Oldalképek
PDF

to be 16, and the velocity is represented by the horizontal line as it is called, i.e., that a body will fall four times the distance drawn through 1, which we call 32.

in twice the time, nine times the distance in three times the We can thus see at a glance the space passed over in any time, and so on. given second, or the velocity at any given time. In the same

EXAMPLES way, if we draw a line midway between 4 and 5 to represent

1. A stone is thrown up with a velocity of 100 feet per second. How 49 seconds, we can find the space passed over and the velocity | bigh will it rise, and how long will it be before it reaches the ground acquired in that time. The figure, in fact, gives us a good idea again? of the action of a uniform accelerating force.

2. A bullet takes 59 seconds to fall from an elevation to the ground. Suppose, for instance, we drop a stone down a well and find it What is the elevation ? is 41 seconds before we hear the splash, we know the depth is 3. With what velocity will a stone falling from a height of 400 feet 324 feet. The stone falls 16, 48, 80, and 112 feet in the first,

strike the ground ? second, third, and fourth seconds, and 68 in the last half second;

4. How long will a weight take to fall 784 feet, and how far will it these together make 324: or we may take the sanars of 41 move in the last second ?

5. What space will a falling body describe in the 17th second ? and multiply it by 16, and thus get the same result.

6. How long will a ball dropped from a height require to attain a Again, suppose we want to know the velocity any body velocity of 192, and what space will be described in attaining it? acquires in falling for 6 seconds, we have only to multiply 32 by 6, and we find it to be 192 feet per second. In all these cases the accelerating force we have taken has

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—XXII. been that of gravity. Sometimes, however, different forces act;

THE GREEK ELEMENT-GREEK STEMS. but the following general rules embrace all: 1. The velocity acquired under the action of a uniform

The prefixes and suffixes of which I have treated, are connected accelerating force is equal to the force multiplied by the time.

with certain roots or stems. So far as these stems are of Saxon By force here, we mean velocity acquired in one second, and, as

birth, you need little instruction in them; they belong to your we have seen, a similar amount of velocity is produced in each

mother tongue, and, in general, are as readily understood by you second. The rule, therefore, is clear.

as the words which denote the members of your body, or the 2. The space passed over is equal to half the force multiplied | food that you eat. With other stems you are not acquainted. by the square of the time. Both these laws may be verified by Among the words I gave you for exercise in composition in the comparing with the results obtained by the action of gravity.

last lesson, there are words for the meaning of which you have

probably had to resort to a dictionary. Such a word is accessary. second, s the space in feet, t the time in seconds, and v the Now accessary being made up of the Latin words ad, to, cedo, I velocity, we have the following formulæ, which express these go;, and th

go, and the termination ary, would have occasioned you no laws, and are easily remembered:

difficulty had you been familiar with the foreign or exotic stems

of our language. In origin those stems are various. Chiefly 8=ista,

they are derived from the Latin, as in the word accessary. Somo 02= 2 f s.

come from the Greek; others are of different parentage. These The third of these formulæ is deduced from the other two. must all be separately considered. I begin with an example of Now if a body be projected upwards with any given velocity, it

GREEK STEMS. will rise to the same height that it would have to fall from to gain Greek Words. Pronunciation. Meaning. Stems. English Words. that velocity, and when it again reaches the earth it will have AdeApor, a-del-phos, a brother, adelph, Philadelphia. the same velocity as it started with. The reason of this is that, pilor, phil-os, a friend, loving, phil, philosophy. as a result of the second law of motion, gravity destroys an

Lopos, soph'-os, wise,

soph, sophist. upward motion in exactly the same degree that it produces a | Now let me explain the process I here intend. Adelphos is downward one. If, for instance, a stone is projected with a found in Philadelphia, but not in its full form. It is found as it velocity of 48, it would rise that height in one second, but by appears under “Stems;" for adelphos, passing into Philadelphia, gravity it falls 16 feet out of this, and thus only rises 32. loses os, and takes ia. By this time you know enough of the

Hence if a stone be thrown upwards, it takes exactly the changes in language to be aware that these changes in the termi. same time to rise as it does to fall; and thus, if we know how nations do not affect the root-meaning, or the essential import of long it is in the air, we can tell the height to which it has risen. the word. Prefixes and suffixes convert verbs into nouns, and

For example: a stone is 6 seconds in the air, how high did it adjectives into adverbs; or they may modify the signification; rise? It must have taken half the time, or 3 seconds, in falling; they may even reverse it, but they nevertheless leave the import but in that time a body falls 32 x 16, or 144 feet. This, then, of the stem still traceable after it has undergone their influence. is the height to which it rose.

Philadelphia, then, has clearly something to do with adelphos, Or, again: a body is projected upwards with a velocity of 120, a brother. What that something is, you find indicated in the how high will it rise, and how long will it be before it reaches next Greek word and its stem, namely, philos, loving, ånd phil. the ground again ? We know here the value of v and s, and by Putting the two together, you have Philadelphia, and putting the third formula, v2 = 2 fs, that is, 14,400 = 2 x 32 x s, or the two meanings together, namely, love and brother, you obtain 64 8; & therefore is & of this, or 225 feet. Again, by the first brotherly-love, as the import of the word under consideration. formula, v=ft, that is 120 = 32 x t; t therefore is 31 seconds, Remembering that Philadelphia is the name of a town in the and as it takes the same time to rise as to fall, the time it is in United States, you are reminded that the name, brotherly-love, the air is 7 seconds.

was given to it by its founder Penn, as indicative of the spirit There is a simpler way in which many of these experiments with which he dealt with the original inhabitants of that region. may be performed, and by which some of these laws were dis. Passing on to the next word, philosophy, I find at the beginning covered by Galileo. A body is allowed to slide down an incline, of it the same phil of which I have already spoken. But I find, and the time of falling noticed. The part of the weight which also, sophy. What am I to do with sophy ? First, I know that

produces motion the y may represent the Greek ia, as is set forth in the remarks bears the same on suffixes. Changing the one into the other, I thus get sophich proportion to the Now, by referring to the next line in my list of words, I see one weight itself as which is very like sophia; that is, sophos. I already knos

the height of the enough of the changes which words undergo to find reason for JW

plane does to the thinking that sophia is connected with sophos in meaning and Fig. 99.

length. Hence if source as well as in form. The idea is confirmed by my sceing

we diminish the that soph is given as the stem of sophos. Now soph is equiva. crease the time taken in falling. We find, however, lent to our wise; here love and wise must be put together, and pcity is always proportional to the vertical height so I learn that philosophy is the love of what is vise, or the gh, whatever be the length of the incline.

love of wisdom. Such being the case, a philosopher must be experimented by letting small wagons roll down one who loves wisdom. which were made as smooth as possible so as to re-| But soph is given as the origin of sophist. Sophást obvionsly Jetion, and he discovered thus the “law of the squares," consists of two parts; the part which is given--that is, soph, meaning wise-and ist. What is this ist? Let me think. Have kind of assistance. The most effectual teaching is that which I not had ist before ? Oh, yes, I remember, ist is a suffix, a Greek leads persons to teach themselves. suffis, and denotes a partisan, one who follows a party in an “David's combat (with Goliath) compared with that of Dioxippus the opinion; like Baptist, one who observes baptism. Sophist, then, Athenian athlete.”—Delaney. must be one who pursues wisdom, one who is given to wisdom. The legislature of the kingdom (of England) is entrusted to three Now such is the meaning of the word, and such is the whole distinct powers, entirely independent of each other: first, the king ; meaning of the word as taught by etymology, or the doctrine

secondly, the lords, spiritual and temporal, which is an aristocratical

Assembly of persons selected for their piety, their birth, their wisdom, of tracing out the root-signification of words. And here you

their valour, or their property; and thirdly, of the House of Commons have an instance of the shortcomings of etymology. So far

(the representatives of the democracy),"—Blackstone, “Commentaries." 2.3 I have yet gone you see no difference between philosopher and sophist, for both are students of wisdom. Yet, if you meet

EXERCISES FOR PARSING.

Philadelphia (piladelpia) is the word employed by the Apostle with the two in a narrative or a discussion, you find that their

Paul in his Epistle to the Romans (xii, 10). Philadelphia, as employed meanings are different; at least, a philosopher is spoken of with

by the Apostle to the Gentiles, is rendered in our English version by respect, a sophist is spoken of slightingly.

"brotherly love." A word of the same origin is used by the Apostle I have entered into these details in order to show you that Peter, where (1 Pet. iii, 8) he gives the injunction "love as brethren." history must be taken as an ally to etymology in the study of Sophos (oopos) is the Greek term found in that text: “Professing languages. In the case before us history supplies the lacking themselves to be wise they became fools.” (Rom. i. 22.) The words information. From history we learn that the sophists were a just cited accurately describe the character of a sophist. A word set of Greek teachers who, not content to be called philosophers derived from sophos is the word employed in this question: "Whence or lovers of wisdom, pretended to be sophoi or wise men, and

hath this man this wisdom ?" (Matt. xiii. 54.) Our word athletic has

a word of the same origin in the words, “Ye endured a great fight came to be designated sophistai, sophists, disparagingly. A

(acolov) of afflictions." (Heb. x. 32.) The Greek demos (önjos) is, in the sophist, then, you thus learn, is a pretender to wisdom; and as

original, used in the passage, "The people gave a shout." (Acts xii. 22.) all pretenders are obliged to resort to trickery, so a sophist is | Kratos (kpatos) is in the New Testament represented by these English one who, by unsound and cunning arguments or delusive words-namely, strength (Luke i. 51), power (Eph. i. 10), and dominion appeals, aims, for his own purposes, to produce a false im- (1 Pet. iv, 11). pression. Knowing what a sophist is, you easily infer the

EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION. meaning of sophism, or a means by which the sophist works ; | Words with their proper prepositions to be formed into sentences. and sophistry, his art. Advanced thus far, you have no dif.

Foreign Representatives. ficulty with sophistical, nor with sophistically.

Adjust to,

just, just, right. Turn your attention for a moment to the English representa

Admonish of, mone, to remind. tives given above, and observe generally that in representatives,

Admission to, into, miss, sent (mission). whether designated English or foreign, I mean the radical parts

Admit of,

mitt (miss), to send. of the words, in each case the radical or essential elements of

Advantage over, avant, before. Each word. Now, you have above these three combinations of

Advise of,

vis, sight, vision.

Advocate for, voco, to call. letters-namely, adelph, phil, and soph. These three parts are

Affection for, fici (fac, fec), making. the parents of all the words of which I have just treated, and

Affinity to,

fini, an end (final). connected with them is all the information I have here set forth.

Agree with, to, on, grat, pleasing. When I have added, that what I have said is only a very small

Agreeable to,

grat, pleasing. part of what I might have said, you will have some idea of the

Alienate from, alien, another's (an alien). extent and value of etymological studies.

Questions : Where is the difference between to agree with and The branching of these three stems may be exhibited thus:— to agree to ? also between agree to and agree on? Form illustraadelph, phil,

soph,

tive sentences.

Where is the difference between admonish and admonish of? Philadelphia;

philosophy,

Form illustrative sentences. philosopher, philosophically; Besides working each term in this list into a simple sentence,

work into simple sentences words formed from them; as, sophist, sophism, sophistry, sophistical, sophistically.

| admonition, admission, advocacy, agreement, alienation, taking

care to employ the proper prepositions. Do not suppose that I have chosen these three terms because they were specially prolific. I took adelph because it begins with the first letter of the alphabet. The other words followed LESSONS IN DRAWING.-XX. of course. So far from the series being very prolific, one member In drawing the human figure a restricted practice of mere imitaof it, adelph, gives birth to only one word, and that word is tion cannot be considered, for various reasons, otherwise than a etymologically unproductive.

failure. We will briefly consider this, and also include the My chief object, however, in going into this detail was to lay study of animals, wherein we shall perceive that the amount of before you the principle on which the following list of words is knowledge requisite for drawing from animal life is as varied as drawn ont, and the manner in which you are to study them. If the subject itself. If we begin with the lowest grade and end you will faithfully, diligently, and perseveringly study these with the highest, we shall find our knowledge of their characters, lists, combining with them the knowledge communicated in habits, and physical development must increase in proportion previous lessons, you will make rapid progress, and acquire a as we ascend the scale. That feeling for form which is beyond, superior familiarity with the English language in all its and independent of, the simple ability of drawing objects of still elements.

life only, first shows its influence where life begins; or, in other Having done with this triplet of words, and pursuing the words, where life-giving power and will control the action of the order of the alphabet, I come to other Greek terms found in body; and this feeling, stimulated by the knowledge we have English :

said to be necessary, will expand as it ascends to the study of GREEK STEMS.

man. The eye must be prepared to see something beyond the Gresk Words. Pronunciation. Meaning.. Stems. English Words, simple line that gives the boundary of the figure. It is true a-eth'-los, combat, athlet, athletic.

the line must be imitated, but the question is, how to conduct Ayeyos, a-go'-gos, a leader, agog,

demagogue.

and regulate the imitation, since it must have an expression de'-mos, the people, demo, democracy. according to the infinite variety of circumstances under which krat'-os, strength, krat (ci aristocracy.

it may be placed. For as life is in the body, it is the fact of Apistos, a-ris'-tos, best,

aristo, aristocratic.

its existence that makes all the difference between drawing it, as In these lists I do not give the meanings of the English words we would a piece of furniture, or, in consequence of its freedom in the fifth column, lest you should be turned away from the of action, as the exponent of a motive having its origin in the efforts by which, from the aids furnished, you ought to be able will. Therefore it must be evident that there is a graduated to gather the significations yourself. When, however, it may scale of ability extending throughout the whole range of art, appear desirable, I will quote instances from good authors of commencing with objects of the simplest and low nd, the employment of the words, and so you will obtain another where it may be only necessary to note the posi'

[ocr errors]
[graphic]
[ocr errors]

and their extent, until as we ascend to life and intelligence, which the power of mere imitation can never overcome, and we make the further discoveries that difficulties arise of a fresh which oblige us to seek farther for assistance in branches of nature, and that it will be indispensable to direct our attention knowledge which do not immediately belong to drawing, but to other branches of knowledge to help us in our efforts. It which must have an important influence in our ultimate success. must be admitted that the human figure is the most interesting The knowledge necessary to assist us in drawing the human and sublime study in Nature. Whilst other objects are only form is derivable from many sources; the first and most represented for the sake of their forms, in this case the forms important is that of anatomy. We have in the last lesson must be made subservient to, and are employed to represent, directed the student where he may conveniently obtain informathe intentions of the mind. Therefore, it is not only the power tion upon this part of the subject. We propose now to give of imitative drawing that is necessary, but the ability to adapt him some directions how he is to apply it. We advise him to that power to purposes of a much higher grade than those which study the skeleton first, and make himself familiar with the relate to form only. Here is the reason why different men names of the bones, and their several protuberances, and the profess different branches of art. If the practice of art depended way in which they are connected with each other, either by ball upon the power of imitation only, no one who is sufficiently and socket, as in the hip-joint, or in the form of a hinge, as in skilful with his pencil need confine himself to one especial the elbow and knee. He would do well to make a drawing of study; but that which makes art valuable, and at the same the skeleton, and then from the plates and descriptions cover it time difficult, is something which extends beyond the practice with the muscles, as in Figs. 122, 123, being very particular to of mere imitation. Mark the various expressions so commonly notice their origin, insertion, and their use. Two or three seen in many countenances, betraying more meaning than words hours of persevering study in this way will do more for him can givo. A look of sympathy or of anger is read at once, and he when he comes to draw from casts, or from life, than months of who receives it hesitates not a moment in realising its intended labour from copies without it. In short, if he relies on copies meaning, although not a syllable has been uttered. Who has only, it is more than doubtful if he will ever do anything at all ever yet succeeded in portraying that divine look that Christ satisfactory; and should his ambition lead him to design for

[graphic][subsumed]

cast at Poter, expressive of all that had gone before in their himself, with the intention of employing his work for any art fellowship with each other, of all that related to their sufferings or decorative purpose, he would be totally at a loss without a and trials, both past and present, reminding Peter of his pro- knowledge of the anatomical construction of the body, and he fessions, and telling him of his weakness? And though not a | has no business to feel any surprise if he fails. These remarka word was said, Peter understood its meaning so thoroughly, must not discourage; on the contrary, we hope they will induce that “he went out and wept bitterly.” It is very evident that all to seek the readiest and shortest way to attain the requisite to be able to represent such a scene as this, a very high standard qualification. We must bear in mind that this branch of art is of that which is comprehended by the power of drawing must be a very different matter to that which includes trees, houses, of attained. We can see where it extends, but we cannot see its ornament. The body is subject to such constant changes of limits.

position that it is impossible to omit those instructions which To explain the exact kind of knowledge capable of affording relate to and explain its construction and development. The assistance to the draughtsman in every case would indeed be arm in one position is very different when that position is very difficult. To sum it up in a few words, we may say, all changed. The same limb in repose is completely altered in is useful that helps us to understand the construction of the action, and, in order to overcome the difficulties arising from object to be drawn; and, in animal life, how the various these changes, the construction of the limb must be understool. impulses of the mind and will command the action of the body. There are those whoge ambition goes no farther than copying It ought to be the desire of every one who wishes to perfect copies for mere amusement. These need not trouble themselves himself in the particular branch of art which he has chosen, what beyond following the system of arrangement, about which we ever it may be, to seek out every kind of information that can have said so much in our early lessons, applicable to objects of assist him in his object. We will instance one case only to still life; because they have then only to copy straight and illustrate the rest. The flower-painter, to gain any position at curved lines—that is, to treat the subject as composed only of all in the art, must know something of botany, which teaches such lines. Now we feel that if we leave our pupils, especially

onstruction of flowers and their classification. With those who have to employ figure-drawing for useful and practical

iliary as botany, will not his work be more satis- purposes, with no further instructions than those which will will he not be less likely to overlook many facts | enable them to imitate a printed lithograph, we should fail in jh his pursuit which would be deemed indispensable our duty. Therefore we proceed, with all who are disposed to tent judge? Therefore there are latent difficulties accompany us, regardless of difficulties and discouragements,

[graphic]
[ocr errors]

and with a feeling of determination on their part to obtain as

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. great a power of drawing the human figure as is possessed La canelle se vend deux francs la Cinnamon is sold [at] two francs per by those who made the copies they are striving to imitate.

livre.

pound. In Figs. 122, 123 we give specimens of the mode in which Cette soie vaut six francs le mètre. That silk is worth six francs per metre. the anatomical construction of the human figure is to be studied, Ce clocher a cinq cents pieds de That steeple is five hundred feet high, which we earnestly recommend our pupils to adopt, hoping they

hauteur. will be fully persuaded of the necessity of such a course. In

Cet étang a huit pieds de profon. That pond is eight fest deep.

deur. our explanations we do not intend to go through the whole

Une chambre de quinze pieds de A room fifteen feet long by eighteen body, but only a small portion of it, as an example of the

longueur, sur dix-huit de feet broad and eight fect high, method we recommend, deeming it quite sufficient for our largeur, et huit de hauteur. purpose; after which we trust all will be able to continue the De quelle taille est votre frère ? How tall is your brother? study for themselves. We advise them to make the whole of Sa taille est de cinq pieds huit His height is five feet eight inches, the drawing, including the bones and muscles, first with a lead. pouces. pencil; then go over the outline of the bones with black ink, Notre ami est-il grand ou petit ? Is our friend tall or short! and the muscles with red; afterwards number the bones, and

Il est de taille moyenne.

His height is middling. underneath write out their names. For instance (Fig. 122) :

Votre maison est plus haute que la Your house is higher than mins by mienne, de cinq pieds.

fire feet. 1. The scapula, or shoulder-blade. 2. The humerus, the upper

Je vais à l'école deux fois par jour. I go to school twice a day. and large bone of the arm. 3. The olecranon, or point of the

Il nous paie huit francs par semaine. He pays us eight francs a ucek. elbow. 4. The radius. 5. The ulna; the two last-named bones together form the fore-arm. The ulna and radius and the humerus

VOCABULARY. form the hinge-joint at the elbow. The radius is attached by

Bon marché, cheap. Grandeur, f., size. | Pouce, m., inch. a ligament outside the elbow-joint; at the wrist it becomes the

| Cassonade, f., brown Hauteur, f., height. Puits, m., trell, pit. base of support for the hand: thus the arm is capable of per

sugar.

Semaine, f., weck, Largeur, f., breadth.

Ecossais, -e, Scotch. Longueur, f., length. Taille, f., height, size. forming a rotatory motion, and so enables us to turn the palm of

Epaisseur, f., thickness. Loyer, m., rent. Verge, f., perch, yard, the hand downward, as in Figs. 124, 125. The muscles may be Etoffe, f., stuf. | Profondeur, f., depth. I rod. treated in the same way, as follows:-6. The deltoid, the large

EXERCISE 129. muscle that covers the shoulder as it descends the arm; it arises from part of the clavicula, or collar-bone, and from along

1. Votre maison est-elle grande ? 2. Elle a cinquante pieds de the upper edge of the scapula, the shoulder-blade. It is com. longueur et vingt-cinq de largeur. 3. Combien de longueur votre posed of several lobes or parcels of flesh, which all join in one jardin a-t-il ? 4. Il a vingt-cinq verges de longueur et douze tendon, and are inserted into the humerus, about half-way de largeur. 5. De quelle grandeur est ce livre ? 6. Il a dixbelow its head. Its use is to raise the atm from the side, the

huit pouces de longueur, treize de largeur et trois d'épaisseur. first motion preparatory to striking. 7. The extensor digitorum

7. Votre maison est-elle plus longue que celle-ci ? 8. Elle est arises from the outer protuberance of the humerus, and from the plus longue de deux pieds. 9. Quelle profondeur à ce puits ? hinder part of the radius and ulna. At the wrist it divides

10. De quelle hauteur est ce clocher ? 11. Il a trois cent into three tendons, which are inserted into the bones of the first

cinquante-trois pieds de hauteur. 12. De quelle taille est cet three fingers. Its use, as its name signifies, is to extend the

officier ? 13. Il est de haute taille. 14. De combien cet Ecosfingers-that is, to draw them back in opening the hand. If our

sais est-il plus grand que son frère ? 15. Il est plus grand de pupils will provide themselves with some simple work on the

toute la tête. 16. N'êtes-vous pas de beaucoup plus grand que structure of the human form, and do as we have directed them

moi ? 17. Je suis plus grand que vous de trois pouces. 18. above, they will gain an amount of anatomical knowledge which

Combien cette étoffe se vend-elle la verge ? 19. Elle se vend will create a confidence in drawing the human figure that no

trois francs le mètre. 20. La cassonade ne se vend-elle pas other kind of practice could possibly equal. We also advise

cher ? 21. Elle se vend à bon marché. 22. Combien de lettres that the practice for some time should be restricted to outline

écrivez-vous par semaine ? 23. Je n'en écris que six par semaine. only, working from good drawings, and from plaster casts

24. Combien payez-vous par semaine pour votre loyer? 25. especially. As there is much more to be said upon the theory Je ne paie que dix francs par semaine. in relation to the head and countenance, we purposely postpone

EXERCISE 130. our remarks upon shading for the present.

1. How large is your father's garden? 2. It is twenty-fire

yards long and ten broad. 3. Is your cousin's house large? 4. LESSONS IN FRENCH.—XXXV.

It is fifty-six feet long and forty broad. 5. Is your house larger

than mine? 6. It is larger than yours by ten feet. 7. Do you SECTION LXVII.-IDIOMS RELATING TO DIMENSION, know how deep that well is? 8. It is twenty-five feet deep and WEIGHT, ETC.

six feet broad. 9. How is that cloth sold per mètre ? 10. It 1. THE verb avoir is used in expressing the size of an object. is sold [at] forty-five francs per mètre. 11. How much do you The preposition de precedes the noun of dimension. When receive a week for your work? 12. I receive fifty francs a week there is no verb in the sentence, the preposition must be placed for my work. 13. How much does your friend pay a mouth before the number, and again before the noun of dimension, for his board (pension, f.)? 14. He pays seventy francs & Cette muraille a dix pieds de That wall is ten feet high.

month. 15. Are you taller than your cousin ? 16. I am taller hanteur,

than he by the whole head. 17. Is not your nephew taller than Ce puits a cent pieds de profondeur, That well is one hundred feet deop. your son? 18. He is taller than my son by three inches. 19. Une table de quatre pieds de lon- A table four feet long.

How large is this room? 20. It is sixty feet long by forty. gueur,

21. What size is your brother? 22. He is tall, he is taller than 2. In sentences where sizes are compared, and the verb être I. 23. How many books do you read a week? 24. I read is used, the preposition de is placed before the number ex- ten volumes a week. 25. How is butter sold per pound? 26. pressing the excess.

Butter is sold [at] two francs per pound. 27. Do you know Vous êtes plus grand que moi de You are taller than I by two inches. how much your son earns a day? 28. He earns as much as deux pouces,

yours, he earns ten francs a day. 29. How much is that silk 3. When the price of an article is mentioned, the article le worth per mètre ? 30. It is worth six francs per mètre. 31. is used before the noun expressing the measure, weight, etc. Our friend's stature is middling. 32. Do you go to church When the remuneration, or rent, etc., for a definite space of twice a day? 33. I go to church once a day. 34. Does your time is mentioned, the preposition par (per) is used.

son go to the post-office every day? 35. He goes thither six Le beurre se vend un franc la livre, Butter is sold [at] a franc per pound.

times a day. Il gagne six francs par jour, He earns six francs per day.

SECTION LXVIII.-IDIOMS RELATING TO METTRE, ETC. 4. The same preposition is used when we speak of the number 1, Mettre (4, ir.) forms, in French, many idiomatic expressions. of times any occurrence takes place in a given space of time. Mettre à même de, to enable; mettre pied à terre, to alight, tə Je vais à la poste deux fois par I go to the post-office twice a day. land; mettre le pied, to set one's foot; mettre à la porte, to turn jour,

out of doors; mettre au fait de, to acquaint with; mettre &

« ElőzőTovább »