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southern hemisphere, and thus have more power to produce heat ! LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC YYIV
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.—XXIV. than if they fell obliquely, according to the illustration given above. Now, as we in this country are inhabitants of the 1. FROM the tables given in Lessons XXI., XXII., XXIII. (Vol. northern hemisphere, and of that part which is within the circle I., pp. 366, 379, 396), it is evident that any compound quantity of illumination all the year round, we experience the vicissitudes could be expressed in a variety of ways, according as we use of the seasons just described as belonging to it, and we are con- one or other of the various units, or denominations, as they sequently colder in winter than in summer, although the earth are called, which are employed. Thus the compound quantity be actually nearer the sun in winter than in summer.
£2 3s. 6d. could be indicated as here written, or by 522 pence, But we must explain more fully what we mean by the circle or again, by 43 shillings, etc. The process of expressing á of illumination. It is plain that the rays of light falling from compound quantity given in any one denomination in another, the sun upon the opaque or dark body of the earth in straight is called reducing the quantity to a given denomination. The lines, can never illuminate more than one-half of its surface at a ' process is termed time; as may be seen by the very simple experiment of making
REDUCTION. the light of a candle fall upon a ball at a distance from it. Now, as the earth revolves on its axis once every 24 hours, it is
2. EXAMPLE 1.-Reduce £5 2s. 73d. to farthings. evident that the illuminated half, and consequently the circle of ! Since there are 20 shillings in a pound, in 5 pounds there are illumination which is the boundary of that half, is perpetually! 5 X 20, or 100 shillings; and therefore, in £5 28., 100 + 2, or changing, so that almost all parts of the globe receive light for 102 shillings. Since there are 12 pence in a shilling, in 102 several hours in succession, and that they are also enveloped in shillings there are 102 X 12, or 1224 pence; and therefore, in darkness for several hours in the same manner. If the axis of £5 28. 7d., 1224 + 7, or 1231 pence. Since there are 4 the earth, instead of being inclined at a certain angle to the farthings in a penny, in 1231 pence there are 1231 X 4, or plane of its orbit, which we shall hereafter call the Ecliptic, | 4924 farthings; and therefore, in 25 2s. 7 d. there are 4924 were at right angles to that plane, and preserved its parallelism, 1 + 3, or 4927 farthings. then the circle of illumination wonld continually extend from The process may be thus arranged : pole to pole, and all places on the earth's surface would enjoy
£5 25. 7 . light for 12 hours in succession, and would be enveloped in
20 darkness for exactly the same period the whole year round. On the other hand, if the axis of the earth were coincident
100 + 2 = 1023. with the plane, and preserved its parallelism, this would happen
12 only twice a year; and each hemisphere would at opposite
122: + 7 = 1231d. periods be in total darkness for a whole day, while the variations between these extremes would be both inconvenient and injurious. In the former case the seasons would be all the
4924 + 3 = 4927 farthings. same, that is, there would be perpetual sameness of season all the year round; in the latter case, the seasons, instead of being EXAMPLE 2.-In 4927 farthings how many pounds, shillings, four only, would be innumerable, that is, there would be per. ! pence, and farthings are there? petual change.
4927 divided by 4 gives a quotient 1231, and a remainder 3; Here, then, creative wisdom shines unexpectedly forth. The hence 4927 farthings are 1231 pence and 3 farthings. 1231 inclination of the earth's axis is such as to produce the four divided by 12 gives a quotient 102, and a remainder 7; hence seasons in a remarkable manner, and to permit sufficient time | 1231 pence are 102 shillings and 7 pence. 102 divided by 20 for the earth to bring her fruits to perfection, as well to let her gives a quotient of 5, and a remainder 2; hence 102 shillings lie fallow for a period that she may renew her fruitfulness. are 5 pounds and 2 shillings. Therefore 4927 farthings are
In Fig. 1, when the earth is supposed to be at the point c, she 1231% pence, which is 102s. 72d., which is £5 2s. 74d. is at her mean distance from the sun at the vernal equinox, which The operation may be thus arranged :is the first time of the year when day and night are equal, which happens on or about the 21st of March. Now, at this point the
4 ) 4927 inclination of the earth's axis to the minor axis of the ellipse is a right angle, and as the focus F', in the case of the earth,
12 ) 1231 ... 3f. nearly coincides with the centre o, the rays of light proceeding
20 ) 102 ...7d. from the sun nearly in the straight line o c, fall upon that axis nearly perpendicularly, and illuminate the globe from pole to
£5 2s. 7fd. pole, so that the circle of illumination passes through the poles, and the days and nights are equal all over the globe, each con In dividing by 20, note the remark (Lesson VII., Art. 7). sisting of 12 hours, while the earth is in this position. In the The same method would apply to compound quantities of any opposite position at D, the earth is again at her mean distance other kind. from the sun at the autumnal equinox, which is the second time Hence we get the following of the year when day and night are equal, which happens on or Rule for the Reduction of Compound Quantities. about the 22nd of September. At this point the circumstances (1.) To reduce quantities in given denominations to equivalent of the globe and the circle of illumination are exactly the same quantities of lower denominations. as we have just described. At these four points, A, C, B, and D, Multiply the quantity of the highest denomination by that in the orbit of the earth, are found the middle points of the four number which it takes of the next lower denomination to make seasons of the year, viz., at A, mid-winter; at c, mid-spring; at one of the higher; and to the product add the number of quan. B, mid-summer; and at D, mid-autumn. At the point A, or mid- tities of that lower denomination, if there are any. Proceed in winter, which is on or about the 21st of December, we have the like manner with the quantity thus obtained, and those of each shortest day in the northern hemisphere and the longest day in successive denomination, until the required denomination is the southern hemisphere; and at the point B, or mid-summer, arrived at. which is on or about the 22nd of June, we have the longest day (2.) To reduce quantities of given denominations to equirain the northern hemisphere and the shortest in the southern lent quantities of higher denominations. hemisphere.
| Divide the number of quantities of the given denomination by “ Thus is primeval prophecy fulfilled :
that number which it takes of quantities of this denomination While earth continues, and the ground is tilled;
to make one of the next higher. Proceed in the same manner Spring time shall come, when seeds put in the soil
with this and each successive denomination, until the required Shall yield in harvest full reward for toil;
denomination is arrived at. The last quotient, with the several Heat follow cold, and fructify the ground, Winter and summer in alternate round;
remainders, will be the answer required. might and day in close succession rise,
Obs.--It is manifest that the correctness of an operation perch is regulated by the skies.
formed in accordance with either of the foregoing rules may be Yer all, at first, Jehovah stood,
tested by reversing the operation, that is, by reducing the creative voice, pronounced it good."
result to the original denomination.
EXAMPLE 3.-Reduce 52 tons 3 cwt. 1 qr. 25 lbs. to pounds. 55. 5623180 seconds to days, etc. 83. How many acres in a field
56. A solar year to seconds. 50 rods long by 45 wide ? 52 tons
57. 30 Julian years to seconds. 1 84. How many sq. yds. in a ceil.
58. The time from 9 o'clock ing 35 feet long by 28 wide ?
a.m. Jan. 2, to 11 p.m. March 1, 85. How many acres in a field 1000 + 3 = 1043 cwt.
1868, to seconds.
420 rods long and 170 wide ? 59. 110 days 20 minutes to se. 86. Find the area of a field 80 conds.
rods square. 4172 + 1 = 4173 qrs.
60, 271 degrees to seconds.
87. How many yards of carpet28
61. 7654314 seconds to degrees, ing, yard wide, will cover a room etc.
18 feet square ? 33384
62. 1,000,000,000 minutes to right 88. How many yards of painting 8346
angles, degrees, etc.
will cover the four walls of a room
63. 1728 sq. rods 23 sq. yds. 5 18 feet long, 15 feet wide, and 9 116844 + 25 = 116869 pounds.
sq. ft. to square feet.
feet bigh? Proof of Correctness.
64. 100 acres 37 sq. rods to 89. Find the area of a pitched 28 ) 116869 ( 4173 qrs.
square feet and to square inches. roof whose rafters are 20 feet and
65. 832590 sq. rods to square 112
ridge-pole 25 feet long. inches.
90. How many cubic feet in a 66, 25363896 sq. feet to acres, box 5 feet long, 4 wide, and 3 deep? etc.
91. How many cubic inches in a
67. 150 cubic feet to cubic inches. | block 65 inches long, 42 wide, and 206
68. 97 cubic yards 15 cubic feet 36 thick ? 196
to cubic inches.
92. In 10752 cubic feet how
69. 49 cubic yds. 23 cubic ft. to many imperial bushels ? 109
93. In 1155 cubic feet 33 inches 70. 84673 cubic inches to cubic how many imperial gallons ? feet.
94. How many bushels in a bin 25 pounds.
71, 39216 cubic feet to cubic 5 feet long, 5 wide, and 4 deep ? yards,
95. How many cubic feet in a 4) 4173
72, 65 loads of rough timber to 100 bushel bin ? cubic inches.
96. How many yards of carpet20 ) 1013...1 qr.
73. 4562100 cubic inches to tons ing yard wide will cover a room of hewn timber
25 feet long and 18 feet wide ? 52 tons 3 cwt. 1 qr. 25 lbs.
74. 700 lbs. of silver to pounds, 97. How many cubic inches in a etc., avoirdupois.
mass of earth 40 yards long, 5 Hence the process has been correctly performed.
75. 840 lbs. 6 oz. 10 dwts. to yards wide, and 3 yards deep ? EXERCISE 42.
pounds, etc., avoirdupois,
98. Reduce 93756 cubic yards to
76. 1000 lbs. Troy to pounds, inches. 1. Work the following examples in Reduction, bringing each
99. How many pieces of paper quantity, whether simple or compound, to the denomination or 77. 1500 lbs. Troy to pounds, 12 yards long, and 2 feet 3 inches denominations required.
wide, will it take to cover a room 1. £7 109. 6d. to pence.
28. 45 leagues to feet and inches. | 78. 48 lbs, avoirdupois to pounds, 20 feet long, 16 feet wide, and 13 2. £71 13s. 6 d. to farthings. I 29. 3,000 miles to perches and etc., Troy.
feet high, allowing for 3 doorways, 3. £90 73. 8d. to farthings. to yards.
79. 100 lbs. 10 oz. avoirdupois to each measuring 8 feet by 3 feet 9 4. £295 189. 3 d. to farthings. 30. 290375 feet to furlongs and pounds, etc., Troy.
inches ? 5. 95 guineas 17s, 9 d. to farth miles.
80. 5656 carats to pounds, etc., 100. The moon is about 240,000 ings.
31. 1875343 inches to miles, and
miles from the earth: if it were 6. 24651 farthings to pounds, also to leagues.
81. How many sq. yds. in a room possible to go there in a balloon, shillings, etc. 32. 15 m. 5 fur. 31 r. to rods | 4 yards long and 3 wide ?
how many days would it take to 7. 415739 farthings to pounds, and to yards.
82. How many sq. ft. in a floor | | accomplish the journey, moving at shillings, etc.
33. 1081080 inches to yards, fur- 20 feet long by 18 feet wide ? I the rate of 12 miles per hour ? 8. 67256 farthings toguineas, etc. longs, and miles.
9. £36 4s. to sixpences and to 31. The earth's circumference groats. (25,000 miles) to feet.
LESSONS IN DRAWING.—XIV. 10, £75 12s. 6d. to threepences. 35. 160 yards to nails and quar11. 29 lbs. 7 oz. 3 dwts. to grains. ters.
WINTER, as we have said before, is the best time for studying 12. 37 lbs. 6 oz. to pennyweights. 36. 1,000 English ells to quarters | the ramifications of trees; close observation at that period of 13. 175 lbs. 4 oz, 5 dwts. 7 grs. and yards.
the year is very necessary, and much profitable information may to grains,
37. 1023 15 nails to yards, etc. | be gained. A country walk, if only to the extent of a mile, will 14. 12256 grs. to pennyweights, 38. 223267 nails to French ells. I afford abundant material for observation; the mind may then be ounces, etc.
39, 634 yds. 3 qrs. to nails and
exercised in comparing one tree with another, for by comparison 15. 42672 dwts. to ounces and to inches. pounds,
only will their characteristic differences be made apparent, and 40. 12256 pints to barrels of 30 16. 15 cwt. 3qrs. 21 lbs.to pounds. gallons.
facts will be revealed which the mind can store up for future use. 17. 17 tons 12 cwt. 2 qrs. to 41. 475262 quarterns to gallons.
To employ the pencil only in noting down the forms and growth ounces.
42, 50 tuns of 250 gallons each
of trees would be of little service, unless the mind is doing more 18. 52 tons 3 cwt, 1 qr. 25 lbs. to pints,
than the pencil can perform. There are innumerable peculiarities to pounds.
43. 45 pipes of 120 gallons each and points of difference which distinguish trees, and enable us to 19. 140 tons 17 cwt. 3 qrs, 27 lbs. to pints.
recognise them independently of their foliage, and close observato drams. | 44. 25264 pints to barrels of 30
tion will make that easy which at first sight might seem to be 20. 16256 oz. to hundredweights, gallons each,
difficult; for although we advise the pupil to make good use of etc.
45. 136256 quarts to hogsheads 21. 267235 lbg, to stones, quar- of 63 gallons each.
his pencil whenover he is engaged in studying trees divested of ters, hundredweights, etc.
46. 45 hogsheads 10 gallons to their leaves, yet we must at the same time remind him that it 22.563728 drams to tons, pints.
will be more to his advantage to reflect without drawing than to pounds, etc.
47. 15 bushels 1 peck to quarts. draw without reflecting. 23. 55 lbs. (apothecaries' weight) 48. 763 bushels 3 pecks to quarts. From the observations we have made, it will be understood to drams.
49. 56 quarters 5 bushels to pints. that we fully intend the pupil should take Nature for his guide, 24. 130 lbs. 7 oz. to scruples 50. 45672 quarts to bushels, etc.
yet we can assist him in this part of his study by introducing and to grains,
51. 260200 pints to quarts, pecks, some examples, which he must copy as well as compare. Copying 25.6237 drams (apothecaries' etc. Freight) to pounds, etc.
will not only be a practical benefit, but also a means for esta
52. 25 days 6 hours to minutes, 36. 35163 scruples to ounces, and also to seconds.
blishing in his own mind the facts and principles we have endeapounds, etc.
53, 365 days 6 hours to seconds.
voured to make clear to him. Let him compare the outline of 27. 27 miles to yards, to feet, l 54. 847125 minutes to weeks,
the oak (Fig. 98) in the last lesson with the lime (Fig. 100). His sad to inches. I etc., and to days, etc.
| attention must also be given to the bark, which in some trees
the oak and willow, for example is hard and rough, while in the in the light, will have their own especial forms in mass to beech and birch it is smooth. The straight parts of the branches characterise them, and it is those forms in masses which we of some trees are short, from their slow growth, while others that must copy. But lest our papil should suppose from these increase more rapidly shoot forth their stems in one direction to remarks upon generalising foliage that we intend him to stop a greater extent. The smaller twigs and shoots of some, like here, and to represent nothing more than the breadth of light and the birch, are very slender, numerous, and drooping; the horse shade, we must remind him of what has been said above respectchestnut has fewer shoots, but they are thicker, and growing the details in light; we must remember also that, however upwards. Much more might be added to our consideration of broadly and definitely the light may fall upon a tree, since it is this important subject, but we think enough has been said to not a flat surface like a wall, there will be hundreds of minor point out the way, trusting our pupils will perfectly comprehend shadows and semi-tones scattered all over the extent of light, and our intention by these remarks, and be prepared to accompany there is as much individuality amongst these as in the whole us in the consideration of foliage.
mass, and their characteristics in detail are not less striking and In our last lesson we mentioned that, in drawing foliage, the significant because they are small : in short, they are reduced mode of treatment must in a very great measure be influenced repetitions of the general masses of light, and must be treated by the light and shade. We propose now to proceed with this with the same feeling if we wish to make a faithful represeninteresting part
tation. Here of our subject,
again is the and show what
point of differ is moant by the
ence between a term “massing
first-rate and an in the foliage."
inferior artist, There are some
mentioned in who think that
a former lesit is necessary to
son – namely, have for each
the ability he kind of treesome
possesses to redistinct and es
present the mi. pecial touch,clas
nor shades and sifying them as
semi-tones, both “the oak touch,"
in regard to their “the elm touch,"
number and er. “the beech
pression, and his touch," and nu
capability for merous others,
doing this will regardless of the
determine his fact that as the
rank as an artist. sun casts its
Sir Joshua Rerlight upon a tree
nolds mentions it brings out the
& landscape shape and indi
painter who was vidual character
remarkable for of its branches
his patience in so definitely that
what he consi even at a con
dered "high siderable dis
finish," and tance, when it
thought that the would be impos
greatest excel. sible to recognise
lence to be at the leaves, we
tained consisted can pronounce
in the represen. the tree to be an
tation of every oak, or elm, or
leaf on a tree. whatever else it
“This picture," may be, simply
says Sir Joshua, from the manner
“I never saw; in which, as an
but I am very artist would say,
sure that an ar“the sun lights
tist who regards it up." The Fig. 100.
only the general most important
character of the consideration in
species, the order drawing a tree is
of the branches, to devote much attention to the light, and the parts that are made and the masses of the foliage, will in a few minutes produce & out in light. There are two reasons why the lights are considered more true resemblance of trees than this painter in as many to have such special importance (this principle belongs not to months." We must dwell for a few moments upon the printrees only, but to every other object that claims the attention of ciples here inculcated, and explain by what means a painter the painter): the first is, because the details are more recognisable obtains the enviable power of making a faithful resemblance in the light than in the shade, and require particular care to with comparatively slight labour: it is because he adopts the represent them faithfully, for without the details in light there excellent practice of making separate studies of details, such as would be very little to show for our pains, as the shadows to a branches, trunks, stems, weeds, and foregrounds-in short, great extent absorb or obscure not only the colour but also the everything that may be deemed worthy of note. It is this form; the other reason is, that the eye naturally rests upon the method of copying parts of objects with close accuracy that
and all the brighter parts first-afterwards, when we make gives him the power of representing them generally and yet
and closer examination, we see the parts in shadow. faithfully, with the natural effect which they bear to one another two enter into laborious and painful detail, as in the as a whole. An eminent English landscape painter, whoso of mere leaf-painting. As we have said before, we do manner was as remarkable for its freedom of execution as it
at leaves singly, but at foliage collectively; therefore was for the truthfulness of its results, once remarked to us :inches of a tree, let its kind be what it may, which aro "The secret of my success is in having bestowed much time upon the close examination of the anatomy of trees; how their marking in. We were once asked by a pupil, “ When shall I branches spring from the trunks; the forms of their leaves, and leave off marking in ?” We replied, never; it is not desirable the manner in which they grow or cluster in masses from the that you should ever leave off the practice, because all who do stems.' When such labour and painstaking as this is the rule, mark in find that they make progress in drawing, and that it we need not wonder at a successful result.
saves time, and produces a more satisfactory result. A young Having said thus much upon the theoretical part of our mechanic whom we know, who had very much improved his subject, we will now turn to the practical. We advise our power of drawing from attending a night class at a Mechanics' pupils to make & drawing of Fig. 101, leaves of the lime tree, Institute, offered himself as a candidate for a situation as with an 1 B pencil. He must first make the arrangement of the draughtsman at a manufactory where drawing was essential. whole of the stems, and then proceed with the leaves, beginning Having obtained it, one of his employers, after a few days, when where the two stems join, arranging every leaf in succession, he had become familiar with his work, brought him three or without passing over any, to the end, then faint the arrangement, four subjects to draw for working purposes, telling him at the and draw carefully every particular : it will be much better at same time that they would, no doubt, occupy him four days at first to make an enlarged drawing, say double the size; do the least: at the same hour on the following day he returned the same also with Fig. 102. Fig. 103, the cluster of leaves, will whole finished. His master was agreeably surprised, and also require more time and attention, which must be especially I much pleased with the excellence of the work, and asked him bestowed on
how he had the lights
done it 80 and sha
well and so dows. The Fig. 102.
quickly. He pupil will ob
replied:—“I serve five or
am very parsix leaves
ticular in arupon the
ranging my dark mass in
drawing the centre of
first, and the branch;
always make and here we
marks to in will particu
dicate the larly advise
course of the him not to
outline; the begin the sha
consequence ding until the
is I have outline is
very little completed,
rubbing out adding, that
and alterathis should
tion, and that be a rule under all cir
has enabled me to finish cumstances; therefore
the drawing so quickly." after the outline has been
Therefore, in copying carefully made, he must
Fig. 100, note every tone down, that is, draw
angle, and the distances even and close lines over
between each angle, and the part in shade up to
do the same respecting the outline of the leaves,
the positions of the and further, to make the
branches as they grow tint even, he may cross
from the trunk, the directhe lines with others simi
tion and inclination of lar to the flat tint (Fig.
the branches, and their 82, Lesson XII.). He
extent, and you cannot must be careful to go
fail to make a satisfacnearly up to the edges of
tory drawing. the leaves, as they will
The illustrations that come out very forcibly Fig. 103.
accompany the present against the dark ground;
lesson are representaan u B pencil will make
tions of the stem, branthis tintsufficiently dark,
ches, blossom, and leaves as all blackness must be
of the Tilia Europea, avoided. Here again we must introduce another caution respect the European or common lime tree, which is the most valuable of ing the treatment of shadows amongst foliage-namely, never the different varieties of this useful tree. It grows most extenmake the interior shadows too dark; a moderate, clear, and yet sively in the middle and northern parts of Europe, and is very decisive tone will be enough, because there must be in all cases, common in England. Its large size, handsome appearance, and but especially with regard to trees, sufficient opportunities left profusion of sweet flowers, make it a very general favourite for marking in more forcibly any form which may be remarked throughout this country and most parts of the Continent, where in the shadows, observing that the making out details in it is extensively planted in parks and other places of public shadows cannot be carried to the extent of making out details recreation. Its wood is well adapted for carving, being white, in the lights. Trees, as we have previously said, are not flat close-grained, and smooth. The carvings at Windsor Castle, like walls, but their branches and leaves project and recede those of Trinity College, Cambridge, and those at Chatsworth, indefinitely, and consequently those leaves which come out nearer are of limewood, as, indeed, are most of the other fine specimens to the light will require a different tone to those which are in of this branch of art in England. The fibres of the bark, which shadow; the pupil's own observation must be his guide in this is tough, form the material of an extensive manufacture of matter as to which leaves must receive the minor tones and the cordage and matting in Russia and Sweden. Many specimens depth of tint to be laid upon them. In Fig. 103 the light falls of this tree exist which are remarkable for their great age and upon the right side, where less shading is required, but the whole size. At Neustadt, in Würtemberg, there is a prodigious lime of the leaves to the left, away from the light, must be toned tree, which adds its name to that of the town, this being called down, though not to the extent of the deep shadow in the middle Neustadt an der Linden (Neustadt at the lime tree). The age and interior of the branch. Fig. 100 we recommend should be of this enormous tree is said, probably with some exaggeration, copied double the size, and according to our old principle of to be one thousand years.
LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XXVII.
EXERCISE 92. SECTION XLVIII.- UNIPERSONAL VERBS (continued).
1. How much is my honse worth? 2. It is worth about
twenty thousand francs. 3. Is that horse worth as much as 1. The verb seoir [3, ir., Sect. XLVI. 3] is also used uniper.
this one? 4. This horse is worth two hundred dollars, and sonally.
that one three hundred. 5. Is it worth the while to write to Il ne vous sied pas de parler ainsi, It does not become you to speak thus. your brother? 6. It is not worth the while. 7. Is it worth
2. The verb convenir [2, ir., see $ 62), to suit, is at times the while to go out when one does not wish to walk ? 8. It used unipersonally. It then signifies to be suitable, advisable, etc.
is not (n'en) worth the while. 9. Does it suit you to write to Il convient de lui écrire, It is advisable to write to him.
my brother to-morrow! 10. It does not suit me to write to
him. 11. Does it become you to reproach me with my neglect ? 3. The irregular verb valoir (see table, $ 62] corresponds in
12. It becomes me to blame you when you deserve it. 13. signification to the English expression to be worth.
What is that man worth ? 14. I cannot tell you exactly, about Cette maison vaut cinq mille That house is worth five thousand fifty thousand francs. 15. Is that cloth good ? 16. No, Sir, it francs,
is good for nothing. 17. Is your gun worth as much as mine? 4. Ne rien valoir means to be good for nothing ; ne pas valoir | 18. Yes, Sir, it is worth more. 19. Will yon go to my father's ? grand'chose, to be worth little, not to be good for much.
20. No, Sir, I have something else to do. 21. Is it better to go Ce drap ne vaut rien,
That cloth is good for nothing. to market early than late? 22. It is better to go early. 23. How Notre maison ne vaut pas grand'. Our house is not good for much, much may your horse be worth? 24. It is not worth much, it is chose,
very old. 25. Is your watch better than mine? 26. It is not 5. Être riche de ... means to be worth, to possess ; when a worth
when a worth much, it does not go. 27. Is that book worth two francs? person is the nominative of the verb. valoir is never used in 28. It is worth one, at most. 29. Have you asked your sister this sense.
what that book is worth ? 30. I have not. [Sect. XXIV. 1, 2; Cette personne est riche de cinq That person is worth five thousand
XLV. 4.] 31. What must I do? 32. You must speak to your dollars.
father. 33. Must he have money? mille piastres,
34. He must have some.
35. Has he not sold his horse ? 36. He has sold it, but it was 6. Valoir mieux, conjugated unipersonally, ineans to be better;
not worth much. valoir la peine, to be worth the while.
SECTION XLIX.--REGIMEN RELATING TO SOME VERBS. Il vaut mieux travailler que d'être It is better to labour than to be idle.
1. When the verbs prendre 54, ir., see $ 62), to take ; voler, oisif, Il ne vaut pas la peine de parler It is not worth the while to speak to rob, to steal; acheter, to buy ; demander, to ask for; paper, quand on n'a rien à dire,
when one has nothing to say.
to pay, are followed by one regimen only, or by several regimens
in the same relation, these regimens, if nouns, must not be RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
separated from the verb by a preposition; if pronouns, they Il ne vous sied pas de nous faire It does not become you to reproach us.
take the form of the direct regimen, le, la, les.
Have you taken the book ?
Avez-vous payé le libraire ?
Have you paid the bookseller? Il ne nous convient pas d'y aller. It does not suit us to go there.
Avez-vous demandé votre argent? Have you asked for your money! Combien votre jardin vaut-il? How much is your garden worth?
L'avez-vous demandé ?
Have you asked for him? Il vaut beaucoup plus que le vôtre. It is much more valuable than yours.
2. When the verbs above mentioned are accompanied by Il ne vaut pas autant que le mien. It is not worth so much as mine. several regimens holding different relations, the regimen re. Notre maison ne vaut rien.
Our house is good for nothing. presenting the thing or object will be direct, and come under Votre habit ne vaut pas grand'. Your coat is not good for much. the above rule, and that representing the person will, if a nonn, chose,
be preceded by the preposition d, and, if a pronoun, assume the Cela ne vaut pas la peine. That is not worth the while.
form of the indirect regimen-lui, to him, to her ; leur, to them. Ce château peut valoir cent mille This villa may be worth one hundred francs. thousand francs.
J'ai pris le livre à mon frère, I have taken the book from my De combien votre oncle est-il riche? How much is your uncle worth?
brother. Il est riche de deux cent mille He is worth two hundred thousand | J'ai payé le livre au librnire, I have paid the bookseller for the francs. francs.
book. Ne vaut-il pas mieux lire que jouer? Is it not better to road than to play ? Je le lui ai payé, etc.,
I have paid him for it.
3. Demander is used also in the sense of to inquire for, to VOCABULARY.
ask for. Assur-er, 1, to assure. | Chaîne, f., chain, Pouvoir, 3, ir., to be J'ai demandé ce monsieur,
I asked for that gentleman, Au juste, precisely. Couteau, m., knife. able. Autre chose, something Marché, m., market. Reproch-er, 1, to re
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES else. Mérit-er, 1, to deserve, proach.
Vous a-t-on volo vos livres ? Has any one stolen your books from Blám-er, 1, to blame. merit. Tout au plus, at most.
you? Cass-er, 1, to break. Montre, f., watch. Va from aller, to go.
On me les a volés (Sect. XXXIV.1,2.] They have been stolen from me. Centaine, f., about a Négligence, f., neglect. Vingtaine, f., about
A-t-on payé les souliers au cordon Has tho shoemaker been paid for the hundred. I Négociant, merchant. troenty.
shoes? EXERCISE 91.
On ne les lui a pas encore payés. He has not been paid for then. 1. Vous sied-il de nous reprocher notre négligence ? 2. Il
Qu'a-t-on pris à votre père ? What has been taken from your father? me sied de vous faire des reproches quand vous le méritez. 3.
On lui a pris son argent.
His money has been taken from him. Ne vous a-t-on rien payé ?
Has nothing been paid you? Vous convient-il d'aller trouver mon frère ? 4. Il ne me con
On m'a payé presque tout.
I have been paid almost all. vient pas d'aller le trouver, j'ai autre chose à faire. 5. Com- | J'ai acheté des livres au libraire. I bought books from the bookseller. bien ce champ peut-il valoir ? 6. Il peut valoir une vingtaine Qui avez-vous demandé ?
Whom have you asked for! [$ 27 (2)] de mille franos. 7. Valez-vous mieux que votre J'ai demandé mon frère ainé. I inquired for my eldest brother. frère ? 8. Mon frère vant beaucoup mieux que moi. 9. Ce Avez-vous demandé de l'argent à Have you asked your friend fift couteau ne vaut-il pas plus que le vôtre ? 10. Le mien est votre ami ?
money ? meilleur, il vaut davantage. 11. Combien votre montre vaut
to | Je ne lui en ai pas demandé. I have not asked him for any. elle? 12. Elle ne vant pas grand chose, elle ne va pas bien.
VOCABULARY. 13. De combien le négociant est-il riche? 14. Je ne puis vous Chapelier, m., hatter. | Loyer, m., rent.
Renseignements, m.pl le dire au juste, il est riche d'une centaine de mille francs.
1e centaine de mille francs. | Crayon, in., pencil. Pantoufle, f., slipper. information. 15. Ne vaut-il pas mieux rester ici que d'aller au marché ? 16. Demeur-er, 1, to dwell. ' Paysan, m., peasant. Revenu, m., incime. Il vaut mieux aller au marché. 17. Votre chaîne d'or vaut Fenêtre, f., window. Propriétaire, m., land- Tout, -e, all. elle plus que la mienne ? 18. Elle vaut tout autant. 19. Elle ne Frapp-er, 1, to knock. lord. vaut pas grand chose, elle est cassée. 20. Cela vaut-il cinquante Légume, m., vegetable. ! Rend-re, 4, to return. francs ? 21. Cela vaut tout au plus deux francs. 22. Avez-vous
EXERCISE 93. demandé au marchand ce que cela vaut? 23. Je ne le lui pas 1. Que vous a-t-on pris? 2. On m'a pris mes livres, mes demandé. 24. Il m'assure que cela vaut une centaine de francs. crayons et mon canif. 3. Savez-vous qui vous les a pris ??
Voyageur, m., trareller.