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29. 01. 22. 50.
14. 271 cwt. 1 qr. 14 lbs. at 0 15 9} per cwt. truest sonse, wo often see moral courage connected with material 15. 98 cwt, 3 qrs, 16 lbs, at 3 18
enrichment and outward honour. 16. 219 cwt, 3 qrs. 11 lbs. at 2 11
Moreover, let it be remembered that it requires far more 17. 732 lbs, 5 oz. 13 dwts. at 1 3
per lb. 18. 814 lbs. 9 oz. 16 dwts, at
moral courage rightly to use the gifts bestowed upon us, than
1 13 per lb. 19. 912 yds. 2 qrs, 3 pa. at 1 19
to ignore them altogether. It is easier to deny ourselves all
per yard. 20. 136 yds. 3 qrs. 1 na. at 1 1 1}
indulgences, and by stoical process of endurance to learn to do
per yard, 21. 897 a. 3 r. 32 p. at
without them, than to regulate our life aright whilst we move 22. 87 qrs. 4 bush. 2 pks. at 1 17 4 per quarter. amid its blessings, and moderately enjoy its outward good. 23, 996 qrs. 7 bush. 1 pk. at 2 4 8 per quarter. Moral courage is, for the most part, no sudden attainment.
To some natures it is doubtless far easier of practice than KEY TO EXERCISE 47, LESSON XXVIII. (Vol. II., page 142).
others. Where, for instance, there are strong passions and a
weak will, it is manifest that the power of strong desire being 1. 168.; 178. 60.; 7. 2 m. 2 fur. 211 yds. 19. is.
co-existent with weak power of resistance, the battle of right 7d.
2 ft. 63 in, ; 3 d. 2. 56. 100.; 5}d.; 19 hrs.
and duty will be very severe and trying indeed. But in all
21. Tuto 5s.6d. 8. £4 16s.; 28. 01.
cases an energetic sense of moral courage is the reward of per3. 6 oz. 131 drms. ; off.
severing endeavour. Just as in the military campaign, courage 12 dwts, 12 grains; 9. ls. 60.
grows by frequent encounters with the foe, and the standing 64 lbs. 10. £88. 25. 3:10.
firm amid the belching fires of iron hail. Thus the veteran 4, 12 cwt. 56 lbs.; 2 11. £2.
is steady, where the young recruit is almost unnerved. The ft. 4. in.; 2 yds. 12. £1.
continuous conflict with those temptations which beset the 24 in. 13, 12s, 9d. 28. 2688 minutes.
higher nature, not only brings experience, but nerves the heart 5. 4 fur. 97 yds, 2 ft. 14. 155. 10d.
and renders victory easier in times to come. Moral courage may, 4 in.; 2 qts.lj pts.;
30. 18. 15. lls. Duisd. 19 gals. 16. '; }); 331. 31. £9 129.
indeed, become the habit of our life, and like all habits, good or 6. 46 m. 40 sec. ; 22 17. 398; aba; 338.. 32. 335160 square feet.
bad, become a second nature. There can be but little doubt sec.; 17 81". 18. Toyo.
33, 61 yds. 2 ft. 4 in. that there is a secret respect for moral courage in the heart of
men, even where they differ with regard to the necessity for the
course pursued by those who are perhaps defying public opinion ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-VIII.
and incurring odium and danger. The majority may not believe
the course pursued to be either wise or necessary, but they admire COURAGE.
the virtue which the circumstances develop, and they honour EVERY noble and beautiful life will be found to have in it the the man even when they disagree with his actions or opinions. power of a brave courage. So seductive are the temptations to On the other hand, a want of moral courage in the pursuit of an inglorious ease on the one hand, and so bitter the jealousies the most commonly confessed good exposes the discovered coward of & begrudging envy on the other, that every path of earnest to contumely and disrespect. life-pursuit of duty will be found a difficult one. In such a course Moral courage should, therefore, be practised with steadfastfear will faint and lose, courage will fight on and win-will battle ness, and any discovery of our own weakness should be punished heroically against the native love of ease in the heart, and over as men punish refractory horses, by making them pass again the come the envies and jealousies of its fellows in the world. He objects which at first they shied. The feeling that we had not who is craven enough to fear criticism, or to dread detraction, moral courage enough to deny our own dominant desires, orto face need not expect to reach the goal of his ambition, for there is our opponents' ridicule, will, even when not made public, rankle nothing worth having which a faint heart ever won, or ever will in our own hearts, and we shall even, when we do not lose the win.
respect of others, cease to respect ourselves. Cowardice is Courage is essential to all the noble and virtuous ambitions always contemptible, never, however, so much as when it is not of life, because in the pursuit of these mankind often have to the result of a sudden temptation, when indeed we have become deny themselves temporary pleasures and material profits. habitués in non-resistance to what seems expedient and pleasant. Nothing tests character, or tries endurance, more than a per- Want of moral courage lies at the base of sensuality, self-indulsistent course of conduct which pays allegiance to truth and gence, and many other forms of degradation. Had these inhonour, at the expense, perchance, of pleasure and repose. cipient desires been crushed by a brave hand, had the fibres
In thus treating of courage, it will at once be seen that never been permitted by permissive indulgence to thicken into moral courage is our theme. This, however, in no sense the cord which holds and binds, but been snapped at once, need be glorified, as it often is in moral theses, at the ex- then the higher nature would have triumphed over the lower. pense of physical courage ; for this, too, is an enviable blessing, The heroes of moral courage are not far to find, neither are they and may be weakened or strengthened by our own neglect or few, and we should both brace the nerves of our own character, endeavour. It must not be depreciated, because courage in the and also in turn inspire imitation, as well as admiration, in moral nature is of a higher and nobler kind. Moral courage is others, if we contemplated the career and character of those connected with human life in every sphere of temptation. Some noble men and women who fill the roll of departed heroes and times the bristling guns of inimical forces, such as contempt, heroines. The world wants brave men in every department of aversion, and derision, make us afraid; but the balls, though they duty, and all success worth the endeavour to attain, and likely may hurt, cannot destroy the brave, and they will in time reach to produce permanent satisfaction when it is attained, must be their end amid the rewards of honour. But the time-serving and sought and won under the inspiration of a lofty moral courage. the timorous will turn back, and will in the end be despised by those who at first opposed and ridiculed them. They altogether lose both the honour of the race and the reward of the prize.
LESSONS IN DRAWING.—XIX. Moral courage is not alone the prerogative and appanage of
THE HUMAN FIGURE. some leading and time-honoured men, it may be the possession We now enter upon the study of the human figure, a subject of of the humblest. A beautiful statue is just as beautiful in a quite a different character to any which have gone before--one coal-cellar as in a drawing-room; and a bravely heroic life is that requires the closest attention, and all the energies of the just as glorious in itself, whether it be in a mechanic's work draughtsman to accomplish. No one must entertain a slight room, or in some field of wider fame. Moral courage consists idea of the necessary amount of perseverance it demands. We in serving the right, and never succumbing to mere might. It have frequently heard it remarked that “ he who can draw the consists in unflinching resistance to the temptations of the figure well, can draw anything else besides.” This may be true popular and the profitable, the easy or the expedient, if principle to a certain extent, but it does not follow, as a necessary conseis to be sacrificed, or the shrine of truth to be desecrated. quence, that they who are capable of drawing the form of man
It will be seen at once that moral courage does not require are always equally successful with landscape. The above asserthe sacrifice of pleasant things when they can be fairly won and tion in the abstract may be considered true with this additioninnocently enjoyed. Evil does not reside in material possessions “he who can draw the figure well may very soon be able to themselves, or in human honours, but in the sacrifice of truth, draw anything else besides,” for in connection with and which sometimes accompanies the attainment of them. In the drawing--and figure drawing is purely free-har
other subject in the whole range of art that so thoroughly de- sufficient information for all they may require. Our object is only pends upon the judgment, the eye, and the power of the hand to open out a path for them to pursue, to point out other sources There are very few practical rules which can afford us any help, of information, and direct them in the way of applying the knowexcept the general rules of proportion, and some knowledge of l ledge thus gained : therefore any of our pupils who do not care to anatomy, which is indispensable ; be.
enter into the subject to the extent we yond these there is very little besides
propose may stop when they think fit; the all-important principle of arrang
but as to those who desire to make their ing the work: therefore, before we give
knowledge really useful for all practhe rules relating to the proportions of
tical purposes-and there are many enthe human figure, or say anything upon
gaged in the mechanical arts who will its anatomical construction, we must
find it a great acquisition to be able again repeat some of our former obser
to draw the figure well-we will envations respecting the necessity of
deavour not to disappoint them. When arrangement. Our pupils will remem
we consider how much this branch of ber how earnestly in the early lessons
art is required in decorating, stonewe advised them first to decide where
masonry, modelling, wood-engraving, the lines are to be drawn, and not to
and many other occupations, including attempt the finished drawing until the
all kinds of designing, we feel it incumpositions of the lines are satisfactorily
bent on us not to allow so useful an determined: the success or failure of
addition to their education to be passed their efforts will depend upon how far
over lightly, and oblige them to lay they follow or neglect this fundamen
our lessons aside, disappointed in not tal course of proceeding. We trust
finding the instruction they require. this once more repeated appeal to their
We will first give the relative propractical sense and judgment will suf
portions of the whole form, as reprefice, being ourselves assured that if
sented in Fig. 119. The skeleton may they are really in earnest in their de
be properly considered the framework sires and endeavours to draw the
upon which the whole body is built, human figure well, they will show their
and by which it is strengthened and appreciation of this advice by fol.
supported; the proportion and height, lowing it out to the letter; for both
the efficiency and freedom of the master and pupil must now remember
whole structure, depend principally they have entered upon a noble, and at
upon the right formation of the skelethe same time a difficult subject.
ton; this hard and solid framework We have just observed that it is in.
may be considered the timbers and dispensably necessary to be acquainted
beams of the superstructure, and the with the various proportions of the
muscles which cover it are the ropes human body, and to have some know
and pulleys for moving it; thus the lodge of anatomy. To these points we
framework is for strength, the muscles wish for a few moments to direct the
for action, and these determine the attention of our pupils, and to place
visible and varying outline of the body. before them some powerful reasons
Taking the head as a standardwhy this course is so necessary. It
that is, from the crown to the chinmust be borne in mind that the human
the whole length of the figure of a man figure in its action is almost inde
may be considered as measuring seren pendent of any fixed laws; it is seen
and a half or eight heads; of a child, in every possible position, and under
the proportion will be according to its every form of expression; it is seen at
age ; one of seven or eight years old rest, and in violent action; it is seen
may be allowed five and a half heads; in its strength and in its weakness;
and an infant, nearly four. When the it is seen in old age and childhood, in
arms and hands are fully extended delicate womanly beauty and manly
horizontally from the body, and if the vigour. Then in addition to this there
distance between the tips of the fingers is the face, the index to the mind,
from the right hand across to the left subject to every variety of change
be measured, it will be found equal in resulting from inward emotions of joy
length to the whole body, so that & or sorrow, revealing the best and the
well-proportioned man can stand in a worst feelings of the heart-passion,
square frame and be able to touch the despair, love, hatred, malice, revenge
sides of the square respectively with ---and though last, not least, the
his head, his feet, and the extremities various gradations of mental power,
of his fingers. The distance from the from the highest intellectuality to im.
top of the shoulder-that is, from the becility and madness. Surely here is
head of the humerus, a (the upper bone a field for study which in its extent
of the arm) to the elbow, b, is the and grandeur has no rival. Now we
same as from the elbow b to the first wish our pupils thoroughly to under.
knuckle of the hand, c; the same disstand that we are in earnest in what
tance occurs horizontally between the we are about to lay before them, and
outer parts of the shoulders from a to they must be in earnest also in their
d; from the top of the sternum (breast# application. We are desirous to impart
bone), e, to the navel f, the same; from something more than a superficial know
the lower part of the breast-bone, g, to "he human form; we wish to go
the pubis h (the bone across the lower "s far as we can, into the
part of the body), the same; thence to t the same time it is not our intention to write a the top of the patella i (or small bone on the knee, general itomy in our drawing lessons; instead of this, we called the knee-cap), the same; and from the lower part de ad our pupils to study carefully the lessons upon this the patella k to the instep m, the same. The knowledge subjects which are to be found elsewhere in the these uniform lengths, so repeatedly occurring, 19 & POPULAR EDUCATOR. In these they will find quite material help in drawing the figure, preventing many
and difficulties. In the same way that the skeleton establishes some instances they went even beyond this. We will not enter the proportion and construction of the body, so in like manner into any argument as to whether this modification of the facial does the skull, by its peculiarities of character and diversity of angle indicated greater strength of mind and wisdom: it cerform, assist us to define and classify peoples, nations, and l tainly has not been found to represent the standard of excel. tribes, and also to decide upon
lence in man. As the facial their different intellectual capa- .
angle formod by these two lines bilities. All must have noticed
decreases, so we approach the how very different the size of
negro, and when it is farther the human cranium or brain
diminished we descend to the case is, when compared with the
projecting jaws and smaller face, to that of the brute crea
brain of the brute creation. tion; and also that the head
(See Fig. 121, the facial angle itself, comparatively speaking,
of the cow.) These remarks undergoes very little change
are merely hints for the pupil, from growth: likewise that the
showing him the course he brain almost reaches maturity
is to pursue in studying the at a very early period, and conse
human head. To go into a quently the head of the infant
classification of the skulls of is considerably larger in pro
various tribes and nations, and portion to its body than when
point out the remarkable dif. it has arrived at manhood; the
ferences between them, is not cause of this is to be attributed
our immediate object; to show to the brain only, in which there
there are these varieties, and is less development, in propor
to establish a standard as a tion, than there is in the growth
base of construction, is all that of the body. The face increases,
is necessary: we leave our but not to the same extent as
pupils to discover these differthe limbs and other parts. We
ences for themselves, and reremark in the infant head the
sume our more legitimate subsmallness of the bones of the
ject-the method of drawing nose, the shallow jaw, and the
them. Now before we say elongated form of the head,
anything about the proportions having the brain-case large and Fig. 120.
of the head and face, we wish projecting considerably behind.
to make a few observations The roundness of the child's
upon the kind of drawing which face is to be attributed to
belongs to the human figure the incompleteness of the lower part, which, as the teeth grow, more than any other subject, and which will become more evident expands from a greater extension of the jaw ; when in old age as we proceed. In drawing the human form, the term outline must the teeth have fallen out, and the face has contracted again, be used in a far wider sense than that in which it is generally it resembles in many respects that of the child, excepting for considered when it relates to inanimate objects or ornaments. the falling in of the
Within the boundary lips and the wrinkling
line of any portion of of the skin. Thus as
the human form, be it the child grows theface
face or limb, there is becomes elongated, and
as great an amount the proportionate dif.
of character and form ference between the
to be expressed as in length of the face and
the outward or marthe depth from the
ginal line itself, and forehead to the back of
we cannot consider any the head is less strik.
one to be proficient ing. The characteris
who has not the power tic difference in the
fully to represent it. human head between
The foreshortenings the Grecian standard,
and projections of the as usually seen in an
body, and the unequal cient sculpture, and
surfaces upon every that of the negro,exists
part, arising from musin the facial line. (See
cular action, as they Fig. 120.) Draw a line
press forward towards from the lower part of
the eye, require an the ear to the closing
amount of anatomica) of the teeth in front,
knowledge which any and from thence draw
one who attempted to another to touch the
draw them, without outer projection of
possessing, would soon the forehead; this last
discover to be indisline is called the facial
pensable. To confine line, and the two to
our practice to the gether form the facial
mere outline of the angle-the angle at a.
human figure, would The more acute this Fig. 121.
give but a small idea angle is, the nearer it
of what is meant by approaches that of the
drawing it; children lower animals; the most desirable angle, as characteristic of the do no more than this. To represent an advancing limb, or ar higher powers of intellect, judgment, capability, and we include uneven surface when placed directly before us, is quite ang beauty also, is that of about 70°. The Grecian sculptors, in l affair to that of representing the surface or limb wher representing their gods, reached 90°, the right angle, and in turned a quarter round, and is seen in profile. To acqui
knowledge is not so difficult a matter as it is important. Let pretend to sleep, he sleeps really (réellement). 5. Will you our pupils try as we have advised them, and as we intend far- take a walk this morning ? 6. I would do so with pleasure, if ther to point out, and they will find the task easy and profitable ; I had time. 7. Have you become acquainted with the phy. we know what a little acquaintance with anatomy has done sician? 8. I have not yet become acquainted with him. 9. for others by opening out the shortest way to their object, How many questions have you asked (a) the child? 10. I and ensuring success.
asked him many questions. 11. Have you asked him if he had studied his lesson? 12. I did not ask him. 13. Will not
that little girl do her best to learn her lesson ? 14. She will LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XXXIII.
do her best to learn it. 15. Of what food do you make 1199 SECTION LXIII.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued). when you are ill? 16. We make use of bread and rice. 17. 1. Faire connaissance, to become or get acquainted, takes the Have you forgotten to bid farewell to your mother? 18. I had preposition avec before its object. Faire un mille, faire un not forgotten it; I intended to go to her house this afternoon.
de faire un tour de promenade, mean to go or travel a mile. | 19. With whom have you become acquainted ? 20. With tho to go on a journey, to take a walk.
bookseller. 21. Do you not keep those ladies waiting? 22. Nous avons fait vingt milles à che. We travelled twenty miles on horse
I do not keep them waiting, they are not ready (prêtes). 23. val,
Do I make you wait? 24. You do not make me wait. 25. 2. Faire ses adieux, faire des emplettes, faire des progrès,
Have you left your children in your room? 26. I have not
$: done so (le). 27. Have you sent them out? faire des questions, faire du feu, correspond in signification to
28. I have not the English expressions, to bid farewell, to make purchases, to
sent them out, I have let them remain where they were. 29.
Have you made purchases this morning ? 30. I have made improve, to ask questions, to make a fire.
none, I have no money. 31. Has the servant made a fire in my J'ai fait mes adieux à mes parents, I bid farewell to my relations.
room? 32. He has made one. 33. Will you do your best to Avez-vous fait du feu dans ma Have you made a fire in my room ?
come to-morrow? 34. I will do my best to come early. 35. chambre ?
We travelled yesterday forty leagues in sixteen hours. 3. Faire sortir means to send out, or to order out; faire entrer, to let in, to bid come in; faire attendre, to keep waiting.
SECTION LXIV.-IDIOMS : FAIRE USED REFLECTIVELY Vous les avez fait entrer dans ma You made them come into my room.
AND UNIPERSONALLY. chambre,
1. Faire is also used in the sense of playing the part of, or Vous avez fait attendre mon père, You kept my father waiting.
pretending to be. 4. Faire son possible, to do one's best, takes the preposition
Il fait le grand seigneur, He plays the great lord. pour. Faire semblant, to pretend, faire usage, to make use, are followed by de :
2. Faire also means to matter, to concern, to help. Nous avons fait notre possible, We have done our best.
Cela ne fait rien,
That is no matter. [cern you, Cela ne vous fait rien,
That is nothing to you, does not coke RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Qu'est-ce que cela nous fait ? What is that to us? Nous avons fait connaissance avec We became acquainted with them.
Je ne puis qu'y faire,
I cannot help it. eux.
3. Se faire mal conjugated reflectively, means to hurt one's Vous avez fait vingt lieues en dix You travelled twenty miles in ton self. Se faire is used reflectively in the sense of the English heures.
verbs to become, to turn. It is also used with the significa Nous ferons un tour de promenade. We shall take a walk. Je lui ai fait plusieurs questions.
Se faire takes étre as its tion of the words cause, have, get, eto. I asked him several questions. Ils nous ont fait leurs adieux. They hare bid us farewell.
auxiliary [Sect. XLIV., § 46]. Vous nous avez fait attendre. You kept us waiting.
Jo me suis fait médecin,
I have become a physician. Cet enfant fait semblant de dormir. That child pretends to be asleep. Je me suis fait faire une paire de I have had a pair of boots mode for Vous faites semblant de lire. You pretend to be reading, or do as bottes, (voir. if you were reading.
Je me suis fait raser,
I have been shaved. Nous ferons notre possible pour le We will do our best to see him. Nous nous sommes fait couper les We have had our hair cut.
Je me suis fait mal au doigt, I have hurt my finger. Aise, glad.
Se fâch-er, 1, ref., to be. Négociant, m., mer. Aliment, m., food. I como angry.
4. Besides the instances mentioned Sect. XXXII. 5), faire is Crédit, m., credit. Faire l'aumône, to give Quart, mn., quarter, used unipersonally in many idiomatic expressions. Demander, 1, to ask. I alms.
It is daylight, it is night,
Il fait de la boue, il fait de la It is muddy, it is dusty. Etude, f., study. Mendiant, m., beggar. Riz, m., rice.
poussière, EXERCISE 121.
Il fait clair de lune, il fait obscur, It is moonlight, it is dark.
Il fait bon ici, il fait cher ici. It is comfortable here, it is daar neti. 1. Seriez-vous bien aise de faire connaissance avec ce mon. sieur? 2. J'en serais bien aise. 3. Ce cheval fait-il une lieue
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. en un quart d'heure ? 4. Il a fait ce matin une lieue en douze Ce jeune homme fait le savant. That young man plays the learned suas. minutes. 5. Leur avez-vous fait des questions? 6. Je leur Cela ne me fait rien.
That is nothing to me. en ai fait (Sect. XLI. 11; $ 135 (7)]. 7. Quelles questions leur Que pouvons-nous y faire ?
What can we do to it avez-vous faites ? 8. Je leur ai demandé s'ils avaient fait des
Mon frère s'est fait orfèvre. My brother has turned goldsmith emplettes. 9. Vos élèves font-ils des progrès dans leurs
Pourquoi vous faites-vous raser ? Why do you get shaved !
Je me ferai couper les cheveux. I will have my hair cut. études? 10. Ils n'en font pas beaucoup, ils viennent rarement
Je me suis fait bâtir une maison. I have had a house built to à l'école. 11. Si vous étiez chez vous, feriez-vous semblant de
Nous nous sommes fait mal à la We have hurt our heads. dormir ? 12. Je ne ferais certainement pas semblant de dormir. tête. 13. Pourquoi ne faites-vous pas entrer ce mendiant? 14. Ma Il commence à se faire tard. It is beginning to grow late. mère vient de lui faire l'aumône. 15. Le négociant fait-il usage Fait-il cher vivre à Paris ?
Is it dear living in Paris ? de son crédit? 16. Il en fait usage. 17. De quels aliments ce Il fait beaucoup de boue.
It is very muddy. malade fait-il usage ? 18. Il fait usage de riz et de bouillon.
VOCABULARY. 19. Faites-vous votre possible pour réussir ? 20. Je fais tout mon possible. 21. Avez-vous fait entrer ces enfants, ou les
Absolument, absolutely. Etudiant, m., studont. | Peintre, I., pank avez-vous fait sortir ? 22. Je les ai laissés où ils étaient. 23.
Artisan, m., mechanic. Fou, folle, fool, simple- ! Personne, in., nedsa
Tanneur, m., tanult. Vous avons-nous fait attendre ? 24. Vous nous avez fait
Bon marché, cheap. Impertinent, -e, imper- / Vigueron, 11., attendre plusieurs heures. 25. Si vous faisiez attendre ces Chagriné, -e, vered.
dresser dames, elles se fâcheraient.
Denrées, f.p., provisions! Ouvrier, m., workman. Vitrier, m., glarut. EXERCISE 122.
EXERCISE 123. 1. Does that child pretend to read ? 2. He pretends to read. 1. Pourquoi cet ouvrier fait-il le malado? 2. Il fa
res not that gentleman pretend to sleep? 4. He does not malado parcequ'il n'a pas envie de travailler. 3. Cet et
ne fait-il pas le savant? 4. Il ne fait pas le savant, il fait le 14. I have not much more. 15. Has your aunt more dresses than fou. 5. Sied-il à ce jeune homme de faire le maître ici ? 6. your niece ? 16. She has not many. 17. Is your nephew more Il ne sied à personne de faire l'impertinent. 7. Cela fait-il | learned than your piece? 18. He is not so learned as she. 19. She is quelque chose (R. 2 above] ? 8. Cela ne fait absolument rien. m
more learned than he. 20. Are you still cold? 21. I am no longer
cold, I am very warm. 22. Have you no more news? 23, I have no 9. Cela peut-il faire quelque chose à ces vignerons ? 10. Cela
more. 24. Have you many ? 25. I have but few. ne lenr fait rien du tout. 11. N'êtes-vous pas bien chagrinés de cela ? 12. Nous en sommes bien fâchés, mais nous ne pouvons
EXERCISE 28 (Vol. I., page 116). qu's faire. 13. Votre associé ne s'est-il pas fait bijoutier ? 1. Votre frère a-t-il un très-bon dictionnaire ? 2. Son dictionnaire
| n'est pas très-correct. 3. Votre père a-t-il plus de courage que lui ? s'est il pas fait vitrier? 16. Il s'est fait tanneur, et son frère
infrara | 4. Il a beaucoup plus de courage que votre neveu. 5. Vos frères ont
ils du crédit? 6. Ils n'ont guère de crédit, mais ils ont de l'argent. s'est fait soldat. 17. La modiste ne s'est-elle pas fait couper
7. Votre tante est-elle obligeante ? 8. Ma tante est bien obligeante. les cheveux ? 18. Elle se les ai fait couper. 19. Ne vous 9. Avez-vous encore des livres, des plumes et du papier! 10. Je n'ai levez-vous pas aussitôt qu'il fait jour ? 20. Oui, Monsieur, je plus de livres, mais j'ai encore de bonnes plumes et d'excellent papier me lève de très-bonne heure. 21. Ne fait-il pas clair de lune ? | anglais. 11. Qui a encore du papier? 12. Je n'en ai plus, mais mon 22. Il fait très-clair, mais il ne fait pas clair de lune. 23. frère en a encore. 13. Avez-vous des nouvelles, Monsieur ? 14. Non, Fait-il bon vivre en Amérique ? 24. Il fait très-bon vivre en Madame, je n'en ai pas aujourd'hui. 15. Avez-vous autant de bois Amérique, les denrées y sont à bon marché.
que le fils de mon frère ? 16. J'en ai plus que vous ou que lui. 17.
Avez-vous encore tort ? 18. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai plus tort, j'ai EXERCISE 124.
raison. 19. Vos sœurs ont-elles encore faim? 20. Elles n'ont ni 1. Does not that gentleman play the learned man? 2. He
faim ni soif, mais elles ont encore sommeil. 21. Votre nièce est-elle plays the lord and fool at the same time (à la fois).
aussi savante que lui. 22. Elle est plus savante que lui et que sa
3. Does tante. 23. N'avez-vous pas de nouvelles, Monsieur ? 24. Non, not that boy pretend to be ill? 4. He pretends to be ill, Madame, je n'ai plus de nouvelles. 25. Qui a des nouvelles ? 26. Je he does not wish to study his lessons. 5. When you have no p'en ai plus. 27. Les avez-vous toutes ? 28. Oui, Monsieur, je les wish to work do you pretend to be ill? 6. I never pretend ai toutes. 29. Votre tante en a-t-elle encore beaucoup ? 30. Elle to be ill. 7. Is it muddy to-day? 8. It is not muddy, it is n'en a plus guère. 31. Votre frère a-t-il encore des chevaux anglais ? dusty. 9. Will it be moonlight this evening ? 10. It will not | 32. Il n'en a plus. 33. Il en a encore deux. 34. Avez-vous encore un be moonlight, it will be very dark. 11. Is it comfortable here?
beau châle français ? 35. Je n'ai plus de châles français, mais j'en ai 12. It is very comfortable. 13. Is it too warm or too cold ?
encore un anglais, 14. It is neither too warm nor too cold here. 15. Will you have your hair cut ? 16. I had my hair cut yesterday morn
LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.–VII. ing, 17. Will you not go home, it is beginning to grow late ?
WATER. 18. Is it not very dark out (dehors)? 19. It is not dark, it is moonlight. 20. Has not the glazier turned goldsmith ? 21.
SYMBOL. . 1,0— ATOMIC WEIGHT. . 9 He has not turned goldsmith, he has turned soldier. 22. Does As we have already seen, hydrogen, when it burns in air, enters that concern your brother? 23. That does not concern him. into combination with the oxygen, forming water. The most 24. Are you not sorry for that? 25. I am sorry for it, but I direct way of proving this is by means of the Eudiometer, an cannot help it. 26. Why do you get shaved ? 27. Because I instrument by which the composition of water is determined by cannot shave myself. 28. Have you not hurt those children ? synthesis. 29. I have not hurt them. 30. Have you hurt your arm? A strong glass tube (Fig. 27) is hermetically sealed at one 31. No, Sir, but I have hurt my head. 32. Has not your end, and through the glass two platinum wires are thrust when sister hurt her hand ? 33. She has hurt her hand, and my in its melted condition; these wires are opposite each other, mother has hurt her elbow. 34. Have you not hurt your head ? and almost meet. 35. I have not hurt my head, but I have hurt my hand.
The tube is filled with mercury, and inverted into a bath of the same metal. A mixture of the gases, in the proportion of
two volumes of hydrogen to one of oxygen, is passed into the KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH.
tube, until the greater part of the mercury is displaced. The
tube is now held firmly down with its mouth on a piece of sheet EXERCISE 26 (Vol. I., page 107).
india-rubber; for if this were not done, when the gases explode 1. Êtes-vous plus attentif que votre scur? 2. Je ne suis pas aussi the mercury would be driven out of the tube, and the experiment attentif que votre frère. 3. Avez-vous plus de courage que mon frère ? rendered fruitless. A Leyden jar is charged with electricity, a 4. J'en ai tout autant. 5. Le maréchal a-t-il autant d'argent que de chain attached to one of the platinum wires is held against the fer ? 6. Il a plus de celui-ci que de celui-là. 7. A-t-il plus de modestie outside of the jar, whilst with the knob the other wire is touched. que l'Espagnol. 8. Il en a davantage. 9. Il en a plus que la seur de The jar is thus discharged, a spark passing between the wires in votre ami. 10. N'avez-vous pas froid, Monsieur ? 11. Non, Monsieur, the tube and exploding the gas. Upon releasing the pressure of mais j'ai peur et sommeil. 12. Le Hollandais a-t-il plus de fromage the tube ncainst the india rubber. the mercury from the bath que l'Italien ? 13. Il a plus de fromage et plus d'argent. 14. AvezYour autant de soie anglaise que de soie italienne ? 15. J'ai plus de
rushes into the tube, completely filling it, leaving only a small celle-ci que de celle-là. 16. Qui a plus d'amis que l'Espacnoi? 112 | globule of water in the place of the tube full of gas. Votre ami en a plus. 18. L'Espagnol a-t-il autant de votre argent que
The composition of water by analysis is easily determined by da sien! 19. Il a moins du mien que du sien. 20. Avons-nous plus
means of electricity. It is a well-known property of the galde manteaux de soie que de manteaux de drap? 21. Nous avons plus vanic current that whenever it passes through water, the water de ceux-ci que de ceux-là. 22. Avez-vous de bous manteaux ? 23. is decomposed. The hydrogen passes with the current, and Oui, Monsieur, j'ai de bons manteaux, de bons chapeaux, et de bons appears in bubbles at the negative wire, whilst the oxygen Souliers de cuir. 24. Avez-vous plus d'assiettes que de plats? 25. Je
comes off from the positive wire. Fig. 28 indicates the arrangen'ai pas plus d'assiettes que de plats, mais j'ai plus de verres que
ment for the experiment. d'assiettes, 26. N'avez-vous pas très-froid? 27. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai ni froid ni chand. 28. Votre charpentier a-t-il du bois ?
The two test tubes and the vessel are filled with water, to
29. Oui, onsieur, il a du bois, de l'argent, du fromage et de la viande. 30. / which is added one-eighth of sulphuric acid, to make the water qui a plus d'argent que le charpentier ? 31. Le Hollandais en a davan- a conductor of electricity.
a conductor of electricity.
The test tubes are now inverted
The test tubes are now inverted' aze. 32. Qui a plus d'estampes que de livres ? 33. Le libraire a plus over the two leaves of platinum, h, n, which are connected with de ceux-ci que de celles-là. 31. Êtes-vous aussi attentif que votre the screws A and B. TO A is attached a wire from the platinum ami? 35. Je guis plus attentif que mon ami.
end of a Grove's battery, to B the wire from the zinc end. The EXERCISE 27 (Vol. I., page 115).
electric current in the battery is generally said to pass from
tho zinc to the platinum; it leaves the battery by the wire 1. Is your dictionary very correct? 2. It is more correct than
attached to the platinum, passes from the screw A through the Boyer's. 3. Your dictionary is the most correct of all. 4. Which is the best of those gardens ? 5. This is the best of all the gardens of
water to B, and back to the zinc end of the battery. Because the city. 6. Have you any more money? 7. I have no more money,
the current enters the instrument by the wire attached to A, the but I have still some credit. 8. Have we more salad ? 9. We have 10
ve is said to be the positive wire, the other being the negative. no more. 10. We have no more meat. 11. Who has more? 12. My The gases as they rise from the plate are received ir rothers and sisters have some more. 13. Have you much more ? tubes, and it will be found that the hydrogen is nearly twie