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LESSONS. IN FRENCH.—XXXIV.

your little boy a sore throat ? 8. He has a sore throat. O.

Has not your eldest sister the toothache? 10. She has not the SECTION LXV.-IDIOMS RELATING TO AVOIR, ETC.

toothache, but she has a sore finger. 11. Why does not the, 1. Avoir mal means to have a pain or ache, a sore. When soldier walk? 12. He cannot walk, he has a sore foot. 13. used in relation to one of the limbs, it means generally to have Have you not sore feet? 14. My feet are not sore. 15. If a sore, a bruise, a cut, etc. The name of the part of the body your finger were sore would you write ? 16. If I had sore is preceded by the preposition d and the article [Sect. LXII. 5, fingers I should not write. 17. If your brother had the head. $77 (9)].

ache would he study his lesson ? 18. He could not study his N'avez-vous pas mal au doigt? Have you not a sore finger ?

lesson if he had the headache. 19. Has not that gentleman Je n'ai pas mal à la tête, My head does not ache,

pains in his chest ? 20. He has pains in his chest and in his

side. 21. Has your little girl black eyes or blue eyes ? 22. 2. Avoir une douleur, or des douleurs, corresponds to the

She has black eyes and a fresh complexion. 23. Has not your English to have a pain or pains.

daughter the toothache? 24. She has the toothache and the J'ai une douleur au bras, I have a pain in iny arm.

earache. 25. Are not your hands and feet cold ? 26. My 3. The construction mentioned in Rule 1 is used after avoir, hands are cold, but my feet are warm. 27. Have not those taken in the sense of tenir, to hold, and after avoir froid and ladies aquiline noses ? 28. They have aquiline noses and a avoir chaud (Sect. LXII. 5).

fair complexion (le teint beau). 29. Has your sister large Vous avez les armes à la main, You have the arms in your hands,

hands ? 30. No, Sir, my sister has small hands. 31. Have J'ai chaud aux mains et aux pieds, My hands and feet are warm.

not those little girls hurt their heads ? 32. They have not hurt

their heads, they have hurt their faces. 33. That little boy has 4. The article le, etc., is used before words indicating moral

black hair (cheveux). and physical properties, in cases where the English use a or an, or omit the article. When, however, an adjective precedes the SECTION LXVI.-IDIOMS RELATING TO AVOIR AND noun, un, une, or de, des, are at times used.

EPOUSER.
Cette damo a l'esprit juste,
That lady has a correct mind,

1. Avoir beau--Vous avez beau, corresponds in signification Yotre scar a les yeux noirs, Your sister has black eyes.

to the English expression, it is in vain for you to. It must be 5. A moral or physical property, which in the individual is followed by the infinitive. einglo, is not put in the plural in French, though the reference Vous avez beau dire, il ne viendra It is in vain for you to speak, he will be to a number of individuals.

pas,

not come. Ces dames ont l'esprit juste, Those ladies have correct minds. 2. Épouser, marier, to marry, have, in French, a different Ces garçons se sont fait mal à la Those boys have hurt their heads. meaning. Marier, conjugated actively, can only have as its těte,

nominative the person performing the ceremony, or giving RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

one or both of the parties in marriage; épouser takes as its N'avez-vous pas mal au pied ? Have you not a sore foot ?

nominative the contracting parties only, and must always Cette demoiselle a le mal de tête. That young lady has the headache. be followed by a direct regimen. Se marier, to get married, N'avez-vous pas mal aux dents ? Do not your teeth ache ?

and marier, conjugated passively, take the same nominative Mon frère a le mal de dents. My brother has the toothache.

as épouser. Mon cousin a mal au côté.

My cousin has a pain in his side. Il a des douleurs de poitrine. He has pains in his chest.

M. L. a marić sa fille avec M.G., Mr. L. has married his daughter to
What have you in your hand ?

Mr. G.
Qu'avez-vous à la main ?
What is the matter toith your hand ?

é la fille de M

Mr. G. has married Mr. L.'s daugh. I have nothing in my hand.

ter. Je n'ai rien à la main.

(Nothing is the matter with my hand. M. G. et Mlle. L. sont mariés, Mr. G. and Miss L. are married. J'ai chand aux mains et froid aux My hands are warm and iny seot Mon frère va se marier,

Ny brother is going to be married. pieds. cold.

3. Un de mes amis, is equivalent to the English, a friend of Vos seurs ont le goût délicat. Your sisters have a delicato taste. Ces messieurs ont le nez aquilin. Those gentlemen have Roman noses.

mine.

Votre ami a épousé une de mes Your friend has married a friend of VOCABULARY.

amies,

mine, Bleu, e, blue. Mal de gorge, m., sore Noir, -e, black,

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Bouche, f., mouth,

throat.

! Pied, m., foot. Bras, m., arm.

Mal d'oreille, m., bar- Presque, almost. Ils ont beau dire et beau faire, ils Whatever they may say or do, they Dent, f., tooth.

ache.

Teint, m., complexion. ne l'empêcheront pas de se will not prevent his marrying. Doigt, m., finger. Mémoire, 1., memory. Visage, m., face.

marier. Gorge, f., throat, Nièce, f., niece. Yeux, from ceil, eyes. Vous avez beau lui faire des re. It is in vain for you to remonstrate

montrances.

with him. EXERCISE 125.

L'évêque de B. a marié ma seur. Thu Bishop of B. has married my 1. Ce jeune homme a-t-il mal à la gorge? 2. Oui, Monsieur,

sister, il y a deux jours qu'il a le mal de gorge. 3. Avez-vous souvent Le capitaine G. a énousé ma cou. Captain G. has married my cousin. mal à la tête ? 4. J'ai le mal de tête presque tous les jours. sine. 5. N'avez-vous pas mal au bras ? 6. J'ai mal au bras et à la Quand il se mariera, il nous in. When he marries, he will invite us to main. 7. Votre sour a-t-elle le mal d'oreille? 8. Oui, Madame,

vitera à la noce.

the wedding. elle a le mal d'oreille et le mal de dents. 9. N'avez-vous pas

Votre cousine est mariée ?vec mon Your cousin is married to my cousin.

cousin. froid à la tête ? 10. Non, Monsieur, mais j'ai froid aux doigts.

Votre cousine a épousé un de mes Your cousin has married a cousin of 11. N'avez-vous point froid au visage ? 12. Non, Monsieur, je

cousins. n'y ai point froid. 13. Ce monsieur a-t-il le nez aquilin ? 14. Le colonel a épousé une de mes The colonel has married a sister of I a le nez aquilin et la bouche grande. 15. Cette demoiselle scurs.

mine, &-t-elle de belles dents ? 16. Elle a de belles dents et de beaux

• VOCABULARY.
yenz. 17. Ce petit garçon a-t-il les pieds potits ? 18. Il a les
pieds petits et les mains grandes. 19. Votre nièce u'a-t-elle

Ainé, -e, elder, cldest. | Devoir, 3, ir., to ove, Parent, -e, relation.
Archevêque, in., arch- to be about.

Princesse, f., princess. pas les yeux bleus ? 20. Non, Monsieur, elle a les yeux noirs.

bishop.

į Epoux, pl., couple; Prochaiu, -e, next. 21. Vos écoliers se sont-ils fait mal au visage ? 22. Ils se

Cadet, -te, younger. man and wife. Régiment, m.,regiment. sont fait mal à la poitrine. 23. Vos filles ont-elles une bonne Demoiselle, f., young | Evêque, m., bishop. Savoir, 3, ir., to kononc. mémoire ? 24. Elles ont la mémoire excellente. 25. Ces lady.

Infanterie, f., infantry. ! Vieillard, old man. Italiennes n'ont pas le teint frais.

EXERCISE 127.
EXERCISE 126.

1. Votre nièce ne va-t-elle pas se marier ? 2. Elle se mariera 1. What is the matter with your hand ? 2. I have had a l'année prochaine. 3. Qui épousera-t-elle ? 4. Elle épousera sore hand these ten days. 3. Has your brother sore fingers ? le fils aîné du général M. 5. Savez-vous qui a marié ces deux $. He has sore fingers and a sore hand. 5. What has your époux ? 6. L'archevêque de Paris les a mariés. 7. N'a-t-il pas brother in his hand ? 6. He has & pen in his hand. 7. Has aussi marié Mlle. L. ? 8. Il l'a mariée avec M. G. 9. Qui votre

mine.

demoiselle a-t-elle épousé ? 10. Elle a épousé M. L., capitaine

EXERCISE 31 (Vol. I., page 132). au 25ème régiment d'infanterie. 11. Ce vieillard n'a-t-il pas! 1. Is the horse which you have good ? 2. It is better than that tort de se marier? 12. Il n'a pas tort de se marier, mais il a which you have, and than that of our friend. 3. How many children tort d'épouser cette demoiselle. 13. Quand ces princesses vont have you? 4. I have only one, but the Italian has more than I. 5. elles se marier? 14. Elles se marieront le mois prochain. 15. / Is it the tenth of September? 6. No, Sir, it is the ninth of February. Qui les mariera? 16. L'évêque d'Arras les mariera. 17. Qui | 7. Have you my silk cravat or my muslin cravat? 8. I have both.

* 9. Have you eight kilogrammes of cinnamon ? 10. No, Sir, I have doivent-elles épouser ? 18. L'aînée doit épouser M. W. et la

only half a kilogramme. 11. How many francs have you, Sir! 12. I cadette M. G. 19. Le capitaine G. n'a-t-il pas épousé une de

have only half a franc, but my friend has a franc and a half. 13. Has vos parentes ? 20. Oui, Monsieur, il a épousé une de mes cou. | your sister twenty-five centimes? 14. Yes, Sir, she has a quarter of a sines. 21. Qui est cette demoiselle? 22. C'est une de mes franc. 15. Is it not the first of August? 16. No, Sir, it is the sixth scurs. 23. N'avez-vons pas un de mes livres ? 24. J'ai un de of September. 17. Is to-day the tenth? 18. No, Sir, it is the vos livres et une de vos plumes. 25. Je viens de parler à une eleventh. 19. Has your brother the first place? 20. No, Sir, be has de vos seurs.

the tenth. 21. Has your joiner many tools? 22. Yes, Sir, he has EXERCISE 128.

many. 23. Has that work ten volumes ? 24. No, Sir, it has only

nine. 25. I have the sixth volume of Molière's works, and the first 1. Is your brother going to marry Miss L.? 2. Yes, Sir, it volume of Michelet's History of France. is in vain for us to speak to him, he will marry her. 3. Will

EXERCISE 32 (Vol. I., page 132). not your father marry your sister to Mr. G.? 4. No, Sir, he will marry her to Mr. L. 5. Is Captain H. married ? 6. No. 1 1. Cette cannelle est-elle bonne ? 2. Cette cannelle est meilleure que

og la vôtre et que celle de votre frère. 3. Quel jour du mois avone. Sir, he is not yet married, but he will be married next year.

nous aujourd'hui ? 4. Nous avons le six. 5. Votre père a-t-il vingt 7. Whom does he intend to marry ? 8. He intends to marry a francs ? 6. Non, Monsieur, il n'a que six francs cinquante centimes. cousin of mine, who is at my brother's. 9. Who will marry | 7. Combien de volumes votre ouvrage a-t-il ? 8. Il en a beaucoup, il them? 10. My eldest brother intends to marry them. 11. Is en a quinze. 9. Le menuisier a-t-il lu le deuxième volume de l'hisyour youngest sister married ? 12. No, Sir, she is not married. toire de France de Michelet? 10. Oui, Monsieur, il en a lu le 13. Is she going to be married ? 14. She will marry when she deuxième volume. 11. Votre ami a-t-il les cuvres de Molière! 12. is [Sect. LX. 5] old enough (assez âgée). 15. Whom did Colonel Il n'en a que deux volumes. 13. Avez-vous mon habit de drap ou mon J. marry? 16. He married a sister of mine. 17. How long

habit de velours ? 14. Nous avons l'un et l'autre. 15. Nous avons

celui-ci et celui-là. 16. Combien de cannelle avez-vous ! 17. Nous en have they been married [Sect. LVI. 2]? 18. They have been

avons deux kilogrammes. 18. Combien de centimes le marchand married two years. 19. Is not that young lady wrong to get

a-t-il ? 19. Il en a vingt-six. 20. Avez-vous la troisième ou la married ? 20. She is wrong to marry, she is too young. 21. quatrième place ? 21. Je n'ai ni la troisième ni la quatrième, j'ai la Who married General S. and Miss N.? 22. The Bishop of Arras dixième. 22. N'avez-vous pas honte aujourd'hui ? 23. Non, Monsieur, married them. 23. Did not the Archbishop of York marry je n'ai pas honte, mais j'ai peur. 24. Avez-vous un quart de trade? that couple ? 24. The Archbishop of Paris married them. 25. 25, Non, Monsieur, mais j'ai un demi-franc. 26. Arons-nous le six Will not your aunt marry ? 26. She will not marry. 27. Is juillet ? 27. Non, Monsieur, nous avons le quatre mars. 28. Votre not your sister at home 99 N. Sir she is with her on I oncle a-t-il six enfants ? 29. Non, Monsieur, il n'en a qu'un. 30. aunt of mine. 29. Is your brother at your house ? 30. No,

Avez-vous dix kilogrammes de viande? 31. Je n'en ai que cinq kilo Sir, he is with one of my relations. 31. Is he married ? 32.

grammes. 52. La viande du boucher est-elle bonne ? 33. Elle n'est

pas très-bonne. 34. Combien de kilogrammes en avez-vous ? 35. Je He is not married. 33. Is Captain H. married ? 34. He was

n'en ai que deux, mais mon frère en a quatre. married last week. 35. He married Miss H.

EXERCISE 33 (Vol. I., page 148).

1. Is your brother-in-law older than mine? 2. Yours is younger KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. than mine. 3. How old is your mother-in-law? 4. She is nearly fifty EXERCISE 29 (Vol. I., page 116).

years old. 5. What o'clock is it now! 6. It is past six. 7. Are you

certain of that? 8. Yes, Sir, I am certain of it. 9. Is it not more 1. How many potatoes has your brother? 2. He has not many than two by your watch? 10. It is only twelve by my watch. ll. 3. Has the grocer much sugar in his warehouse? 4. He has bat Are you more than five years old, my child ? 12. I am not yet four. little, but he has much butter and pepper. 5. Has your gardener 13. Have you more than six yards of printed calico? 14. I have less many cherries? 6. He has more cherries than plums. 7. Are plums than three yards. 15. How many ells of ribbon has your father-inbetter than cherries? 8. Cherries are better than plums. 9. Have law ? 16. He has but little ribbon, he has but half an ell. 17. Is it a you a few ripe pears? 10. We have a few, we have also many quarter to twelve? 18. It is later, Sir, it is a quarter after twelve. pipe-apples and apricots. 11. Has your uncle anything good in 19. What day of the month is it! 20. It is the sixth of October. 21. his garden? 12. He has something good and beautiful. 13. He has | Is it not the eighth of February? 22. No, Madam, it is the eighth of beautiful vegetables and beautiful flowers. 14. Have you foreign March. 23. How many gardens has your first cousin ? 24. He has flowers & 15. I have a few. 16. Which have you ? 17. I have your only one, but it is very beautiful. 25. He has more than ten. brother's and your gardener's. 18. Have you not mine also? 19. No, Sir, I have them not. 20. Who has many? 21, Nobody has many.

EXERCISE 34 (Vol. I., page 148). 22. I have a few. 23. Have you tea enough? 24. I have enough. 1. Quel âge votre beau-frère a-t-il? 2. Il a cinquante ans. 3. Votre 25. I have more than he.

belle-soeur est-elle plus âgée que la mienne ? 4. Non, Monsieur, ma EXERCISE 30 (Vol. I., page 116).

belle-scur est plus jeune que la vôtre. 5. Votre fils a-t-il vingt-cing

ans? 6. Non, Madame, il n'en a que seize. 7. Quel jour du mois 1. Votre jardinier a-t-il beaucoup de légumes? 2. Oui, Monsieur, avons-nous aujourd'hui ? 8. Nous avons le onze. 9. Avez-vous le il en a beaucoup. 3. Combien de jardins a-t-il ? 4. Il a plusieurs vingtième volume des euvres de Châteaubriand? 10. Non, Madame, jardins et plusieurs maisons. 5. Avez-vous beaucoup de livres? 6. nous en avons le onzième. 11. Quelle heure est-il, Monsieur? 12.1 Je n'en ai guère, mais mon ami en a beaucoup. 7. Quel habit votre n'est que midi, 13. N'est-il pas plus tard ? 14. Il est une heure frère a-t-il ? 8. Il a un bon habit de drap. 9. Votre oncle a-t-il 1 moins un quart. 15. Il est cinq heures et quart. 16. Combien de beaucoup de pêches? 10. Il n'a pas beaucoup de pêches, mais il a mètres de cette toile d'Hollande avez-vous ? 17. J'en ai dix annes et beaucoup de cerises. 11. Combien de prunes le tailleur a-t-il? 12. demie. 18. J'en ai six yards, et seize yards de soie italienile. 13 Le tailleur n'a pas de prunes, il a du drap et de la soie. 13. Quelle Votre belle-mère est-elle plus jeune que votre beau-père ? 20. Elle est soie votre ami le marchand a-t-il? 14. Il a beaucoup de soie et beau- plus jeune que lui. 21. Avez-vous vingt ans ? 22. Non, Monsieur, je

argent. 15. Le jardinier a-t-il quelque chose de bon dans son n'ai que dix-neuf ans et demi. 23. Etes-vous jardin? 16. Il a beaucoup d'ananas. 17. A-t-il plus de légumes que 24. Oui, Madame, j'en suis sûr. 25. Est-il dix heures moins ving de fruit? 18. Il a plus de ceux-ci que de ceux-là. 19. Votre oncle a-t-il minutes? 26. Non, Monsieur, il est midi moins un quart. 27. Com beaucoup de poires et de cerises ? 20. Il en a quelques-unes, et il a bien de maisons avez-vous ! 28. Je n'en ai qu'une, mais ma belle beaucoup de pommes et de prunes. 21. En avez-vous quelques-unes ? scur en a deux. 29. Avez-vous la mienne ou la vôtre ? 30. Je la 22. J'en ai encore beaucoup, mais mon frère n'en a plus. 23. Quelles ni la vôtre ni la mienne, j'ai celle de votre beau-fils. 91. Votre belke pêches a-t-il? 21. Il a de grosses pêches. 25. Lesquelles avez-vous ? mère a-t-elle cinq mètres de cette indienne ! 32. Elle n'en a que deux 26. J'ai les meilleures pêches? 27. Le marchand a-t-il quelque chose ( 33. Quelle heure est-il à votre montre ? 34. Il est quatre heures

tennatre heures et de bon dans son magasin? 28. Il n'a rien de bon dans son magasin, | demie à ma montre. 35. Il est plus de sept heures à la mienne. mais il a quelque chose de bon dans son jardin. 29. Combien de porn mes de terre l'étranger a-t-il?

EXERCISE 35 (Vol. I., page 175). 30. Il n'en a pas beaucoup. 81. A-t-il de bons légumes ? 32. Il a de bons légumes. 33. 1 1. Has your mother-in-law anything to do? 2. She has notas A-t-il raison ou tort? 31. Il a raison, mais vous avez tort. 35. Ill do. 3. Has she two pages to write ? 4. No, Sir, she has our s ni ce livre-ci ni celui-là, il a celui du libraire.

| 5. Do you intend to read this newspaper? 6. Yes, Madam, 1 inte

RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.

239

to read it. 7. Are you right to buy a velvet coat? 8. I am right to picked up in the course of his morning's walk ninety-two buy one. 9. Does your little girl want to sleep? 10. Yes, Sir, she chimney swallows, not dead, but benumbed by the cold. Being

ents to pleep. she is tired. 11. Are you afraid of falling? 12. I placed in a warm hamper, they all recovered, and flew off the am not afraid of falling. 13. Has the gardener time to work in the fields? 14. He has no wish to work in the fields. 15. Are your fields

| next day. On another occasion numbers were found on the

window-sills of a country house, heaped on each other five or six as large as mine? 16. They are larger than yours. 1 saha med to walk ? 18. I am not ashamed to walk, but I am ashamed deep m uncu nad clearly led them to seek aid from man. to dance. 19. How old is your son! 20. He is sixteen. 21. Is it Some may naturally ask, why do the swallows so eagerly rush the second of March or the fifth of June? 22. It is the 28th of July, from the warm regions of the south to battle with the storms 3. Is it noon? 24. No, Sir, it is not yet twelve, it is only half-past of the north? We cannot answer the question; guessing eleven. 25. It is early yet.

might, of course, be carried to a great extent, but guessing on such subjects is trifling. That there is some wise purpose in

the habit we may be sure, or it would not exist. Another RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. remarkable feature about chimney swallows is their courage.

Look at these birds fighting with a hawk, and then say THE SWALLOW.

whether they are cowards. Of course they suffer for their In our present paper on the swallow we must limit our remarks daring ? Not in the least; the hawk gets the worst of it, and to the four British species : the Chimney Swallow, House Martin, retreats in a fury from the inglorious contest. What can the Sand Martin, and Swift. The Alpine, or white-breasted swift, hawk do? He is a brave fellow, but the swallows are too quick the spine-tailed swallow, and the purple martin, cannot be con- for him, darting down on his back, and up again with a speed sidered British birds, though they may have been seen in our which baffles the clutch of his talons. He resembles a heavy island. Scientifically speaking, the swifts and swallows are in- seventy-four man-of-war surrounded by a fleet of steam guncluded in a group to which the name Hirindonido has been boats; strength is beaten by speed. given, from the Latin hirundo, a swallow. This group is sub. The chimney swallow does not come to the British Isles for a divided into two lesser groups, under one of which all the swifts | holiday, that is certain, but for downright hard work. The are classed, while all the various kinds of swallows and martins building of a house, and the bringing up of two families in one are placed in the other. Swifts are distinguished from swallows short season, are enough to tax the energies of the most enterby the extreme length of the first two primary feathers of prising bird. The parents are so hard pushed for time that the the wing.

first family often receives warning to quit before its education The Chimney Swallow is one of the earliest arrivals, coming is quite complete. But the little things soon manage to provide from Africa over the English Channel about the middle of their own food without the aid of the mother bird. The second April. Of course the birds do not travel direct from Africa in family sometimes fares the worst, being forced to join in the one journey. Italy, Spain, and France become so many great autumnal migration as soon as they are able to fly. stages on the road, where food is picked up, and some rest The assembling of these birds is a well-known sight. How obtained. There appears to be a little self-will or caprice about closely they crowd on the house-tops, trees, and railway wires. some of the birds, a few having been known to show themselves How silently they sit for awhile, as if reflecting on past errors, in January, and others waiting till May.

or speculating on future mishaps. Then what a sudden burst Every one seems glad when the first swallow fits across the of chattering is there, as if every bird were determined to force Village green, but we sober English have never kept a "swallow his own particular hobby on his neighbour. holiday” on the 15th of April, which is, in some parts of Europe, Some naturalists have suggested that a few of these birds called "swallow day.” In ancient Greece the children might remain here in a sleeping state during the winter, and rewell clap their tiny hands when the birds of spring appeared ; appear, lean and hungry, in the spring. Others laugh at this a holiday being then given to little boys and girls. They notion as "absurd,” and pooh-pooh the opinion altogether. danced in the market-places, wove garlands of the early flowers, We venture, however, to agree with those who refuse to believe and shonted in the luxury of childish joy. That was a capital in the swallow's winter sleep. If some of the birds remain plan for making children love the birds.

behind, they probably perish from want of insect food, except in Why do we call it chimney swallow ? Simply from its those rare winters when frost is almost unknown. tendency to build in hollow places, such as old mine-shafts, The House Martin is easily distinguished by its snowy breast, disnsed wells, or chimneys. Some of these birds show very odd and noted for the trusting confidence in which it builds its nest tastes in selecting & family home. A table drawer had been above our doors and against our houses. It arrives here someleft open in a room seldom occupied, and, a window-pane being what later than the chimney swallow, and is a surer prophet of broken, a pair of these swallows appropriated one corner of the sunny skies. In this light the ancient poets regarded the drawer for their nest. When the human owner wished to use martin, singing its praises as the loved herald of flowery meads the table, most emphatic were the remonstrances of the birds. and laughing hours. Have swallows a good memory? Do the Depart they would not; the hen fluttered her wings, screamed martins really find their way back to the parent nest over angrily, and plainly intimated that the corner had become her African deserts, ocean waves, and Spanish mountains by property by right of occupation. This bird logic prevailed; the memory? If so, the organ of locality must be large in their little family was brought up in safety, and all parties were little brains. But then we are cautioned against applying satisfied

phrenology to the heads of birds, and we therefore pause in the The chimney swallow is easily known by its deeply forked midst of a tempting speculation. The same nest is often used tail, the ruddy hue on its throat, and its lightish tinted breast. year after year by surviving members of a family, and someThe rapid movements of the bird-its sudden darts and turns, now times a little bird village of nests is formed by the labours of up, now down, over the observer's head, and then skimming the several generations. How do the little builders make the ground in long, arrow-like flights-present a specimen of a materials of the nest so adhesive that the work adheres not living machine in beautiful and perfect action. But, notwith only to a brick wall but to a smooth window-pane? Here, standing this power of flight, the birds are sometimes completely again, the answer comes, “we know not." See, too, how exhausted by their journeys across the sea. They can battle careful the birds are to build up little by little, allowing each for a long time with the mere force of a tempest, but when the day's work to harden before a fresh layer is added. All this blast is both cold and strong, the winged voyagers are almost looks very much like the skill of Devonshire workmen when paralysed. A whole army of swallows will then crowd the building the “cob-wall”—a composition of mud and chopped rigging of some lonely ship, clinging for hours to ropes and straw, used for the upper part of the walls of barns, and even spars, until recovered strength again enables them to obey the cottages, in some parts of that county. We call this instinct "forward” impulse. No wonder if these beings of summer in the birds, but we really know nothing of the matter. climes sometimes marvel at the rough treatment received in our Our pretty martin is not always very honest in its notions, ruder latitudes. A cutting "north-easter" is no smiling aven taking possession of a neighbour's house, and then reception for a creature which has been basking for months in âghting desperately in defence of the wrong. “Just like the sun of Egypt. The result may amaze the swallows, but human beings," some satirists will, perhaps, say. Hor human philosophy can explain it all. They perish by thon- however, is found in the long run to be the best sands in such years. On one bitter spring day, a gentleman even among martins; a series of battles, the loss

festeers, and addled eggs being more grievous than the trouble darting and wheeling at a speed which would leave the swiftest of making an honest nest. The martins are sometimes strict express train behind. Its velocity of flight has been estimated enough on this matter when an impudent sparrow seizes on at ninety miles the hour, and it is not, therefore, surprising that one of their nests. Often have all the martins in a neighbour. the swift defies the hawk and the eagle, darting with exulting hood united to drag out the intruder and to execute him on the cry almost in the face of the exasperated falcon. Those who spot. "Serve him right” must be the verdict of all right- examine the black martin will not be much surprised at its feeling birds. As the martins sometimes hatch four broods in power in the air. The extended wings measure eighteen inches, s season, the last family is not unfrequently abandoned when yet the whole bird weighs little above one ounce. Such a living the time comes for the migration. It is very sad and very machine may really find it more difficult to descend to the earth unromantic; but what can the poor bird-mother do? Food fails; than to wander at will on high. The structure of the swift well if she stops she dies with her young; by going she preserves her illustrates what is called the law of compensation; the feebleness own life at least. Poor thing! it is very hard for her, but she of the feet being combined with amazing power of wing. On cannot resist the impulse which so strangely bids her go. Some the other hand, the ostrich has weakness of wing balanced by times, on returning to the deserted nest in spring, she has power of leg and claw. actaally to remove her dead children from the home in which they The swift seldom rejoices in a numerous family, two being were reared. “Sad, but unavoidable,” is all we can say, and that the usual number, and even these are frequently hurried away is, perhaps, just what

in the autumn, almost the house martin feels.

immediately after The Sand Martin

leaving the nest. The is the least known,

return of these birds though travellers may

to the same locality, often see its nest-holes

year after year, mas driven into the sandy

fully proved by Dr. slopes and sides of rail.

Jenner, who cut off way cuttings. These

two claws from each holes are usually two

of twelve swifts, and feet deep, but some

at the end of seven times three or even

years some of these four, the nest being

marked birds were safely hidden in the

found in the neighdarkness at the far

bourhood. Even the end. How does this

injury received as small, greyish-colour

not sufficient to overed bird pierce such

come the intensity of holes in the rock? The

local attachment. beak is the only tool

Do the swallows used, serving for both

render any service to “pick and borer,"

mankind? Yes; they the claws being partly

keep the insect my. employed as shovels

riads within safe to clear the loosened

limits. If one of these sand away. The little

birds should eat but workman first drives

a hundred insects a. its beak into the sand,

day, the number cordislodges some earth,

sumed in & summer then another beak.

by the whole swallow drive follows, and so

family might puzzle a on till an excavation

calculating machine is made. The open

to enumerate. Many ing is then tunnelled

a farmer can ruefully to the required depth

remember the ravages by the beak working

which “the fly" has from the centre of the

often made among his hole outwards. The

turnips or in his hopwhole work is finished

grounds. He may in about a fortnight.

well look upon the Some curious people

swallows as most usemay here ask, why

ful THE CHIMNEY SWALLOW.

though anpaid does this little bird

labonrers. What a not build its nest in

fearful plague some the manner of its cousins, and escape all this mining work? | insects might become without such checks, may be inferred from Answer again, “cannot tell ;” natural history is, all may see, the calculation of Réaumur, that one aphis fly might produce in full of mysteries. The sand martins are not without their share a single year 5,904,900,000 of its voracious progeny. A pretty of troubles. An enemy gets into the snug nests in the form of family to feast at man's expense ! a flea, which seems to be peculiar to this bird. Such is the The swallows, could they speak, would have a serious come lesson which the microscope teaches, and we cannot disbelieve plaint to make against humanity. They would say that boys that clever little instrument. The martin is often worried out are sometimes guilty of damaging their nests, pelting the of its house by these determined fleas.

wives, and knocking down their children by "gwitching" at The Swift is the latest of all our swallow visitors, not them with long rods. The house martins would be loud in generally reaching Britain until May, and bidding us "good- their complaints; but we trust that, after this public notice, bye" about the middle of August. The peculiar habits and every boy will repent of his past rudeness and behave better appearance of this bird have suggested the various names of for the future. It is equally wanton and cruel to destroy the swift, black martin, screech, screamer, squealer, and footless wonderful structure which instinct has taught the bird to build swallow (Cypselus apus). Its rapid flight, strange scream, dark for the shelter of itself and its young. ody, and feeble feet will explain the origin of all those appella- Let us now, with one consent, welcome in hamlet, village,

What is the most remarkable quality of the swift? Its and town these confiding summer visitors, wishing them muca 'ous power of wing. For sixteen successive hours will happiness while here, and giving them a regretful "good-bye

continue aloft in the air, not quietly poising itself, but at their departure.

[graphic]
[graphic]

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.–VII. enigmas. Those who believe that animals were introduced to

the globe, created, or derived from one another in the order of HELMINTHOZOA.

their development or position in the scale of Nature-the ALL the animals of which we have hitherto treated have been simplest animals coming first in time—are at a loss to account inhabitants of the water. Those which form the subject of the for the appearance of these animals. Standing next above the present lesson have a very strange habitat. They, for the most Echinodermata, they should precede all the higher grades of part, take up their abode in the interior of other animals, being animals, and yet their very existence and history implies the found in the alimentary canal when they have become completely presence of animals of a higher grade, who act towards them as developed, but occupying all the several soft structures of the hosts. Again, these animals offer strange exceptions to the bodies of the higher animals when in an immature condition. harmony of Nature. It is true that all animated Nature is a Some writers have been disposed to treat of them not as a battle-field, in which species carry on their unrelenting hostili. division or class in the animal kingdom, but as a peculiar ties towards one another; but this very strife results in an fauna or assemblage of animals occupying a peculiar locality. | admirable harmony, there being a place for each species, while Just as we might describe the animals of Europe, dividing that each is held in check by the others. The sickly and wretched continent into natural districts, and stating what kinds of make way for the robust, and strong, and joyous. On the other animals are confined to the Alpine region, what kinds are hand, that an otherwise strong and robust animal should

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I. HEAD AND FOREPART OF THE BODY OF TENIA SOLIUM, SHOWING THE HOOKS AND SUCKERS. II. ONE JOINT OF THE SAME TAKEN FROM NEAR

THE TAIL-END OF THE ANIMAL, SHOWING THE CENTRAL REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS WITH THEIR DUCTS LEADING TO THE SIDE, AND ALSO THE WATER-VASCULAR SYSTEM. III. HEAD OF THE LARVA OF TENIA SOLIUM (CYSTICERCUS) PROJECTING INTO THE BLADDER-LIKE CYST. IV. DISTOMA CONJUNCTUM, V. LIVER FLUKE (FASCIOLA HEPATICUM), SHOWING THE BRANCHING ALIMENTARY CANAL AND THE TWO SUCKERS.

VI. OXYURIS VERMICULARIS (MALE). Refa. to Nos, in Figs.-IV. 1, double alimentary canal ; 2, mouth sucker; 3, ventral sucker; 4, water-vascular system; 5, female organ; 6,

glands which form the egg yolk; 7, male organs.

partial to the plains, etc.: so would these authors consider the become the prey of internal parasites, which do not strike it bodies of the higher animals as the continents in which these down and put it at once out of its misery, but cause emaciation strange creatures have their range; and state how some are and slow and painful death, seems strange, when we consider prone to take up their abode in the liver, some are lodged in the that the whole of creation was fashioned to one design by a brain, and others find their home in the muscles. This, however, supreme and benevolent Being. These remarks are, of course, is certainly not a scientific view of the subject, and the facts of only offered to show how impossible it is for us to understand or the case do not compel us to adopt it. For though there is account for all the works of the Infinite. doubtless much diversity in the structure of these animals, and One of the best known and most typical forms of the lowest they show relationships to two if not more classes, yet those sub-class of Helminthozoa, is the common tapeworm, called Tenia included under the class we name Helminthozoa are so far dis- solium. The name Tænia means a band, and is given because of tinguished as to make up a definite class, which, however, does the long, flat, strap-shaped character of the animal's body. The not quite run parallel with the class Entozoa, inasmuch as it specific or trivial name, solium, meaning solitary, was given 1. cludes some animals which never take up their abode in the because it was at first imagined that only one of these animals interior of others. The class Entozoa was never a good were ever found in one person at once. This, however, has been designation, as many of these animals that are the most typical proved to be a mistake. of their class, as intestinal worms, pass some of their stages of This disgusting creature is found in the alimentary existence in water, etc., outside the bodies of animals.

man. It is often many feet or even yards in length, These creatures offer to the speculative faculties many armed with two kinds of organs for effecting its ad"

VOL. II.

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