. 11. Is he not going to the hair.

this afternoon. 13. Do you go to them every day? 14. I go to them dresser's ? 12. He is going nowhere. 13. Do you not wear red

every evening. 15. Do you give them good advice? 16. I give them leather boots ? 14. I wear black leather ones. 15. Do you not go to the

good advice and good examples. 17. Do you speak to us about your banker's ? 16. I do not go to his house, he is absent since yesterday.

sisters ? 18. I speak to you of them. 19. Do you not speak to us 17. Is he coming to the bank this morning? 18. He intends to come

about our brothers ? 20. I speak to you of them. 21. Do you not if he has time. 19. Has he a wish to go to the concert? 20. He has

love them? 22. We love and respect them. 23. Do you think of a great wish to go, but he has no ticket. 21. Do you live in this

inio vuk or uw you uvo? 24. We tdink of it, and we speak of it. village ? 22 Yes, Sir, I do. 23. Do you send this note to the post

25. We do not think of it. office ? 24. I send it to its address.

EXERCISE 48 (Vol. I., page 251).
EXERCISE 44 (Vol. I., page 215).

1. Quand allez-vous écrire à M. votre frère ? 2. Je vais lui écrire 1. Est-ce que je porte mon grand chapeau noir ? 2. Vous portez | demain matin. 3. Avez-vous l'intention de lui écrire tous les lundis ? un beau chapeau vert. 3. Le banquier va-t-il chez le perruquier ce

4. J'ai l'intention de lui écrire tous les mardis. 5. Avez-vous envie matin ? 4. ny va ce matin. 5. A-t-il l'intention d'aller à la banque de lui parler aujourd'hui ? 6. J'ai envie de lui parler, mais il n'est ce matin? 6. n n'a pas l'intention d'y aller, il n'a pas le temps. 7. pas ici. 7. Où est-il ? 8. Il est chez lui. 9. Leur parlez-vous ? 10. Envoyez-vous vos lettres à la poste? 8. Je ne les envoie pas elles Oui, Monsieur, je leur parle de cette affaire. 11. Vous donnent-ils ne sont pas encore écrites. 9. Est-ce que je vous envoie un billet? | de bons avis ? 12. Ils mo donnent de bons avis et de bons exemples. 10. Vous m'envoyez un billet, mais je n'ai pas envie d'aller au concert.

cert 13. Allez-vous trouver Mademoiselle votre sour tous les jours ? 14. 11. Monsieur votre frère va-t-il à l'école demain ? 12. Il y va au

Je vais la trouver tous les matins à neuf heures moins un quart. 15. jourd'hui et il reste demain à la maison. 13. Est-ce que i'y vais ? 14. Aime-t-elle à vous voir? 16. Elle aime à me voir, et elle me reçoit Vons D'allez nulle part. 15. Où allez-vous ? 16. Je vais chez M.

bien. 17. Pensez-vous à cette affaire ? 18. J'y pense toute la journée. Totre frère : est-il à la maison? 17. Il n'est pas à la maison, il est 19. En parlez-vous avec M. votre frère ? 20. Nous en parlons souvent. abeent depuis hier. 18. Monsieur votre frère demeure-t-il dans ce

21. Envoyez-vous votre compagnon chez moi ? 22. Je l'envoie tous village ? 19. Il n'y demeure pas, il demeure chez mon neveu. 20.

les jours. 23. Êtes-vous chez vous tous les jours ? 24. J'y suis tous Avez-vous tort d'aller à l'école? 21. Non, Monsieur, j'ai raison d'aller

les matins à dix heures. 25. Aimez-vous à aller à l'église ? 26. J'aime à à l'église et à l'école. 22. Avez-vous envie de venir chez moi? 23.

y aller tous les dimanches avec un compagnon. 27. Parlez-vous de vos J'aime à aller chez vous et chez M. votre frère. 24. Quand venez

maisons ? 28. J'en parle. 29. M. votre frère parle-t-il de ses amis ? s? 25. Demain, si j'ai le temps. 26. Le banquier

30. Oui, Monsieur, il parle d'eux. 31. Penge-t-il à eux ? S2. Oui, sime-t-il à venir ici ? 27. Il aime à venir chez vous. 28. Le perru

Monsieur, il pense à eux. 33. Pense-t-il à cette nouvelle? 34. Oui, quier vient-il? 29. Il ne vient pas encore,


30. Qu'envoyez-vous à

30. Qu'enyorez.vons Monsieur, il y pense. 35. Je les aime et je les honore, l'écolier ? 31. Je lui envoie des livres, du papier et des habits. 32. Où est-il? 33. Il est à l'école. 34. L'école est-elle dans le village?

EXERCISE 49 (Vol. I., page 252). 35. Elle y est.

1. Will you give this book to my brother? 2. I can lend it to him,

but I cannot give it to him. 3. Will you send them to us? 4. The EXERCISE 45 (Vol. I., page 236).

milliner can send them to you. 5. Do you show them to her ? 6. I 1. What are you going to do? 2. I am going to learn my lessons. see them and show them to her. 7. Are you afraid to lend them to 3. Are you not going to write to your acquaintances? 4. I am going

us ? 8. I am not afraid to lend them to you. 9. Can you not send to write to nobody. 5. Who has just spoken to you? 6. The Irish

us some fish? 10. I cannot send you any, I have but little. 11, Will man has just spoken to us. 7. When is the Scotch lady going to

you speak to them of it? 12. I will speak to them of it, if I do not teach you music? 8. She is going to teach me next year. 9. Is she forget it. 13. Do you often come to see them ? 14. I come to see going to commence on Tuesday or on Wednesday? 10. She is going

them every morning and every evening. 15. Do you not speak to to commence neither on Tuesday nor on Wednesday; she intends to

them of your journey to Poland ? 16. I speak to them of it, but they Commence on Thursday, if she has tine. 11. Does your companion will not believe me. 17. Do I see my acquaintances on Mondays? go to church every Sunday? 12. She goes every Sunday and every

18. You see them every day of the week. 19. Do they send you more Wednesday. 13. To whom do you go? 14. I do not go to any one.

money than our merchant's clerk? 20. They send me more than he. 15. Do you not intend to come to me tomorrow? 16. I intend to go

21. Do you send any to the bookseller? 22. I send him some when I to your dyer. 17. Do you send for the physician? 18. When I am

owe him, 23. Are you not wrong to send him some ? 24. I cannot l I send for him. 19. Does he remain with you the whole day?

be wrong to pay my debts. 3). He remains with me only a few minutes. 21. Do you go to school in the morning? 22. I go in the morning and in the afternoon. 23.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXIII. Do you go every day? 24. I go every day, except Monday and Suoday. 35. Saturday I remain at home, and Sunday I go to

EUROPE (continued). church. EXERCISE 46 (Vol. I., page 236).

The maps that accompany our present lesson in Geography

present accurate delineations of the principal features of France 1. L'Irlandais que va-t-il faire ? 2. Il va enseigner la musique. 3. / and the great Scandinavian and Iberian peninsulas. We shall Vient-il de commencer son travail ? 4. Il vient de le commencer. I supplement these in our next with a map of the countries of 5. Qui vient de vous écrire ? 6. Lo teinturier vient de m'écrire. 7.

2. Central and Southern Europe on nearly the same scale as the Votre petit garçon va-t-il à l'église tous les jours ? 8. Non, Monsieur, 11 ya à l'église le dimanche, et il va à l'école tous les jours.

map of France in this lesson.

9. Allezvous chercher le inédecin? 10. Je l'envoie chercher parceque ma.

We now proceed with an enumeration of the islands which por est malade. 11. Allez-vous trouver mon médecin ou le votre belong, to Europe. Of these, by far the most important, both 12. Je vais trouver le mien, le vôtre u'est pas à la maison, 13. Où in political and commercial importance, are the Britis' 7.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Under this head are included Great Britain, anciently called Minorca, Ivica, and Formentera, E. of Spain; Sicily, S.W. of
Albion or Britannia, and divided into the three countries of Naples, and separated from it by the Strait of Messina ;
England, Wales, and Scotland ; and Ireland, anciently called Malta, S. of Sicily, and belonging to Great Britain; the Ionian
Hibernia, with various islands of much smaller dimensions lying Islands-viz., Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Theaki
around or near the coast. The principal of these are the Isle of or Ithaca, Cerigo, and Paxo, situated W. of Greece, and S.W.
Man, in the Irish Sea, situated at nearly an equal distance from of Turkey, in the Ionian Sea, and now belonging to Greece;
England, Scotland, and Ireland; the Isle of Anglesea, which Candia or Crete, S.E. of Greece; many of the islands of the
is separated from the mainland of Wales by the Menai Straits ; Archipelago-namely, the Negropont (anciently Eubea), Andros,
the Scilly Isles, anciently called Cassiterides, or the Islands of Syra, Naxia, Paros, Antiparos, Hydra, Spezzia, Egina, etc.,
Tin, adjacent to Cornwall, the real tin region; the Isle of lying E. and S.E. of Greece; and Lemnos er Stalimene, Imbros,
Wight, south of, and forming part of, Hampshire; the Hebrides, Samothraki, and Thaso, lying S. of Turkey, and belonging to
or Western Islands, lying west of Scotland; the Orkney and that power. The chief islands in the Mediterranean reckoned
Shetland Islands, north of Scotland; and the Channel Islands, as belonging to Asia are Lesbos or Mitylene, Scio or Chios,
Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, and Sark, which lie to the north. Samos, Patmos, Rhodes, and many others, lying to the E. of
west of France.

Turkey in Asia,
Next to the
Lon.W. Plan. E. from Greenwich 15

or rather Asis British

North Cape
| Hanumeries

Minor; and the most import NORWAY, SWEDEN

Cyprus, situant in the north AND

ated in the Le of Europe are DENMARK. To Sender Un

vant, which bethose which

longs to Turkey, belong to and

and whose form part of

chief town is the kingdom of

Nicosia. Denmark, and da buickjockle

The principal lie in the chan

capes (Latin, canel or passage


put, a head) in

Maid to the Baltic,

Europe are the called the CatFlagliato drjeplog

following:- The tegat - viz., Fighter

North Cape, on Zealand, which

the island of
contains Copen-


Mageröe, in lat.
hagen, the capi-

71° 10',and long. tal of that

26° 1' E., is com-
kingdom, with
Sen. .

Osten/" Mula

monly reckoned Fünen, Laaland,

the most northFalster, Moen,

ern point of ExLangeland, Born

rope; but this, holm, and

according to various others.

some authors, is In other parts

Nordkyn, in of the Baltic


Finmark, in lat. are the islands

71° 6 N.; the of Rugen, Oland,

north point of Gottland, Aland,

Nova Zembla is
Oesel, and Dago. C Steel fram

in lat. 77° 4' N.
farirjestads koping
The islands

and long. 77°5 called the The Nazach o meoplagg

E.; the Naze Azores, or

(German, the Western Ig.

Wago. Cobway

nose or beak), lands, which are



the most northgenerally con

ern point of Norsidered to belong

to Europe, and of

ger - Rack; the which


Skaw, or most and St. Michael


northern point are the princi


of Jutland, in pal, are situated

HOL Lubec

Denmark; Cape about 800 miles

'en S

La Hogue, in
W. of Portugal,

France; Capes to which they belong. The island of Iceland, which belongs to Ortegal and Finisterre, in Spain, of which the latter, as the Denmark, and is celebrated for its hot springs and its volcanoes, name indicates (Latin, finis, the end; terræ, of the earth), was is situated on the edge of the arctic circle, and having its deemed by the ancients the end or uttermost extremity of the northern point within the Arctic Ocean; the Faroe Isles, which world; Cape Roca, near Lisbon, and Cape St. Vincent, in belong to the same kingdom, and are situated N.W. of the Portugal; Cape Trafalgar and Tarifa Point, lat. 36° 1' N., long. Shetland Isles. Ferro, one the Canary Isles, once formed the 5° 36' W.; Cape Spartivento and Cape di Leuca, in Italy, and site of the first meridian, to which all nations referred the Cape Matapan, in Greece (the Morea), the last-named cape longitude, and it is to be regretted that this did not retain its being in lat. 36° 22' N., and long. 22° 28' E.; Cape Passaro, in position as the universal meridian for the world at large, and Sicily; and others of less importance. In the British Islands, for the simplification of the mode of reckoning the longitude in Dunnet Head, and not Cape Wrath, is the most northerly point different countries. The islands which lie in the most northern of Great Britain; also Lizard Point, and not Land's End, regions of Europe are the Lofoden Isles, W. of Norway; Spitz- is the most southerly point. The most northerly point of bergen, and Nova Zembla, in the Arctic Ocean.

Ireland is Mullin or Malin Head, and the most southerly points The islands of the greatest importance in the south of Mizen Head, and not Cape Clear, which is on an island called Europe, and which lie in the Mediterranean Sea, are the Clare Island.

following :-Corsica, which belongs to France, lying in the The northern highlands of Europe are those which contain V

o an Sea; Sardinia, s. of Corsica, and separated from it the Scandinavian system chain of mountains, extending from wmun lie i eil.Strait of Bonifacio; the Balearic Isles-viz., Majorca, the Naze to the North Cape, and consisting of the Langefield, -Corsica, whicidw 301

; Sardinia, s.a sinibre ait of Bonifaciiostino

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

the Dovrefield, and the Kiolen ranges, of which the highest point which flows from the Carpathian Mountains, and, after a is Skageslöestinden, in the southern range, about 8,670 feet course of 500 miles, falls into the same sea at Akerman ; the above the level of the sea; and the Uralian or Ouralian chain, Danube, which has its source in the Black Forest (Schwarzextending from the shores of the Arctic Ocean to beyond the I wald), flows through Bavaria, Austria, and Turkey, and, after a source of the Ural river,

course of nearly 1,800 which falls into the CasPENGLAND Dover Dunkirk Biddels 0

miles, falls into the Black pian Sea, and forms, with

Portsmouth 2 b
a lais iecha

Sea at Ismail ; the Rhine both, the boundary beOright Line CiUM Liege

and the Rhone, which both tween Europe and Asia.

spring from the Swiss The south-eastern high

Alps, take opposite v zemes lands of Europe are the


courses, the former runCaucasian chain of moun


ning through the Lake of tains, between the Caspian

Le Parisha e vetze

Constance, after a northSea and the Black Sea, of

ern course of about 600 which the highest peak

1 Versailles

miles through Germany, is Mount Elburz, about Repnes

France, and the Nether. 18,500 feet above the level

lands, falls into the Gerof the sea, and the high


man Ocean, after losing est mountain in Europe.

Bast itself in the Waal, the The southern highlands of

Maese or Meuse,the Leck, Europe consist of the Bal.

Dijon' Berne

and the Old Rhino, and kan (anciently Hæmus)


forming the great delta of Mountains in Turkey, the

Holland between Rotterhighest points being about 16 La Rochelle

dam and Amsterdam; the 10,000 feet above the Rochefort time

latter running through sea level; the Eastern

the Lake of Geneva, after Alps (German, mounAngouleme

a southern course of about lains), stretching from

645 miles through France, the Balkan range to the

falls into the Mediterra. commencement of the

nean Sea at the Gulf of Western Alps, north of


Lions, where it also forms the Adriatic, of which the

a delta; the Arno and higbest summits are Mont

Nisites' pAvignon

the Tiber, on the west Blanc and Mont Rosa,



of Italy, fall into the each more than 15,000

renees Narbonne c om

Tuscan Sea; and the Po feet above the level of the


and the Adige, on the east sea, and which border

of Italy, fall into the Switzerland on the south,

Adriatic; the Xucar and and Italy on the north;

the Ebro, of Spain, fall the Carpathian Mountains in the north of Hungary and Tran. | into the Mediterranean; the Douro and the Tagus, of Portugal, sylvaniathe Hercynian Mountains, in Germany; the Cevennes with the Guadalquivir of Spain, fall into the Atlantic; the and the Vosges, in France; the Pyrenees, between France and | Dwina and the Onega, of Russia, fall into the White Sea; the Spain, of which the highest points or peaks are Mont Perdu | Vistula and the Oder, of Germany, fall into the Black Sea ; and Maladetta, each

and the Elbe, of the more than 11,000 feet . 8 Lon.West fron Greenwich

Lon.East 2

same country, into the high; the Cerro Mulha

German Ocean, at Hampen, the highest point of

burg. the Sierra Nevada, in Ferrol

The chief lakes of Spain, 11,633 feet above Oviedo

Europe are the followthe level of the sea ;

ing :-In the north, Laand Etna, the Sicilian Finistragom Santiago Lemn

doga and Onega, in Rusvolcano, which is nearly

sia, the largest in Europe, of the same elevation

the former being 130 89 the Pyrenean peaks,

miles long and 70 miles being 10,874 feet in

broad, the latter smaller ; height. Salamanca ,

Peipus and Imen, in the The principal rivers in

mannen Tortosa

same country, very conEurope are the followgueil Cuimbra

siderably less (the lasting - The Volga, which


named is connected with rises in the Valdai Hills,

W Majoreira Lake Ladoga and the in Russia, runs a course

river Volga by means of through that country of

la Sivica

canals, and thus a line of about 2,400 miles, and

communication is formed falls into the Caspian Sea

between the Baltic and at Astrakhan, where its

the Caspian Seas); the delta (or land enclosed by

Lakes Wener, Wetter, its mouths in the shape

and Mälar, in Sweden, of the Greek letter A, or

with the river Gotha, delta) is about fourteen

Maila Allnewa

which form a line of miles wide. The Ural,

communication between which rises in the

the middle of the Baltic Ural Monntains, runs a 15 So of Gibraltar

Sea and its entrance. In course of about 1,800

E 1-


the south of Europe the miles, and falls into

lakes of Constance, Luthe Caspian Sea; the Don, which, after a course of nearly cerne, and Geneva, in Switzerland; and of Maggiore, Lugano, 1,000 miles, falls into the Sea of Azof, at the town of Azof; and Como, in Italy, are all remarkable for the beauty of their the Dnieper, which, after a course of a little more than 1,200 scenery. The following table contains some useful parti miles, falls into the Black Sea at Kherson; the Dniester, relating to the lakes of Europe.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
« ElőzőTovább »