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INDEX TO CONTENTS.
Lower Oxides of Nitrogen
Head and forepart of Tænia
Solium-Joint of same,
Gas with Hydrogen . 289 near tail end-Head of
the Cucumber Tribe . 87 Carbon and its Oxides . 335 Larva of Tania Solium
Liver Fluke — Oxyuris
Vermicularis . . . 241
Nitrogen and Sulphur-
nous Tribe . . 121, 152 The Halogens-Chlorine 399 of Eunice-Proboscis of
a nearly allied species--
Leech - Circulation in
41 Leech-Section of Earth.
Lip-flower Tribe. .177 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: worn Transverse See-
tion of Ditto-Circula-
Introduction - Terms em.
ployed in Classification . 17 |
. tion in Lob-worm. . 279
Scolopendra Morsitans --
Divisions of the Animal
Kingdom - Vertebrata-
and Eyes of Ditto-Under
side of double segment
- Annulosa - Annuloida
of Ditto-Notomata Cen.
--Calenterata-Protozoa 81 |
Subdivisions of the Animal
nature of Rotary Illusion 313
Kingdom-Table of Sub-
Privet Hawk Moth-Cater-
divisions of Classes-Pro.
pillar : Pupa, Imago -
tozoa . . . . 1:3
Common Wasp: Larva,
Pupa, Imago-Under side
Actinozoa (Rayed Animals) 183
of Head of Bed-bug -
Beetle with Dorsal In.
skinned Animals). . 215
teguments removed to
show Viscera---Bee, Para-
Annelida: Ringed Worms. 279
sitical Insect, seen by
Transmitted Light, and
Insecta . . . . 337
highly magnified to show
Tracheal System . . 337
Sketch of Haddock, show.
also the arrangement of
On Light and Shade in
Trees-Massing in the
Transverse section of
Foliage, etc. , 7, 39
Haddock - Sketch of
-Setting Drawings, etc. 72
Section of Lobster
Treatment of Trees and
Foliage. : :
Treatment of Reflections in
Water . . . . 135
Sponge--Group of Vorti.
The Human Figure. 199,
cellæ-Noctiluca Miliaris 113
Hydrozoon encrusting a
Figs. 100-110. Studies of
latum, the Veiled Club-
Trees and Foliage, and
Plants in Foreground .8, 9,
40, 41, 72, 73, 104
Anemone - Transverse
Fig. 111. Application of
Section of Sea Anemone
Vegetable Form to De.
signing . . . 105
verse Section of Pleuro-
Figs. 112-118. Treatment of
brachia . . . . 145 Reflections in Water 136, 137
Fig. 119. The Human Ske.
. . . . 20)
Smithii - Diagrammatic
Figs. 120-121. The Facial
Angle in Men and Animals 201
Red Coral is secreted-
Figs. 122–127. Arms, Legs,
Cestum Veneris-One of
Hands, and Feet. 264, 265
Fig. 128. Head of Judas,
after Holbein. . . 323
- Formation of Atoll . 185 Figs. 129–138. The Human
Tubing -- Blowpipes -
Face . . 329, 392, 393
nus Shell - Ambulacral
ENGLISH, LESSONS IN :
to show Alimentary Canal
Derivation: Prefixes . . 15
-Spine-Jaws and Teeth
Sufixes . 38, 70, 110, 134, 166
-Side View of Single Uncombined Suffixes . . 206
Words that are both Pre-
263, 327, 392
pieces of the metal from the rest; that is, I have applied a force ITRACTION OF GRAVITY-FORCE OF
which has overcome the power of cohesion, and therefore certain ->N-FORCE OF AFFINITY.
particles have been wrenched from their neighbours. Now I
may collect the "filings,” and submit them to the greatest ay is to ascertain the nature and proper pressure I can exert, but I cannot bring them back into their of which our world is composed. Of late solid state; no pressure which we at present possess seems to
the chemist has penetrated beyond the be capable of bringing the particles sufficiently near to each
t stars. In pursuing his investigations, proved in the case of gold by the “Florentine Experiment;" and
upon them with various forces—heat, be porous, we may well believe it of the rest. The “ Florentine yg them within the action of re-agents, Experiment” is so celebrated that it demands recital. The tr in all circumstances, and never predicts question was raised concerning the compressibility of water, and
os all by experiment; hence chemistry is it was determined to try the experiment in the following - ( science.
manner :-A hollow sphere of gold was filled with that liquid; e to do with bodies, let us in this lesson and seeing that a sphere is that solid which possesses the maxi
which act upon “substance," and which mum capacity, any alteration in its shape would therefore lessen hemist in his research.
the quantity of water it could contain. The gold globe was That which has weight" is, perhaps, the accordingly slightly flattened, and the water oozed through the definition. Gases, although they are so gold, appearing as dew on the outside. The Florentines, there. # anything solid, are yet bodies ; they have fore, declared that water was not compressible--a conclusion
of air on every square inch is 14:67 lbs., and they had no right to draw unless they could have collected the en becomes wind, which sways the trees, carries dew, and found that it exactly filled the space by which the
st, or in the hurricane devastates a country, pressure had diminished the capacity of the hollow sphere.
two forces-one attracting, the other repelling them; and that action, by which the particles of bodies are the state of the substance, whether it be solid, liquid, or gaseous,
the attraction of gravity, the attraction of will depend upon the ratio which these two forces bear to each sion of adhesion, and the force of affinity. other. In the solid state the molecular attraction, or cohesion, gravity is that mysterious power by which is by far the stronger. In the liquid condition the repelling ced to each other the suns and worlds which power almost balances the attractive; in a gas it entirely superhe has ordained that all matter should exert sedes it, and the atoms are solely under the influence of “ molei on all bodies in its neighbourhood. This cular repulsion.” When the temperature of a body is raised, he mass of the bodies and their distances this molecular repulsion is always increased, each atom being
a stone be dropped over the edge of a perpen- repelled from its neighbour. The body expands, and at last the - 3 sea beneath, it will strike the rock before it I cohesion is so nearly overcome that the solid becomes a liquid. because the cliff attracts the stone and draws | If the temperature still increase, the atoms are still further
however, the stone be carried away from the repelled, until they cease to have any attraction for each other, • force decreases. The power which made the and the body becomes a gas. The molecular repulsion is so avity," that is, the attraction which the earth closely allied to caloric, the one is so intimately dependent upon ; the force of that attraction we call its the other, that they have been thought to be the same thing.
this force decreases with the distance the | That the physical condition of a body entirely depends upon r e the earth, is proved by the fact that the heat may be shown in almost all bodies. Ice becomes, when less on the top of a high mountain than in heated, water-then steam. Put a small piece of zinc in the Of course, to test this fact a spring balance | flame of a blow-pipe : it first becomes red-hot, then melts, and
finally goes away in vapour, which burns with a bright white sion, which has more claim upon our attention, flame, into the oxide of zinc. There is the strongest evidence pol ity" chiefly in this, that “gravity" acts upon that all bodies are capable of assuming these three states. . In c e, whereas the force of cohesion only begins Solids may be gases under certain circumstances; and gases, by the particles of matter are brought into the sufficiently reducing their temperatures, may become, first liquids,
then solids. In future lessons we shall find many examples of reais force that bodies possess solidity, and it this interesting fact. 1 liquids “cohesion" was very weak, and had no Adhesion is a force which binds two bodies together by means
of some adhesive substance, such as gum, glue, etc. stores, of iron, the teeth of the file separate small The force of affinity. This is eminently a chemical force.
se, who the De
VII. Id:of Verbs Uses of
PAGE The Greek Element-Greek
Europe . . 268, 299, 323 KEY TO EXERCISES IN LES Regular Verbs—The Second Stems. 252, 358, 394, 409 Construction of Projection | SONS IN GERMAN :
Conjugation . . . 403 Conversations on English
of Map of Europe. 355, 388 | Exs. 4-9. 27 Exs. 27—33 . 222 *.* The Key to the Exercises given Grammar . 134, 302, 331 Table of Latitudes and
„ 10 . . 63 . 3437. 247 in any Lesson in Latin will be Longitudes of Places
,, 11–16. 95 ,, 38–41 , 283 found at the end of the next ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY: in Europe . . . 389 , 17—20 . 119, 42, 43, 315 Lesson or the next Lesson but MAPS :
, 21-23. 156 , 44—52 . 372 one. Charity
Map of the World. Patience.
. 144 1, 2426 . 180 , 53—59 . 408
Principle of Virtual Velo Fidelity .
cities - The Three SysPerseverance Norway, Sweden, and Den
tems of Pulleys . . 69 Economy.
Compound Pulleys . . 61
The Inclined Plane--The
Punctuation, etc. . FRENCH, LESSONS IN:
Wedge-The Screw . 68
Statical Forces-Friction . 107
Noun, the Adjective, and
the Prepositions - The
Illustrations of preceding some Verbs. .
Definite Article . .
Principles - Kite, Boat,
66 GEOMETRICAL PERSPECL. The Past Definite
Case-endings of the Declen.
etc.-Elements of MaTIVE: LI. The Past Definite o
sions . .
chinery . . . . 1 Irregular Verbs . . Introduction - Definitions
Prime Movers - Animal The First Declension. 98, 130
--Proportional Scales. 161 LII., LIII, The Imperfect
The Second Declension 162, 195 Force, Water, Wind, Methods of Construction
The Third Declension Tonse.
195, 229, Steam . .
170 Station Point, etc.-Pro. LIV. The Past Anterior
258, 291, 322, 354, 390
Dynamics Definitions and the Pluperfect Tenses 106 blem I. . . . 225 The Second Declension Con
The Three Laws of LV. Idiomatic Construc. Orthographic and Isome.
Motion. tracted . . . 390
Proof of Third Law tions in Regimen. tric Projection - Pro
** The Key to the Exercises given LVI. Idiomatic Uses of blems II.-VI. . 295
Motion-Laws of Falling
in any Lesson in Greek will be Tenses of Verbs . 107 Problems VII.-XI.
Bodies — Atwood's Me found at the end of the next
chine . . LVII. Idiomatic Phrases . 1
. . 200
Lesson. LVIII. Rules for the Plu. GEOMETRY, LESSONS IN:
Laws of Falling Bodies
Projectiles-Collision or ral of Compound Nouns 133 The Circle and its Proper LIX. The Two Futures,
Impact . . . . 292 ties . . .
23 Simple and Anterior : 172 Problems in Practical Geo
How England and Scotland LX. Irregularities of the
-The Pendulum-Centre metry on the Circle 49,92, 123 became one. . 22, 58 Future
of Oscillation. How Ireland became part
. 333 Regular Polygons LXI, The Two Conditionals 173 Problems in Practical Geo
of Great Britain . 85, 125 MUSIC, LESSONS IN: LXII., LXIII. Idiomatic
metry on Construction of
Mental Effect of Notes . 51
Character and Effect of LXIV. Idioms: Faire used Conic Sections-The Ellipse 251 The Dagger Scene in the
Leading Notes . 115 Reflectively and Uniper. The Oval-Parabola . 284, 307
House of Commons .
Mental Effect-Consonance sonally. . The Hyperbola, Cycloid, Origin of the United States 219
of Notes, etc. . . . 183 LXV. Idioms relatir
Spiral, etc. . . . 308
Measurement of Intervals Avoir, etc. .
the Rebellion of 1745
-The Glass Harmonicon LXVI. Idioms relating to
The Massacre of Glencoe.
-German Concertina . 263 Wilkes and Liberty. .
Relation of Notes, etc. 316, 379 LXVII. Idioms relating to XLV. Peculiar Idioms 26 The Right Noble and VaDimension, Weight, etc. 266 XLVI. Verbs governing the
lorous Sir Walter Raleigh 341 OUR HOLIDAY: LXVIII. Idioms relating
Genitive . . . Admiral Byng on the 14th Gymnastics. to Mettre, etc. XLVII. Adjectives re
of March, 1757
The Hanging Rope LXIX. The Imperative . 297 quiring the Genitive .
Summary of Sketches in
The Giant's Stride. . LXX. The Imperative and XLVIII. Adjectives re
Vols. I, and II. , . 405 The Hanging Bar or Trethe Infinitive Idioms 298 quiring the Dative .
peze . . . . LXXI. The Subjunctive. XLIX. Verbs requiring the HYDROSTATICS :
The Hanging Stirrups , 411 LXXII., LXXIII. The Use Dative. .
The Hanging Rings . 412 of the Subjunctive 330, 364 L. Verbs requiring an Ac
Objects of the Science
. . 159, 223 LXXIV. The Imperfect
cusative of a Person and
Principle of Equality of
Croquet . and Pluperfect of the a Genitive of a Thing .
Pressure - Hydrostatic
Laws of Croquet . . 32 Subjunctive . . . LI. Verbs requiring the
Press . .
. 365 LXXV., LXXVI. Regimen,
Dative or Accusative . 117 Pressure of Liquids arising PENMANSHIP, LESSONS IN: or Government of Verbs 383 LII. Verbs requiring two
from their weight
Official Handwriting .33, 64, 128 Accusatives, and those
Centre of Pressure
Business Handwriting KEY TO EXERCISES IN LES. governing the Accusative
Levels-Springs and Ar.
Legal Handwriting. SONS IN FRENCH: with the Dative ... 118
tesian Wells . . . 396 Germau Handwriting. LIII. Prepositions re
Greek Handwriting. . 383 Exs. 1–3 . 11 Exs.29–35 . 233
quiring the Genitive 119
LATIN, LESSONS IN:
READING AND ELOCUTIUN
Adverbs . , 10-15. 75 , 42-49.233 quiring the Dative 155 Personal Pronouns.
Analysis of the Voice : , 16, 17 .. „ 50-53 . 331 LV. Prepositions requiring Possessive or Adjective
Exercises on Inflections 20, 50 » 18-20 ,, 54–56.333
the Accusative .
Just Stress , , , 91 21-25.
Expressive Tones, Rules » 26–28. 203 quiring the Dative or Relative and Interrogative
on . . 126, 147, 186 Accusative . . . Pronouns . .
Appropriate Modulation 18 GEOGRAPHY, LESSONS IN:
LVII. Examples illustra-
Promiscuous Exercises . 18, Astronomical Principles of
ting the various uses of
214, 250, 278, 306, 346, 378 Geography. 4, 41, 79 Prepositions
RECREATIVE NATURAL HISThe Great Circles of the LVIII., LIX., LX. PecuPrepositions .
TORY: Earth-The Meridian-liar Idioms. 180, 222, 246 The Latin Verb.
The Butterfly The Equator . 102 LXI. Regimen of Nume. Paradigm of the Verb Sum
The Frog. Latitude and Longitude rals, etc. . . . 246 --Compounds of Sum 210
English Snakes. First Meridian, etc. . 143 LXII. -- LXX, Various
The Latin Verb: its several
The Spider · 303, 353 of the World . 164
371, 407 Regular Verbs- The First Natural Divisions of the LXXI. Passive Verbs in
Conjugation. . 310, 350 WHITWORTH SCHOLAREarth's Surface · 196, 231 the Indicative