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When the aspirator is empty, the tubes are again weighed, and The liquid thus obtained fumes in the air, and ought to be
thus from the increase of weight we learn the quantity of colourless, but is usually tinted yellow by the presence of the
moisture and carbonic acid gas which were in the volume of air next lower oxide-the yellow gas-nitrous acid.
in the aspirator.

It easily parts with some of its oxygen, and is therefore a
The moisture in the air varies immensely.

good " oxidising agent." If, for instance, a piece of copper be The proportion of carbonic acid is generally about wo of the thrown into a little nitric acid, violent action shortly commences, whole volume of the atmosphere.

especially if the liquid be warmed; dense Traces of ammonia and sulphuretted hydrogen are found near red fumes are given off, and the copper betowns especially; and nitric acid is frequently present after a comes cupric nitrate (Cu 2NO3); by diluting thunder-storm.

the solution and slowly evaporating, the The average composition of the atmosphere is

blue crystals of the salt may be obtained. Oxygen . .

20.61

Its readiness to part with its oxygen is
Nitrogen

77.95

also shown by dropping the acid into hot, Carbonic acid.

04

finely-divided charcoal, which begins to Aqueous vapour.

1.40

burn vividly. If the nitric acid be required Nitric acid

in a very powerful form, some sulphuric Ammonia

traces

acid is added, which deprives the nitrio Carburetted hydrogen

acid of its water. Oil of turpentine bursts Sulphuretted hydrogen

traces
In towns Sulphurous acid

into flame when such a mixture is poured
.
into it. All the metals, except gold and

Fig. 32.
The physical properties of the atmosphere not coming within

platinum, are attacked by this acid. Thus the actual domain of chemistry, we pass on to

we have a means of deciding between real gold and a mere elecTHE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF NITROGEN.

trolytic gilding. On the former a drop of the acid remains unWith oxygen, this gas produces five well-defined compounds :

changed, whilst in the latter case it becomes green.

To test for the presence of Nitric Acid. If any body be supNO . . . Nitric acid.

posed to contain this acid, whether in a free or in a combined . Nitric peroxide. No. Nitrous acid,

state, get the substance into solution, add an equal quantity of Nitric oxide.

sulphuric acid, which will set the nitric acid free, and carefully • Nitrous oxide, or Laughing gas.

add a concentrated solution of iron sulphate (green vitriol). If The regularity of their formation offers the best of examples

any nitrio acid be present, a black ring will be formed at the of the law of "multiple combination." It will be seen that the P

place where the two liquids meet.

The anhydrous acid (N,0.) may be obtained by a method procompounds are formed by the addition of an atom of oxy

posed by Natterer. Dry chlorine gas is passed over crystals of gen, the quantity of nitrogen

silver nitrate, the action beingremaining the same. Hence

2AgNO, + 2C1=,0, + 0 + 2AgCl. the increase of the atomic The silver chloride remains in the bulb, the oxygen escapes, and weights will be by the addition

the anhydrous nitric oxide condenses in a U tube, which is of 16; and as atoms are indi-) placed in ice, and which is joined to the bulb containing the visible, therefore there can be silver salt. The substance collects as a white crystalline solial no addition to the weight, save It must be kept in a sealed tube, or it abstracts water from the in a multiple of 16. The law air, and becomes liquid nitric acid. Hence it is only a chemical of which this is an example, curiosity, and of no practical use. is an evident deduction from In concluding this lesson we add tests for ascertaining the Dalton's atomic theory, which purity of commercial nitric acid, for every care ought to be has been already explained. It taken that laboratory chemicals are pure. Since the process for is known by the name of "the obtaining nitric acid in large quantities is carried on in a cast law of chemical combination in multiple proportion.” Nitro

gen only combines with oxygen Fig. 31.

under peculiar circumstances,

Whenever an electric spark
passes through the atmosphere, their combination is effected.
Thus, after a flash of lightning, nitric acid is always found in
the air. We also find this compound is frequently formed
during the putrefaction of animal matter, and it occasionally
happens that some of the lower oxides of nitrogen are also pro-
duced at the same time.

NITRIC ACID, OR HYDRIC NITRATE.
As all the other compounds of oxygen and nitrogen are
derived from this acid, we shall speak of it first.

Fig. 33.
In the symbol given above for nitric acid, N, O,, it will be
seen that there is no hydrogen; and therefore 1,0, is, strictly iron retort, and at a high temperature, the acid generally como
speaking, not an acid ; it only becomes one when joined with tains gulphuric and hydrochloric acids.
water. Thus the symbol will be H,ON,O, = H,N,Oc. This

To discover the presence of the first substance, take some is usually written HNO

of the suspected acid, dilute it with four times its volume To prepare nitric acid, it is necessary to act on one of the

of water, and add a little barium chloride. The insoluble plentiful nitrates, potassium or sodium nitrate (KNOg, or barium sulphate will be formed if the slightest trace of sulNaNO,), with sulphuric acid. In the laboratory it is usual to

phuric acid be present, and it will exhibit itself in a white preplace in a retort equal weights of potassium nitrate (saltpetre)

cipitate. and sulphuric acid, and then distilling in the ordinary way with

In testing for hydrochloric acid, it is not necessary to dilute Liebig's condenser, the action is

the nitric acid, but add a few drops of a solution of silver nitrate, 2KNO, + H,50,= K,SO, + 2HNO,

and if any hydrochloric acid be present, then there will he & For commercial purposes sodium nitrate is used, being cheaper white curdy precipitate of silver chloride. The two reactions and yielding 9 per cent. more of the acid; but as a greater heat are this expressed :is .02, nitric acid, whick distils over, always contains

H,So, + BaCl, = Baso, + 2HCI, ulium moiboa asaogpu

and HCI + AgNO, = AgCl + HNO. more of theedt to onom tit. acid, which o doidw bios : ac

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LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXII.

the French word garance for madder. During the Middle Ages

the Normans cultivated it largely in the country about Caen, and SECTION XLII.-RUBIACEÆ, OR GALIACEÆ.

exported large quantities. Characteristics : Calyx superior, adherent to the ovary ; ! It is a curious circumstance in reference to the colouring matter corolla monopetalous, epigynous; stamens inserted upon the of madder, that it penetrates the whole organism of animals corolla ; ovary inferior, two or more celled, containing one or which eat it, and dyes their bones. Many other species of the many seeds ; seed dicotyledonous, albuminous ; leaves stipulated. genus Rubia furnish a red colouring matter; amongst these we

This family, one of the most important in the whole vegetable have the Rubia peregrina, Rubia lucida, Rubia angustifolia, kingdom, derives its name from the Rubia, or madder, one of its Rubia longifolia. Many foreign species are also tinctorial. principal genera. The name Galiaceæ, which is also applied to India possesses the Rubia munjista, Chili the Rubia Relboun, the this family, is derived from the Galium, or ladies' bedstraw. The West Indies the Rubia Guadalupensis and Rubia hypocarpia. Rubiacere are either trees or shrubs, sometimes herbs, especially those indigenous to Europe. The leaves are opposite, or verti.

SECTION XLIII.-CINCHONACEE. cillate, and furnished with stipules. Their stipules are subject | This important natural order contains a great number of valu. to various variations. Sometimes they are neither coherent able medicinal plants, of the principal of which-namely, those amongst themselves nor with the leaves; sometimes those which supply us with the Cinchona bark—we shall speak in a appertaining to the leaves are joined together; sometimes there future lesson. The order by some botanists is considered as is a coherence between the stipules of the same leaves or even forming a sub-order of the order Rubiaceæ; but as the number of between those of all the leaves. Lastly, sometimes they con- | the Cinchonaceo is far greater than that of the Rubiaceæ, while stitute limbs altogether resembling

its products are more valuable to the ordinary leaves, and assume a verti.

human race, it is now usual to regard cillate aspect, easily distinguished

the former as a separate order. from real leaves, thus arranged by

Characteristics : Leaves simple, the absence of an axillary bud. The

entire, opposite, or whorled, with sti. flowers are complete, or very rarely

pules between the foot-stalks ; calyx incomplete by abortion; ordinarily

superior, adherent to ovary; corolla regular, their disposition is various,

monopetalous, tubular and regular, either in the form of cyme, or pani

with segments equal in number to cle, or capitulum ; they are generally

the segments of the calyx when there free from coherence, although occa

are divisions in the calyx; stamens sionally joined to each other by their

rising from the corolla in alternation calyces. The calyx is adherent by

with its segments; ovary inferior and its tube to the ovary; its limb is

commonly two-celled; style simple; tabular, or trunculated, and effaced.

fruit pulpy in some, dry in others, The corolla inserted on the tube of

sometimes splitting into two halves. the calyx is infundibuliform, cam

Ipecacuanha (Cephælis ipecacupanulate, or in few cases rotate ; it3

anha) is an exceedingly valuable limb is four to six partite, the parts

member of the natural order Cinbeing ordinarily equal to each other;

chonaceæ. It is a little shrub which valvular or sometimes gyrate in æsti.

inhabits the forests of Brazil. Its vation. Stamens inserted on the

root is about the size of a goose-quill, tube of the corolla, their number

yellow in colour, and furnished with almost invariably equal to that of

a grey bark disposed in the form of the divisions with which they are

rings very close together. The stem alternate ; anthers introrsal; the

is one or two feet high; the leaves ovary crowned by a fleshy disc, more

disposed in pairs. The active proor less prominent, generally formed

perties of ipecacuanha reside in the of two carpels, constituting two cells,

bark of the root, which furnishes a one, two, or many ovulate. The

valuable medicine which acts as ovules, reflected or curved, are pen

a purgative and emetic when addent or erect, or otherwise definitely

ministered in large doses, and as an fixed; style simple ; stigmata bifid

expectorant in small doses. or pluratifid, varying according to

Perhaps the most important indi. the number of the carpels. The

vidual of the Cinchona tribe is the fruit of plants of the madder family

182. BRANCH OF COFFEE TREE.

coffee plant. Coffee is the produce may be a capsule, a berry, or a drupe.

of an evergreen shrub, a native of The Rubiacere may be distinguished from all other natural | Abyssinia and Arabia. The fruit is a berry about the size orders by their inferior ovary, their monopetalous corolla, and of à cherry, covered with a pulp sweet in taste and not very their opposed simple stipulated leaves. They are allied by thick. Inside this pulp are two seeds, separated from each many stray points of resemblance to the Caprifoliaceæ ; but they other by a parchment-like membrane. These seeds are the wellalso present many analogies to other natural orders, a circum. | known coffee. The coffee-seed has been frequently analysed ; stance not to be marvelled at, considering how numerous is this chemists have found in it several oily gums and albuminous family.

matters, but the valuable principle is crystalline, and denomi. Madder (Rubia tinctorum) is a perennial vegetable, having a nated caffeine. Every person knows that coffee is rendered fit long straggling root, and square knotty stems, upon the angles of for culinary purposes by the process of roasting, but the precise which grow coarse bristly hairs; the leaves are verticillate; the agency of this roasting process is not understood. flower is small, and of a greenish-yellow colour ; the berry is It is supposed that it was only in the fifteenth century that black. Madder is indigenous in the eastern and central states coffee was transported from Abyssinia to Arabia Felix. But if of Europe, but its cultivation is now successfully prosecuted in Arabia be not the native land of coffee, it is at least its most many districts of the western countries, being of great utility in prosperous adopted home. Nowhere does the plant flourish the dyeing process. Chemists have succeeded in extracting the better, nowhere is the resulting coffee so delicious in flavour, Colouring matter in the condition of purity, and have denomi. especially that grown in the country of Yemen, in the environs Dated it alizarine, the name being derived from the term izari or of Mocha. The Orientals, it is well known, first introduced olizari, by which madder is known in the Levant. Alizarine is the use of coffee into Europe; but when they, the Orientals, volatile, hence it may be obtained by sublimation. The dyeing first became acquainted with the beverage is still uncerta properties of madder have been known from times of very great Arabian author of the fifteenth century, named Sh antiquity. Strabo relates that he saw this plant cultivated by states that the Mufti of Aden, in the ninth century, the Gauls of Aquitania, who called it varancia, whence is derived who used coffee as a beverage; but it is certain that a

VOL. II.

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b

L

e

Own in Persia. According to vulgar | was right, after all, though not after the fashion she intended : son vastestery of coffee is due to the mollah Chadelly, | coffee has passed away and been forgotten, “ like Racine!"

Best reverence by all true Mussulmans. | About the same time it was that coffee first came into favour at

afted with sorrow at the thought that he | Vienna. The Turks, driven from before the walls of that city hy e

k for the performance of his nocturnal devo- | Sobieski, left their camp in the hands of the conqueror. In this

maet tu indicate some means by which sleep camp there was abundance of coffee, and a retinue of slaves

e Mahomet, touched with pity, as well | whose office was to prepare it. Coffee had already been introIt weg thnt hus own honour was con

hant his own honour was concerned, so brought duced amongst the Londoners in the following manner. An "

A"

e interdsman came to acquaint mollah Chadelly | English merchant named Edwards, returning from Smyrna,

etiat & berisian came to ucquan
e found that his (the herdsman's) goats could not go brought with him a Greek servant, Pasquet by name, who opened

er her had partaken of coffee berries, but kept a coffee-shop in Newman's Court, Cornhill, in 1652. Other e al murut long. The mollah, taking the hint, at coffee-shops speedily arose, but Cromwell, then in power, set bol pod strong dose of coffee. He drank it, and himself against them and closed them, fearing lest they might ut pun borond measure at the result. Not a wink of injure the taverns. Another account says that the first coffee

in the mobi delicious sensations crowded on his brain; / shop in England was opened by a Jew named Jacobs, at Oxford end ! m ocht devotions were so fervent that he at onee | in 1650. ... lend the precious secret to some dervises, who, imi.! All the supplies of coffee imported for a long time into

. 144 p lo, beleaguered the prophet, now in the seventh Europe were obtained from Arabia. It was brought by way of ... Nie with unceasing prayers.

| Alexandria and the Levant; but the pashas of Egypt and T uiting we another tale, the discovery was made by the Syria imposed enormous taxes upon it. Europeans then began

wawweront of Maronites, who, on receiving the report to obtain it by the channel of the Red Sea. Holland took Dei

the effeet that his beasts could get no sleep the lead in this commerce; next followed France, and, lastly, ; how the bowed on the coffee plant, at once bethought England. In 1699, the Dutch, under the direction of Van

tood thing coffee would be for his monks, who, Horne, first president of the Dutch East Indian colonies, having

del Chedelly, appear to have been torpid, sleepy procured certain coffee plants, sent them to Batavia, where they . And the acquired the disreputable habit-not quite flourished well. The French next introduced coffee into Mar

were ut going to sleep in church. The practice, we tinique ; and we, following their example, planted the coffee 1 uito successful.

shrub in many of our tropical colonies. sen deros, todos as many other good things, had its enemies, and

--- **, the very Mohammedan priests who were amongst is il patruniso it became its most rancorous foes. The

LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXII.
...no blind Ho generally was coffee approved of by the

THE LATIN VERB (continued).
i sa pagsulavee, that people, instead of going to the mosque,
... bola days in coffee-shops; and as there does not appear

We have previously seen that a long (a) characterises the first
I forbind any act of parliament to enforce the closing of

conjugation, to which amo belongs; also that e long (@) chathe Worlases during church-or rather mosque-hours, the priests

racterises the second conjugation; and i long (i) the fourth. . Audience of empty benches. Forthwith the mollahs ana

Hence only one class of verbs is characterised by a short vowel, moiload the seductive berry and those who used it. Coffee,

and that is the class which bears the name of the third conjuForsid, was as bad as wine and spirituous liquors, if not worse.

gation. This e short (ě), however, does not strictly belong to esployment was interdicted throughout every part of the

the verb, but is only a connecting vowel between two consonants mida empire, Religious anathemas, however, being insuffi.

in this conjugation, the essence of which is that its stem is con to check the growing evil, at length an appeal was made cons

consonantal, or ends in a consonant. Thus, in the infinitive be erheydrical force. “In the year of the Hegira 945” (A.D. 1538),

mood č is introduced, for the sake of sound, between the stem in Arabian historian, “whilst large numbers were assem

and the ending of the infinitive; e.g., leg(e)re, for legre; in the i d bed linn munth of Rhamadan, employed in drinking coffee,

same way leg(e)bam instead of legbam. But the other conjngano regibuin of the guard surprised them, hunted them igno.

tions have vowel stems, as ama, doce, audi. The verbs of the I wodnesly from the shops, locked them up all night in the pasha's

third conjugation are called strong, and appear to be the most her", and the next morning administered to each individual, by

ancient. The verbs with vowel stems bear the name of weak, m ot balutary admonition, seventeen stripes."

and are of later origin. Pursecution, as usual, accomplished a result the very opposite

Frequently, in order to understand a formation, you will re totuut intended. Coffee speedily became universally popular.

quire to know how letters are related one to another. For In the first half of the seventeenth century there numbered in

instance, the supine of lego is lectum. Here the g seems to have (miro no less than 2,000 coffee-shops. At the present time coffoe

disappeared. It is, however, represented by the c. Thus, indo widonget Eastern Mussulmans one of the first necessaries of

stead of the hard legtum, we have lectum. In rexi, the perfect Ite. When a Turk adds a new wife to his associated beauties,

of rego, the g seems to have disappeared. But it has its repreL. formally contracts with her friends that she is always to have

sentative in the c or k in æi; thus rexi, if written according to plenty of coffee. If certain modern accounts, however, are to be

the sound (phonetically), would be regsi or recsi (reksi). The trusted, Turkish ladies have got into the habit of drinking

sibilant (s) is also introduced for the sake of euphony. To brandy. According to Mahomet, they have no souls to lose;

pursue this subject in detail would require more space than Fe hree they may drink spirituous liquors with impunity.

have to give. It must suffice to have put you in the right Before the seventeenth century coffee was scarcely known in

jnown in direction. When your ear, by constant practice, is accustomed Frunce, even by name. At length certain travellers returning

to the combinations of letters which the Latins were fond of, fra the East brought a little coffee with them for their own

e with them for their own you will have received a great assistance towards correctly trivate use. In the year 1647, Thevenot invited some friends forming the several parts for yourself.

a party, and gave them coffee to drink; but he had been Let us now take up the chief parts separately, and the present inded by a Levantine, who, three years before, established stems, am(a), doce, leg, and audi. From these are formedut laris a coffee-shop ; his speculation, however, did not 1. Present subjunctive active with the pres. ind, and subj, passive. ceed. It was in the beau monde that coffee first became

2. Imperf. ind. act. and pass. popularised. The Turkish ambassador at the French Court,

3. Future ind, act. and pass. Hullman Agu, was in the habit of offering coffee, after the manner

4. Participle pres. act.; fat. pass, and the gerund. a bola country, to those who attended his levees. The ladies of Accordingly we have no sooner heard of this custom than they ex

(1. Am-ene.

Am-or.

Am-er. tasting the seductive liquor; whereupon

2. Am-abam, Am-abar. man, as all Turks are, invited the ladies

3. Am-abo. Am-abor.

Am-ans, ve them coffee to their hearts' content.

Am-andus, Am-andum. vas opposed to this fashion ; she did not The future of the third conjugation has the termination se, id it was only a short-lived taste ; that it and that of the fourth ar, instead of bo. The subjunctive passive sd be forgotten, like Racine. Well, the lady of the third and fourth conjugations ends in ar instead of c.

From the stem of the infinitive in ā, ē, i, and in the third

Amaverim, amaveri, Perfect Subjunctive. conjugation from the consonantal stem with the connecting

Amavissem, amavisse, Pluperfect Subjunctive.

Amavero, amaver, Second Future. rowel, č--that is, from ama, doce, lege, and audi-- are formed

So it is with the three other conjugations. To these stems are 1. The imperfect subjunctive, active and passive,

added the consonantal person-endings just given. If the tense2. The imperative, active and passive,

stem ends in a vowel (except u), the person-endings are made 3. The infinitive passive.

without any connecting vowel; for exampleccordingly, we have

ACTIVE,

PASSIVE.
(1. Ama-rom,
Am2-161.

Stems, Person-endings. Stems. Person-endings.
Ama-2. Ama.

Ama-re.
Ama-

Ama -ris, 2nd singular. (3. Ama-ri.

Amaba -5, 2nd singular. Again, from the stem of the perfect active--that is, from

Amaba | -tur, 3rd singular.

Amavera 1-t, 3rd singular. amav, docu, leg, and audiv—are formed

Ame

-mus, 1st plural. Ame -mur, 1st plural. 1. The perfect subjunctive active.

Amare

-tis, 2nd , 2. The pluperfect indicative and subjunctive active,

Amaveri. -nt, 3rd ,

Amare. -mini, 2nd „ 3. The second future.

Amavisse. )

J-ntur, 3rd , 4. The infinitive perfect active.

In the third person plural indicative active and passive the Accordingly, we have

connecting vowel u is found after i and , as audi(u)nt, audi1. Amav-erim.

| (u)ntur, so acu(u)nt.
2. Amay-eram.
Amay-isser.

In the future active and passive of the third and fourth con-
Amav-
3. Amav-ero.

jugations the tense-stem, as in the subjunctive present, ends in. (4. Amav-isse.

am, ar; as4. Finally, from the stem of the supine in um—that is, from

Legam, Active. Audiam, Active. amat, doct, lect, audit—are formed

Legar, Passive. Audiar, Passive. 1. The supine in u.

But the a of the first person is changed into e in the rest; as2. The passive past participle.

Active. Passive. Active. Passive. 3. The participle future active.

Sing. 1. Legam. Legar, Audiam. Audiar.
Accordingly, we have-

2. Leges.
Legeris. Audies.

Audieris,

3. Leges. (1. Amat

Legetur. Audiet.

Audietur.
Plu.
Amato 2. Amat-us.

Legemus. Legemur. Audiemus, Audiemur.

2. Legetis. Legemini, Audietis. Audiemini. (3. Amat-urus.

3. Legent. Legentur. Audient. Audientur. I have here confined myself to amo and its parts for the sake of simplicity. It will be a good exercise for you to draw out

But if the tense-stem ends in a consonant or in u, you must the forms of the three other conjugations according to these

employ a connecting vowel; as shown thus :examples.

(Amab(i)mus. Leg(i)mus. Docu(i)mus.

$require i, e.g. { Amab(i)s. Leg(i)s. The forms of the verb not mentioned above are made by com

Docu(i)sti, (Amab(i)t. Leg(i)t.

Docu(i)t. bination with the participles and parts of the verb esse, to be.

| r' require e. Amab(e)ris. Leg(7)ris, Present. Thus the perfect, pluperfect, and second future passive are

n „ u. Amab(u)nt. Leg(u)nt.

Acu(u)nt. formed by joining to the perfect passive participle sum, sim,

The course of instruction through which you have now gone tram, cssem, ero, or fuero; for example, amatus sum, amatus estem, amatus ero, etc. The infinitive future active is formed

will require constant repetition. When you have made yourself by adding esse to the participle future active, as amaturum esse.

master of the forms which ensue, by imprinting them on your The infinitive future passive is formed by joining iri with the

memory, you will do well to go over and over again these inparticiple perfect passive, as amatum iri.

structions. With diligence combined with observation, you.

will then make yourself familiar with the Latin verb, not as a GENERAL VIEW OF THE TENSE-ENDINGS, INDICATIVE AND

mere matter of rote, but understandingly; knowing well how SUBJUNCTIVE, OF THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS.

the parts are formed one from the other, and how they are all ACTIVE.

PASSIVE.

connected with the common stem. I advise you, however, to Tenses, Indicativo. Subjunctive. Indicative. Subjunctive. question yourself very narrowly, and again and again, before Pres. .0. 1,-em; 2,3,4,-am. -or.

1,-er; 2,3,4,-ar.

yon attempt to pass to the conjugation-forms which I am about Imperf. bam. -rem,

-bar.

rer. Future. 1, 2, -bo;

to supply you with, though you will do well to refer to these 1, 2, -bor; 3,4,-ar. 3, 4, -am.

forms for aid in understanding my remarks, and seeing their Perfect. -i. erim.

-us sum.
-as sim.

application. Plaperi. -eram. -issem.

-us eram.

-us essem, GENERAL VIEW OF THE TENSE AND PERSON-ENDINGS OF ALL -us ero or fuero.

FOUR CONJUGATIONS OF THE ACTIVE VOICE. I next lay before you a tabular view of the

Indicative Mood.
PERSON-ENDINGS, INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE, OF ALL

PRESENT TENSE.
THE TENSES.

3.
ACTIVE.
PASSIVE. Sing. Am-o

Dcc-eo
Leg-o

Aud.io
(1. -0,or-m (-em, -am). Perf. Ind. L.
-r (or-e

- Is

-Is Sing. 2. -8.

-sti,
-ris, .re.

-it 3. t.

-tur.
Plu, Am-amus

Doc-imus Leg-imus Aud-imus 1. mus.

-mus,
-mur,

-átis

-ētis
-Itis

-itis K2, tis.

-stis.
-mini.

-ant

-ent
-unt

-iunt (3. -nt. -éruntor-ére. -ntur.

IMPERFECT TENSE. If you take from the first person of any tense the termina- Sing. Am-abam

Doc-ebam

Leg-ebam Audiebam tons o, i, r, and where or appears the syllable or, then you get

-abas
-ebas
-ebas

-iebas the tense-stem, which appears in all the other persons o the..

-abat
-ebat
-ebat

-iebat tense. This you may see exemplified in the ensuing

Plui. Am-a bămus Doc-cbimus Leg-ebamus Aud-iebāmus
-abātis

-ebātis
-obātis

-iebátis TENSE-STEMS.

-abant

-ebant
-ebant

-iebant
Amo-amao sama, Present.
Amor-amaors

FUTURE TENSE.
Amabam

Doc-ebo
Sing. Am-abo

Leg-am

Aud-iám
amaba, Imperfect.
Amabar "

-abis
-ebis

-ies Amabo

-abit

-ebit

Pu. Am-abimus Doc-ebimus Leg-emus
Amavi, amav, Perfect Indicative.

-abitis

-ebitis

-etis Amaveram, amavera, Pluperfect Indicative.

-abunt

-ebunt

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Amabor amab, Future.

Ar

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