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B.WTIKOS, serviceable Tpapelov, a writing papua, a written

THE METALS. to life. tool. letter.


COYBINISO IPAPA, I engrave, I papevs, a writer. I pauuarela, the art


NAXES. SYMBOLS, WEIGHT. write. T'paoikos, pertaining of writing.

Aluminium Al. 274. Molybdenum Mo. 96. Ipaon, a writing. I to writing.



58-7. (Stibium)

122. Niobium

94. In the word aan divodoya, truth-speaking, there are two com.



Os, 199.2. pounds, namely, αληθινος from αληθης, and λογος : λογος means



Pa. 106'6. speech, a word. Aandivoloyla is then a compound word, resem Bismuth


Pt. 1975. bling in form as well as import this term which we coin for the Cadmium

112. Potassium purpose of illustration, namely, truth-speaking. Take another



39-1. instance from our own language. Aristocracy is made up of Calcium



1044, aplotos, best, and kpateia, power or government, and so signifies,



Rb. 85'4. Chromium

52 5. Ruthenium not best government, but the government of the best

Ru. 104:4

Cobalt You cannot obtain all the information contained in the Ety.

58.7. Silver (ArgonCopper


108. mological Vocabulary, until you know the second word which


63.5. Sodium enters into combination with each separate root. I shall there



trum) fore supply these second terms, together with their significations.





Gold (Aurum)


204 Kpatos, strength. Texrn, art.



115-7. Aoyos, speech. ølopa, destruction.

198. Tin (Stannum)


118, Maytis, a diviner, a foreteller. ww, I bring into existence. Iron (Ferrum)


50. llovos, labour.


Tungsten (WOL Obs.-Note that the pronoun is implied in the verb, and con.

Lend (Plum


Uranium sequently you do not need a separate pronoun in translating.

Lithium .

Thus ypadw is I write; involving the pronoun I, as well as the

Magnesium Mg.

Yttrium verb write. So ypaper is he writes, and ypapouer is we write.

Manganese Mn,
Mercury (Hy.



dragium) Hg. 200. LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-II.

The numbers in the third column are the combining weights, or, ELEMENTARY SUBSTANCES — METALLOIDS — METALS-SALT as they are sometimes called, the equivalent numbers, or atomic

ACID-ALKALI-BASE-CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. weights. A chemical compound is made up of molecules. Each SEEING that "atoms” are indivisible, and that cohesion binds molecule, as we have seen, is composed of atoms, and each atom them into masses, whilst affinity joins different atoms to form is indivisible; therefore, whatever proportion the atoms bear to new substances, it naturally follows that all bodies are either each other in the molecule—whether in number, or weight, or simple or compound. Simple or elementary substances cannot volume—they will have that same proportion in the mass. be split up into others which essentially differ from the original For instance, if we analyse 18 grains of water, we shall find body, whilst compound substances can.

that 16 grains are oxygen and 2 grains are hydrogen, but the In the example of chemical combinations given in the last molecule of water is composed of 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 of lesson, the gulphur and copper were simple substances or oxygen ; therefore we conclude that one atom of oxygen weighs "elements," and the sulphide of copper, which was formed on 16 times the atom of hydrogen, and in the 2 grains of hydrogen the application of heat, was a “compound” body. No efforts there will be double the number of atoms as in the 16 grains of of the chemist have proved sufficient to split up sulphur or oxygen, because such is the case in the molecule. copper. They defy all power to alter or change them ; but, by! Because hydrogen is the lightest of all known bodies, its atom using certain means, the sulphide of copper can be made to is taken as the standard, and by careful analyses the compararesolve itself once more into its components-copper and sulphur. tive weights of all other atoms have been determined. The The constitution of a body may be determined by two means : French take the equivalent of oxygen-100-as their standard. either by analysis, which is separating a body into its compo ! It is to be remembered, then, that the equivalent number of nents or elements, or by synthesis, which is the putting together any element signifies the relation in weight which the atom of of the components to form the body.

that element bears to an atom of hydrogen ; and since chemical By analysing the substances of which our earth is composed, compounds are formed by the union of atoms, the atomic weight sixty-three elements have been discovered ; and in after years, will also represent the weight in which the element will ente when we possess more powerful means of analysis, we may find into combination. Sometimes one, two, or many atoms enter that some of these “ elements” are capable of further division. into the compound, so that whatever may be the quantity of the The elements are usually divided into forty-nine metals and element, it must always be a multiple of the atomic weight; fourteen non-metallic substances or metalloids. The distinction hence the name combining weight. And it very frequently between these two classes is not very satisfactory. The metals happens that one element in a compound is replaced by another, are opaque, they possess metallic lustre, and are good conduc one atom taking the place of another, the weight of one atom tors of heat and electricity. The metalloids either want these being equivalent to the weight of the other; hence the name properties or possess them only in a very low degree. This equivalent number. The student will soon become familiar with division is not very accurate, for iodine and carbon, though these laws of combination. In writing compounds, the symbols metalloids, both have metallic lustre; and the latter, in the of the elements are placed side by side, and the number of atoms, form of plumbago or graphite, is a good conductor of electricity. if more than one, written beneath.

For the sake of convenience and shortness in writing, symbols CuO = copper and oxygen combined, to form the oxide of copper. are used for the elements. These consist of the first-or the 1,0= water ; 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 of 0. first and most characteristic-letter of the Latin name of the 2NH, = 2 atoms of ammonia; that is, 2 atoms of N and 6 of H. body. In the following table, the metals printed in italics are

A salt is a compound of an acid and a base. of rare occurrence :

An acid is a body possessing a sour taste, and will redden THE METALLOIDS.

litmus paper and vegetable blues. Formerly it was supposed to COMBINING

COMBINING owe its properties to the presence of oxygen, but it has been XAMES. SYMBOLS. WEIGHT,


found that an acid can exist without that gas, but hydrogen Oxygen Fluorine

must always be present. Hence, an acid is now defined to be Hydrogen

Sulphur Nitrogen 14. Selenium

a salt of hydrogen.

Se. 795.
Tellurium Te. 129.

An alkali neutralises an acid, and returns the blue colour to Chlor 35 5. Phosphorus

the reddened litmus. Potash, soda, and ammonia are the chief


28. | A base is a body which combines with an acid to form a salt.

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The alkalies are the strongest bases. A base is generally the pence column, and adding the 2 shillings to the row of shiloxide of a metal.

lings, we get 40 shillings-i.e., 2 pounds exactly. Writing Acids which end in ic make salts which end in ate. Sulphuric down a cipher under the shillings' column, to show that there acid (H,SO.) makes sulphates. Nitric acid (HNO3) makes are no shillings over, and adding the 2 pounds to the pounds' nitrates. Those which end in ous make salts ending in ite. column, we get 23 pounds, which we write down under the Salphorous acid (H, SO2) makes sulphites. Nitrous acid (HNO.) pounds' column. forms nitrites. And it will be observed that the acids in ous 4. Rule for Compound Addition. have an atom loss oxygen than those in ic.

Write the quantities so that those of the same denomination Salts may be formed by the replacement of the hydrogen in stand under each other. Beginning with the lowest denominathe acids by an atom of metal; so that chemical nomenclature, tion, find the sum of each column separately, and divide it by generally mastered with such difficulty, may be learnt at once. that number which is required to make one of the next highest Some metals are capable of replacing 1 atom of hydrogen, some denomination. Set the remainder under the column added, and 2, some 3, and others 4. They are said to be respectively, carry the quotient to the next column. monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, and tetratomic, and the most Obs.- In the example given above we expressed the farthings important may be arranged thus :

in a separate column for clearness, and not as fractions of a YOXATOMIC, TRIATOXIC.

penny, but it is not usual to do so.






1. Add together the following examples in Compound Ammonium

Addition :

1. £3 178. 04d., £12 5s. 10d., £2 Os. 57d. All the rest are diatomio.

2. 84 198. 11 d., £15 148. 31d., £21 178. 28., £57 135. 9d., 168. 04d., If we take for the type of the oxides, water H,O (the oxide

£1 2s. 3 d. of hydrogen), then 6,0 is the oxide of potassium or potash. To

3. £22 38. 5 d., £13 28. 0fd., £33 14s. 9 d., £23 19s. 103d.

4. £987 178. 10:d., £896 168. 11 d., £774 128. 109d., 2916 18s. 9;., get the oxide of gold, the H must be in a multiple of 3; there

£768 15s, 6 d. fore take 3 atoms of H,0: 37,0 = H,0g. Now gold is trias

5. £4736 16s. 111d., £9804 118. 103d., £3896 12s. 6;d., £7925 178. 1110, tomic, 1 atom being capable of replacing 3 of H, hence the 48730 128. 1094., 24913 159. 74d., £7835 168. 9;d., £9768 178. 109d. oxide of gold = Au,0,. Tin is tetratomic; we must therefore have the H in 4 atoms, or a multiple of 4 : 2 H,0 = H,O, 1 atom Sn roplaces H., hence Sno, is the oxide of tin.

tons. cwt. lbs. O

mon. wkB d. hrs. min, The mode of constructing this table will be easily understood,

3 5 17 13

4 13 29 7 85

3 6 15 2 and the student should accustom himself to write the formulas

1 15 63 7

0 5 3 59 of all the salts of the metals, the simple rule being, take the acid

2 2 2 2 37 of the required salt, and for its hydrogen substitute the equivalent number of atoms of the metal. The types which are placed at the head of the columns are the compounds of hydrogen, in

tons. cwt. lbs. oz.

15. some cases acids :

15 6 45 5

drams. scruples. grains. 17 80 6

17 Sulphates Orides



26 0 31 7




uric nitridsida (hydrochlo-



hydrogen). K,0 potash. Na,so. KNO, Ag Cl. K CIO,

Ibs, oz. dwts. grs. Cu o.

ZA 2 NO.

Fe 2 CIO

21 7 12 10 As, O.

Au 3 NO.
An Cla.

5 8 7
So 280. Al ANO, PtCl

cubic yds. 0 6 15


1623 6 0


1727 Docasionally other terms are used, but their meaning is at

0 0 7


54 once obvious. Binoxide means an oxide in which are 2 atoms of

1111 oxygen : Snog. In a sesquioxide, the oxygen is in the proportion of 14 (sesqui), Fe,0, (sesquioxide of iron). Terchloride, where there are 3 atoms of chlorine, AuCly, the terchloride of leagu fur, rods. yo

yds. ft.

4 0 The mode of naming any of the above given examples is to 18

3 0

sq.m. acres. r. p.

85 06 10 4 name the metal and then the salt.

2 1

36 3 19 27

3 Cu 80, - copper sulphate. Ag 8 = silver sulphide.

212 21 Au SNO. = gold nitrate. I KCIO, = potassium chlorate. It must be remembered that all these compounds do not always

acres. occur in nature, but if they did their formula would be found

100 according to this rule.

115 2 2

Fr. e. 160 1 15


COMPOUND ADDITION. 3. THE process of adding together two or more compound sq. yds. ft. in.

gals. qts. quantities of the same kind is called Compound Addition. The 15 5 7 method scarcely requires any explanation, and will be under

7 30

cong. 0 f3f3 mm 6 25

5 15 7 stood at once from an example.

42 ... d. far. EXAMPLE.-Add together

5 63

5 2 11 3 13 £6 11s. 5 d., 6 11 5 1

3 enge sid.

7 9 2 1

11 £4 98. 6 d., £3 128. 8 d., and £8 68. 94d. 3 12 8

Placing the farthings under the farthings, 3

13. 8 ë ; i the pence under the pence, etc., we add the

wks. d. hrs. min. farthings, which amount to 7-i.l., to 1 penny

20. 10 5 12 40

loads, qrs. bush. pks. gal 23 0 5 3 and three farthings. Writing down the 3

3 9 15

2 4 7 farthings under the farthings column, and

40 4 17 30

3 adding in the 1 penny to the row of pence, we get 29 pence

42 1 0 0

15 2 5 0 i..., 2 shillings and 5 pence. Writing the 5 pence under the .


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KEY TO EXERCISE 42, LESSON XXIV. (Vol. II., page 7). climb; bravado, a boast, from the Spanish bravata, or the French 1. 1806.

33. 17 m. O fur. 20 / 65. 32640858360 sq. / bravade, a boastful threat. 2. 68810. rods, or 17 m. inches.

“What can be more strange than that we should, within two months, 3. 86768.

Ofur, 110 yds. | 66. 582 acr. 1 rood 3 have won one town of importance by scalade, battered another, and 4. 284079.

or 30030 yards. p. 29 yds. 8 ft. overthrown great forces in the field ?"-- Bacon. 5. 96615.

34. 132000000 feet. 67, 259200 cub. in. 6. £25 13s, 6 d. 35. 2560 ns. or 640 qs. 68. 4551552 cub. in.

Age, from the Latin termination ago, as in imago (an image), 7. £433 ls. 2 d. 36. 5000 qrs, or 1250 69. 2325888 cub. in.

through the Spanish azgo, and the French age (as in avantage, 8. 66 gas. 158. 2d.


70. 49 cubic ft. 1 in. an advantage): it denotes a state of being. 9. 1448 sixpences, 37. 6396 yds. 2 qrs. 71. 1452 cub.yds. 12ft.

"That to the utmost of our ability, we ought to repair any damaga 2172 grts,

1 nail.

72. 4492800 cub. in. 10. 6050.

we have done to others is self-evident."Beattie, “Moral Science." 38. 9302 French ells, 73. 52 tons 40 cub. ft. 11. 170472.

4 qrs, 3 nls.

180 cubic inches. The term average is from the low Latin averagium (from the 12. 9000.

39. 10156 nails, or 74. 576 lbs, avoirds. Latin verb habeo, I have), which denoted a duty or service paid 13. 1010047.

22851 in.

75. 691 lbs. 10,77 oz. primarily in labour by the tenant to the lord, by means of his 14. 2 lbs.1 oz. 10 dwts. 40. 51 brls. 2 gals.

avoirdupois. beasts, and carriages, and implements of husbandry, and thus 16 grs.

41. 14851 gals. 3 qts. 76. 822 lbs, 13 oz. av. 15. 177 lb. 9 oz.

| becoming in a secondary sense a sort of tax on morable pro1 pt. 2 qtns. 77. 1234 lbs. 47 oz. av. 12 dwts. 42. 100000 pints.

perty. From average, and the custom it denotes, come avercorne

78. 58 lbs. 4 oz, troy. 16. 1785. 43. 43200 pints. 79. 122 lbs. 388 oz.

and averpenny in old legal documents. 17. 631680. 44. 105 brls. 8 gals.


" Whether the small town of Birmingham alone doth not upon an 18. 116869.

45. 540 hghds.44 gals. 80. 2 lbs. 81}} oz. av. | average circulate every week, one way or other, to the value of £50,000." 19. 80797440.

46. 22760 pints. 81. 12 square yards. -Berkeley, “Querist.” 20. 9 ewt. 0 qrs. 8 lbs. 47. 488 quarts.

82. 360 square feet.

Al, from the Latin al, as in animal, an animal, and animalis, 21. 119 tons 6 cwt. 48. 24440 quarts. 83. 16 acres 0 roods

belonging to an animal. Al in Latin indicates personality ; thus, 3 lbs. 49. 28992 pints.

10 rods, 22. 19 cwt. 2 qrs, 50, 1427 bush. 1 pk. 84. 108 sq. yds. 8 sq.

anima is life, and animal one who possesses life. Al, from alis, 18 lbs. 1 oz. 51. 508 qrs. 1 bush.


signifies belonging to. 23. 9120.

2 pks, 1 gal. 85. 446 acres 1 rood, "Mr. Monkhouse happening one day to pull a flower from a tree 24, 37608 scruples, 52. 36360 m, 2181600 s. 86. 40 acres.

which grew in one of their sepulchral inclosures, an Indian, whose 752160 grains. 53. 31557600 sec. 87. 36 square yards. jealousy had probably been upon the watch, came suddenly behind him 25. 64 lbs. 11 oz. 54. 84 wks. 6 hrs. 45 88. 66 square yards.

and struck hím."--Cook, "First Voyage." 5 dwts.

min., or 588 days 89. 111} square yds. 26, 88 lbs. 4 oz. 6 hrs. 45 min. 90. 60 cubic feet.

An, a suffix from the Latin adjective form anus : as humanus, 7 drms. 3 scps. 55. 65 days 2 hrs. 4 91. 561 cubic feet.

human, pertaining to a man; from humanus comes also human27. 47520 yds. 142560 min. 40 sec. 92. 8375/3133 imp. kind, like a man, in which you see an in another form. From ft. 1710720 in. 56. 31556928 sec.


the termination of these Latin adjectives in the neuter plural 28. 712800 ft. 8553600 | 57. 946128000 sec. 93. 71981. imp. ana is derived, the once favourite ana; as in Johnsoniano, the inches. 58. 5148000 sec,


things of Johnson, that is, his lighter sayings and doings, what 29. 960000 perches, | 59. 9505200 sec. 94. 77135:5} imp. bus.

is sometimes called table-talk, from the German tisch-reden. 5280000 yards. 60. 99000".

95. 128,066 cub. feet. 30. 54 m. 7 fur. 211 61. 2126° 11'54".

Ance or ancy, a substantive suffix from the Latin antio, as in

96. 663 yards. yds. 2 ft. 62. 185185 right an- 97. 27993600 cub, in.

constantia, constancy; it denotes a condition; in constancy, 31. 29 m. 4 fur. 172 gles 16° 40'. 98. 4374279936 cubic

the condition of being constant or firm. Ance sometimes passes yds. 2 ft. 7 in. 63. 470660 sq. ft.


into ence, as in condolence, the state of grieving (Latin, doleo, 32. 5031 rods 276704 64. 628714548 sq. in., | 99. 104 pieces, I grieve) with (con) another. yards, or 43660734 sq.ft. / 100. 800 days.

" She had so steadfast countenance,

So noble porte and maintenance."-Chaucer.

Ant and ent are connected with the Latin participles in ons LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—XIV.

and ens, as amans, loving; docens, teaching, etc. Adjectives SUFFIXES.

ending in ant sometimes come to us through the French, as in WORDs are affected in their import not only by particles set | dormant, sleeping; the present participle of the Latin verb before them, but also by particles set after them. In presumable,

dormio, I sleep, being dormiens, and of the French verb dormir, you have a word, the meaning of which is affected by both a

dormant. foregoing and an after-coming particle. It may be divided

"Logicians distinguish two kinds of operations of the mind; the thus :

first kind produces no effect without the mind; the last does. The

first they call immanent acts, the second transitive."

Ar from the Latin substantive ending in ar, as calcar, a spur;

and the Latin adjective ending in aris, as regulāris (Latin, The root of the word is the Latin gumo, I take. By the addition regula, a rule), according to rule, regular. The ar having once of pre, sum becomes presume, I take before; that is, before become a recognised termination in English, was added to words positive proof. If you add able, then you form presumable,

of Latin origin, as similar (similis, like, from the Latin simia, which signifies what may be presumed.

an ape; the likeness of the ape to man being such as to canze Having treated of prefixes, I pass on to suffixes, and shall the same word to be applied to both ape and likeness ; so we give a list of the principal.

use to ape, that is, to imitate).

"You have heard how first they began of laymen onely, leading 3 LIST OF ENGLISH SUFFIXES.

straiter life from the society of other persons, who, then following the Able, from the Gothic abal, strength, found in the Latin habilis, rule of S. Bennet (Benedict), were called regulars and votaries." -Fos. fit for, and in the Latin termination bilis ; as, amabilis, lovable. It is found also in our word ability.

Archy, a Greek termination, signifying chief, government, has

In the sense of power or capacity, it occurs in many English words; as, reasonable,

been spoken of under the prefixes.

Ard connected with the German art, kind, manner), a subdurable, etc. Sometimes it passes into the form ible; as comprehensible, visible, etc. When preceded by v, the aor i

stantive termination, signifies a permanent state; as, sluggard, blends with the v into u, as in soluble.

one who is in the habit of being sluggish; drunkard, one whose

habitual state is intoxication: a good man may be once drunk, “ Where all life dies, death lives, and nature breeds,

but a good man cannot be a drunkard. The dull, in dullard, is Perverse, all monstrous, all prodigious things, Abominable, inutterable."

allied to the Dutch dol, mad, or dolen, to wander or rave, or to Milton, “ Paradise Lost.”

the German toll, mad. te (ado), coming into the English through the French, the and the Spanish, gives us such words as brocade, em

“But would I bee a poet if I might, silk; comrade, from the French camarade, or the

To rub my browes three days and wake three nights,

And bite my nails and scratch my dullard head,
merata, through the Latin camera, a chamber ; scalade,

And curse the backward muses on my bed
Latin scala, a ladder, or from the Spanish escalar, to

About one peevish syllable."

Bishop Hall.

Ary, from Latin adjective termination arius, as found in shove; stopple, from to stop; needle, from the Dutch naad, a seam; auxiliarius, (Latin, auxilium, aid), auxiliary, tributary. This in Anglo-Saxon, nædel; German, nadel, doubtless allied to the same arius gave rise to our termination in arious, as in gregarious Anglo-Saxon nægel, the German nagel, and the English nail. (Latin, grex, a flock), flocking together.

Damsel, a young woman, is an abridged form of the French demoiFrom Latin words ending in arius, we have statuary (ars sta- selle, which of old denoted a daughter of noble parents : the trantraria); lapidary (Latin, lapis, a stone), a (precious) stone-cutter; sition of demoiselle into damsel may be seen in the rendering of aviary, a place for keeping birds (Latin, avis, a bird).

the word by English versions of different ages; as Wicliff (1380), Aster, as in poetaster, which comes immediately from the a damysel; Tyndale (1534), a damsell; Cranmer (1539), a French poétastre, a bad poet, is found in the Italian astro, a ter- damsell; the Authorised (1611), a damosell. The Greek word, mination denoting contempt. The aster in disaster, a calamity, which properly denotes a female servant, is translated by the has nothing to do with the suffix. Disaster seems to be from Geneva version (1557), a mayde (maid); and by the Rheims dis and the Greek art pov (as'-tron), or Latin astrum, a star, and version (1582), one vvenche (wench). (Matt. xxvi. 69.) so signifies an ill-starred condition.

En, a suffix, by which nouns are converted into adjectives, Ate is a verbal (derived from a verb) termination, the origin and adjectives into verbs; as brass, brazen; white, to whiten. of which is found in the Latin passive participle, as congregatus; In the same way, we have long, length, lengthen; dark, darken; hence the verb to congregate.

soft, soften; leather, leathern ; south, southern, and southron. “The infuriate bill shoots forth the pillared flame."

En forms also one ending of passive participles ; as weave, wove, Thomson, "Summer."

woven; shear, shorn. It is found in some nouns as their plural Ated, ted, or ed, are the terminations of the passive participle

termination; as ox, oxen. Of old, en and n formed the plural in English, equivalent to the same Latin participle ending in

of the present tense of verbs, representing the Anglo-Saxon don. atus ; thus the Latin communicatus is in English communicated.

I quote the words of Ben Jonson : In the same way we have adapted, devolved, affixed, imputed,

"The persons plurall keepe the termination of the first person etc. Participles in ed become adjectives by suppressing the d,

in the d' sir gular. In former times, till about the reigne of King Henry the *as desolated becomes desolate.

E zhth, they were wont to be formed by adding on, thus : Loven, Ce is an English representative of the Latin termination in

sagon, complainen."-"Grammar." tia, as gratia, favour, grace. Cy is sometimes used instead of

Ence, a suffix, formed from the active participle in Latin ending ce: for example, clementia, clemency; that is, mercy.

in ens; as poenitens, pænitentia, penitence; existens, existentia, In the older forms of the language words ending in cy were

existence. spelt cie. These nouns denote the abstract quality; thus prudens

End, a Saxon termination which denotes an agent; as wer. means prudent, as a prudent man; but prudentia means prudence,

ferend, a wayfarer ; friend, in Saxon freond; German, freund; in the abstract; that is, the quality is considered apart from

probably connected with the verb to free; that is, to make free; any subject.

and to free may have its source in the more general import of

the term--namely, to love, to woo; so that a friend is one who " But even that mightye lone (love) of his great clemencle,

loves, and therefore frees another. Friend and friendly, in the Hath given me grace at last to judge the truth from heresie."

older forms of the language, signified lover and loving.

Gascoigne. Ch, a Saxon termination found in church, ditch, which, etc.,

“The true faith, whereever it is, worketh and frameth the heart to and of old pronounced as a guttural, or at leas like k, as in the

friendlike dispositions unto God, and brings forth friendlike* carriage Scotch whilk, or quhilk, and the German ch or 2h, as ich (ick), I;

| in the life towards God.”—Goodwin. doch, yet; thus we have the Latin sic, and the English such; L.

| Ent (sometimes ant, as in "church militant”), an adjective the Scotch mickle, and the English much: the Scotch kirk, Ger. termination, the origin of which is found in both the Saxon and man kirche, and the English church. Ditch or dike is a thing the Latin; as, writend, writing ; absens (absentis), absent. Ad. that men produce by digging. The words run thus, dig, dike, jectives ending in ent denote a present condition--e.g., different; ditch. Another form of dike and ditch is digue.

or a quality considered concretely; that is, in relation to some

subject. “The people ran into so great despair that in Zeland they gave over

“Lord God, how frequente and famyliar a thynge with euery (every) working at their digues, suffering the sea to gain every tide upon

estate and degree throughout Christendom, is this reverent othe (oath) the country."-Sir W. Temple.

on the Gospills of Christ."-Sir T. Elyot, Cle or le, a diminutive, formed after the manner of the Latin Er (in the forms er, r, re). By comparing the Anglo-Saxon diminutive termination culus, masculine, and cula, feminine : for writere, the Latin scriptor (scribo, I write), and the English example, homunculus, a little man; a manikin ; regulus (Latin, writer, we find that the termination er, or, denotes an agent. rex, a king), a little king; matercula, a little mother. The ending So in Saxon sædere, a sower ; plegere, a player ; and in Latin, de appears in particle, a little part; pellicle (Latin, pellis, skin), amator, a lover ; doctor, a teacher. The endings ere in Saxon, or a little skin ; in muscle (musculus a little mouse), so called in in Latin, and er in English, are very common. You must, howreference to its appearance under the skin.

ever, in following analogy, use words so formed with judgment Dom, a suffix, found as a noun in the Latin and the Saxon, as and taste. Having an active signification, they are generally well as the English; as in domus, a house; dominus, master; formed from verbs, thus : to mend, a mender ; to think, a thinker ; halidom, holiness; kingdom, the jurisdiction of a king. Dom is to build, a builder. But it is not from every verb that such found also in the German thum; as reichthum, riches. Dom nouns can be properly formed. We can say, to better, but not denotes power, authority, office. It is the same word that we a betterer; yet a bettering has some authority. Proper names have in doom; as doom's-day, the day of judgment. It oceurs arise from these nouns——e.g., Mr. Barker, Mr. Tyler, Mr. Hellier, in the Saxon dom-boc, doom-book.

Mr. Fisher. “For neither the Fadir jugith ony man, but hath gouan (given) eche

The suffix er also forms the comparative in adjectives ; as, dome to the sone."-Wicliff's Testament," John v. 22.

green, greener. It is, too, found in some verbs of Gallic origin; "And looke, when I am king, clayme thou of me the earldome of

as in encounter (encontre, a meeting); cover (couvrir, to cover). Hereford."--Shakespeare, " Richard III." Ee, a termination of Gallic origin, found in refugee, debauchee,

LESSONS IN DRAWING.–XV. originated in an effort to represent in English the vocal force of

We now propose to direct the attention of our pupils to the the French accented e; as, debauché, refugié. The French principles of light and shade in trees, or what is artistically word is the passive participle. Hence, frequently the words

termed "massing in the foliage," and introduce some illusending in ee have a passive sense: a trustee is one who is trusted

trations. Figs. 104 and 105 represent the same subject. The by a trustor or truster ; that is, one who trusts. It is the same

arrangement and outline of the trunk, branches, and foliage with feoffer and feoffee.

must be first made, as in Fig. 104, and we beg the pupil " And though his majesty came to them by descent, yet it was but especially to remember that this must be his mode of proin nature of the heire of a foojie in trust, for the use and service of the kingdom."-Prynne.

* Friendlie, abbreviated into friendly; in German it is freundiaEl, le, a suffix, denoting an instrument; as, shovel, from to Compare what is said before on the termination ch.


of the oak, or the drooping and almost perpendicular style of the willow. These should be copied on a larger scale, as a broader and more effective drawing will be ob. tained thereby than if it be done on too diminutive a scale; and, besides, the details will be better understood, and there will be also greater opportunity for entering fully into all minor particulars, which, if carefully observed, without descending to littleness of manner, will have so much influence upon the whole.

As there is in many respects & close affinity between foregrounds and trees, it might be advisable at this stage to enter somewhat upon the treatment of foregrounds, preparatory to the remaining instructions we propose to give upon trees. Shrubberies, scattered bushes overgrown with brambles and honey. Buckle, very properly belong to foregrounds; their mixed character, being neither trees nor plants, claim most of the remarks we shall have to make upon both. For studies for foregrounds, nature will be our: greatest help and resource, affording at all times an endless variety of subjects, which can be more con. veniently obtained than the larger specimens of vegetation. It is an er. cellent practice, and one that is very common amongst artists, to collect


cedure in all cases. We have frequently noticed beginners, in their first attempts to draw trees, start off with that which they call “the shading," regardless of the fact that trees have trunks and stems upon which the foliage depends, and equally so as to the importance of the lights, which vary as much as the trees themselves; these lights must be so managed that all the half tints and darker parts must be made subservient to them. A proper acquaintance with the growth of the stems will assist us in understanding the disposition of the lights, as by them we must give the indi. vidual character of the tree : in other words—the lights, as they fall upon the foliage, are in their extent governed by that upon which the foliage depends, that is, the stems. We shall return to this again ; in the meantime we will place before the pupil an example which practically has more to do with detail, than with the broader manner we shall enter upon in the next lesson. Our object in this arrangement is with a view of showing him the necessity of making himself capable, by this additional example, of entering into details, previous to the practice of the general distribution of light and shade, which, it will be our endeavour to show, must afterwards receive those characteristic details which belong to trees in particular. Fig. 107 is the finished drawing of a fir-tree, whilst Fig. 106 represents the method we recommend in copying it. The sharp angular manner of execution will be noticed in contradistinction to the horizontal and broader method

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