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of these materials architectural forms, without going through is evident that these first regular constructions were thus genethat initiatory process which characterises the origin of all rally established; and the greater part of the primitive world human inventions. Yet the plains of Chaldea soon exhibited adopted them, with the exception of those countries where great constructions which had a great influence over primitive art in political events interrupted the first movements of civilisation, the East, and formed the basis of a system which extended its and suspended the march of the arts; with the exception also of branches even to the West. The want of stones in Mesopotamia those whose inhabitants, less endowed by nature, necessarily soon taught the inhabitants to mould bricks, and their most remained in the rear of civilisation, and only received a moveancient temple mentioned in the Bible, called the Tower of ment of this kind from their neighbours, or from an invasion of Babel, was an immense pyramid built of bricks piled on one some people more advanced in civilisation. The first builders another, and forming, according to report, eight storeys or rows, worthy of the name from their ability to mould bricks, and hew gradually receding from each other. At the top of this building stones to raise their gigantic monuments, were compelled to they sacrificed to Baal; at a later period the Chaldean kings follow the road in which they were placed. The want of expeplaced his statue there, when their artists had made some progress rience, the absence of instruments and machines, prevented in the art of sculpture. It is probable that this pyramidal-formed them from raising, at first, great edifices with vertical façades temple owed its origin to their remembrance of the practices of or fronts, such as they were enabled to construct at a later those Caucasian countries whence the Shemitic tribes derived period. To form large foundations, and to raise above them
their origin. Herodotus gave a glimpse of the truth, when he materials with gradual and numerous recesses such as would said that the Scythians made their temples or altars with a prevent the fall of the upper parts of the building, was the great quantity of wood heaped in the form of a pyramid. How- first law of construction and of statics to which they were ever the case may be, this very simple form, which appears to obliged to submit. This is so true that, after having made their have come naturally to the minds of those men who were the great steps in the art of building, and become able builders, first to raise large constructions, spread itself over all Asia; the Indians, the Chaldeans, the Ethiopians, and the Egyptians, the ancient pagodas of India are built in this form ; the most still continued in the path of which the pyramid was the starting ancient monuments of Lower Egypt and Ethiopia, where the point, by raising their edifices in such a manner as to give to Shemitic tribes settled in Africa, are all of them pyramids. In their façades a great inclination in order to obtain greater ståAsia whole cities—Ecbatana, for example-presented numerons bility; a wise system, which was adopted by the Etruscans concentric enclosures rising one above another in such a way as when they left Asia, where these principles were long established. to exhibit the pyramidal form. The celebrated Hanging Gar. They were also spread over a part of Italy, and traces of them dens of Babylon, formed of numerous terraces, one above another, are found at Norchia. The same ideas exerted their influence had also the same configuration. In short, this must be con. over the early edifices of the Greeks, and they are found in 3 idered as the progress of architecture, when we see that the modified form among the finest specimens of their later archi:
ancient religious edifices of the Mexicans are immense tecture. They are recognised, for instance, in the remains of midal buildings, simple at first like those of Chaldea, and the Parthenon, or Temple of Minerva at Athens, where the wer and Upper Egypt; but at a later period ornamented inclination of the jambs of the doors and windows still exists.
sculpture like the pagodas of India. Ancient public Mexico also bears witness to this, as may be seen in our remarks lings were also found in Mexico of a pyramidal form. It on the first regular constructions of that country.
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-I. of different animals, it is found that they are not totally dis
similar structures. The first thing which strikes the student is INTRODUCTION-TERMS EMPLOYED IN CLASSIFICATION.
that a very large number of animals are constructed upon the The simple instructions given by Linné to all succeeding natu- same ground-plan-they differ only in the details of their ralists were “ Observe and compare.” This Swedish naturalist, structure. Now, the details of structure are often most appawhom we call Linnæus, assiduously followed his own maxim, and rent on the exterior, while the essential plan lies deeper. The became one of the greatest masters of the description, and the anatomist (i.e., dissector) will often reveal a similarity between largest contributor to the science of the classification, of living two animals which the zoologist would not suspect. If we take things whom the world has known.
two animals so utterly dissimilar in size, outward form, and All the higher animals are free, locomotive, well-defined indi. habits as the bat and the pig, and dissect them, we shall find viduals. Each has within the circumscribed limits of its body, that in the main they are alike. Not only is there a bony axis whether that body be of moderate dimensions or extremely composed of many joints in the interior of the body of each, minute, every organ which is requisite to self-existence and which supports the animal, gives origin to the muscles, and reproduction. The actions which the body has to perform in protects the nervous matter, but with few and slight exceptions order to carry on that orderly system of constructive change we find bone for bone, muscle for muscle, nerve for nerve, in which is always associated with life, are very numerous. To comparing each point of the internal structure of the two aniperform these actions, many complex organs are required; mals. Not only is the fore-limb of a dog built upon the same bence an animal is a very compact piece of machinery, no part plan as the arm of a man, but it is essentially more like it than of which can be dispensed with without crippling the whole. As it is to the hind-limb of the same animal. in a large factory every band, and wheel, and rod, from the The similarity of structure which is found throughout a very great piston to the little bobbin, has its separate office, the large number of animals is the first fact which strikes every adaptations to which have required thought and contrivance; candid student of comparative anatomy. It is fortunate for the so there is no part of any animal which is not fitted to carry out study that this is the case. If every animal were built up on an some necessary function.
independent plan, no one could hope to gain a comprehensive The outward form of animals is often beautiful, and the study view of the structure of the animal kingdom ; nor would the of it instructive; but it is obvious that we cannot expect to study be so interesting, for the human mind delights in simili. know anything of the animal, considered as a machine, until we tudes and generalisations; moreover, on this likeness of structure have searched it throughout by cutting down to every internal all classification of animals depends. organ, and examining all the peculiarities of each. If we neglect In pursuing his study, the comparative anatomist finds that to do this, it is not only probable, but certain, that in the un. while a very large number of animals are constructed after the examined part we shall leave some secret of its life, some same pattern, this pattern does not run through the structure of admirable contrivance, somo wonderful adaptation, unnoticed. all animals. He finds another multitude of animals which are This leads us to the conclusion that in order to acquire a know. built upon a plan common to them all, but this plan is quite ledge of living things we must use the knife. The microscope, different from that which characterises the first group. When the injecting syringe, and all the appliances of modern science, he has determined the number of these large groups, he finds may be used, but the knife or scalpel is indispensable, and the further that each species in one of these groups is not in the use of it has given a name to the science. The word anatomy same degree like or unlike every other of the same group. If is derived from the Greek ava (an'-a), through, and roun (tom'-e), a, b, c, etc., represent a number of animals in a large group, he a cutting. In following the Linnæan direction to observe in finds that o is not as like to a as b is to a, so that he can this realm of Nature, it was natural that the only means of ob. arrange them in something like order, placing one next to that Servation should give its name to the science which sprung out to which it is most like, so as to show that though z be to a of the investigation. At first, however, the study was directed great extent unlike a, yet it is connected with it by the interupon one species only. If in more senses than one the proper mediate links. Our student also will find that each species is study of mankind is man, it was natural that at first the human not in the same degree like or unlike even its next door neighframe should have monopolised all the attention of scientific bour, as every other two next door neighbours are. In other dissectors. Hence the word anatomy was applied to the study words, there are gaps in the series, and very useful these gaps of the structure of the human species. As science advanced, are, because they enable us to split up the tens of thousands of other animals were examined in the same way, and the new species which belong to each group into natural sections. The stady, as it always suggested a comparison with the results of great gronps themselves are probably only caused by very wide the old, was called comparative anatomy.
gaps ; and these groups are subdivided by less marked gaps Comparative anatomy is a study of all the parts of all the into smaller groups, and so on. The reader must always remem different kinds of bodies which are found in the animal kingdom, ber that the vast scheme of animated nature is far more complex so far as structure is concerned. Strictly speaking, it treats of than any of these poor illustrations express, or else he will br the dead animal alone. It describes the machine when the misled by that which was intended to explain it. Perhaps the motive power has ceased to act. Nevertheless, in examining best illustration of the relations of animals to one another is that the structure of a species it is quite impossible, and very unde- of the richly-branched head of a large tree. In summer, when airable, to exclude the idea of the function which the several the leafy covering presents an even surface to the eye, the conparts have to perform when animated with life. Thus the twin nection of the ultimate twigs is not apparent; but in winter we studies of anatomy (or the structure of living beings) and of can see that a number of twigs spring from one little bough, a physiology are indissolubly connected, though distinct from one number of these boughs spring from a branch, and a number of another. The mechanist has to do with the several parts of the these branches may be traced down to where they diverge from engine while they are at rest, but every fitting is constructed the giant fork. with reference to motion. He cannot exclude the idea of motion It follows from this arrangement that a great many things while he is constructing his machine. He asks himself at every may be said about the structure of each animal in one group stage, Will it go ? will it do its work well? The works of God which will be true of all in that group. A great many more cannot be constructed by man, and their simplest contrivances facts may be stated of the animals of a smaller group, and so can scarcely be imitated; but man can examine and analyse on. Now, these statements aro the results of comparative them, and as he does so he will be continually asking himself, | anatomy, and the only true grounds of classification. How does this structure act in the living animal ? and exclaim, The comparative anatomist has a most difficult task before as knowledge dawns upon him, How admirably is this organ him, and the collected wisdom of all comparative anatomists has constructed to do its work!
not saved them from many blunders; but every student of the The words comparative anatomy, however, suggest another science has this satisfaction: he knows that the classification truth-they suggest that living beings may be compared with which is being worked out is not an imaginary but a real one. one another. Every animal might be made a study by itself, as The classification which unites animals into groups within man has been. The fact that man's frame has been the subject gronps, grounded on their likeness more or less to one another, of thousands of books, and the object of millions of investiga indicates a real and natural relationship in those which are tions, and still affords unsolved problems, shows that the study placed together. Whether this classification indicates a mateof each species is almost unlimited. On comparing the bodies rial blood-relationship, or reveals the plan of the Almighty VOL. II.
Creator, or both of these combined, no comparative anatomist right; and taking three familiar examples, we give the names of doubts that there is something absolute in nature which corre- the groups into which they fall, proceeding from the higher to sponds more or less closely to it, as we are more or less acute the lower grade. in our observations. Of course, since we can say so many things which are true of a
DOM OR CLASS. ORDER. FAMILY.
GENUS. SPECIES CONNOS
NAME. whole group of animals, but which cannot be said of any animal BRANCH not belonging to that group, this greatly simplifies the whole
Vertebrata Mammalia Pachydermata Solidungula Equos Caballus Horse study of comparative anatomy. Thus we can frame definitions
Articulata Crustacea Decapoda Caridia C rangon Vulgaris Shrimp of groups, but there is this difficulty in this treatment of the Mollusca Gasteropoda Pulmonifera Helicidæ Helix Aspersa Garden
| Snail subject : we are not acquainted with all animals, and it not unfrequently happens that when we have made our definitions
A species is the lowest grade with which we shall have any. of two groups, apparently perfectly distinct, some strange
thing to do, and may be defined to be that assemblage of ani. creature from some outlandish country is brought home which has some of the characters given in one definition and some that
mals which are alike in every essential feature of structure, and
| any two of which (male and female) are capable of reproducing are given in the other. Then the definitions have to be re-framed
their own kind in perpetuity. so as to include the new species on one side or other of the line
When we wish to name a species we use two names, that of of demarcation, or a new group made for its accommodation.
the genus followed by that of the species : thus science names To avoid this result, it is perhaps better to take some one
the horse Equus caballus. animal of a group which has all the essential features of its
A genus is an assemblage of species ; a family a number of group well developed, and describe it as a type, laying stress on the description of those peculiarities which are the most widely
genera, and so on. Professor Agassiz has endeavoured to define
all the grades, but his definitions are so vague as to be almost possessed by the members of the group. As a matter of fact, it will be found that an immense number of forms cluster closely
worthless. We will not attempt to give definitions, because all
are open to objections, as indeed that which we have given to around such a typical species, while those forms which lie between two such types will be few and rare. This plan of
define a species is. What is essential to the student is to
know that they rank one above the other, and are not used describing types we shall endeavour to follow ; but since the
| indiscriminately. He will soon see how they are applied as he human mind longs for definitions because they are definite, we can hardly escape sometimes giving them.
gets to know more of the animal kingdom. The animal kingdom is the realm we have to explore. How'.
To carry out the example given :--The genus Equus includes is it bounded? The question involves us in the very difficulty
not only the horse, but the ass, zebra, etc.; the family Solito which we have just referred. The animal kingdom is cut off
dungula includes all animals which have a single consolidated from the mineral kingdom by the fact that while a mineral
4 toe to each foot; the order Pachydermata includes not only the
horse family, but also the elephant family, the rhinoceros family, remains unchanged unless acted on by external forces, an animal
the hog family, etc.; the class Mammalia includes not only the is compelled to pass through a series of changes. But how shall we distinguish an animal from a vegetable? The answer which
Pachydermata, but the Carnivora, Rodentia, etc., i.e., all brutes ;
and the sub-kingdom Vertebrata includes not only brutes, but would naturally suggest itself is : An animal moves and feels.
birds, reptiles, and fish. Yes ; but what is meant by movement and feeling? Many
Other intermediate grades are often used, but those we have animals are fixed, and grow up from the rocks beneath the
given are the best established. With this explanation our way ocean as plants do, and some plants possess not only motion
is cleared for our next lesson on general classification. but locomotion. We cannot interrogate the lowest animals as to whether they feel, and if we are guided by appearances, the sensitive mimosa feels. The fact is, we cannot define, for what
LESSONS IN LATIN.-XIV. ever the definition, some troublesome species of plant or animal obtrudes itself to disturb our distinction. We can, however,
ADVERBS. affirm many things about plants and animals which are generally | In English, adverbs are formed from adjectives by the addition true of the one kingdom and exclusive of the other. Thus, I of lu. thus swift. swift-ly. Similar is the manner in which the animals cannot exist on mineral substances alone, but most | Romans formed their adverbs. The ordinary terminations of plants both can and do do so. Animals generally have an the Latin adverbs are e and ter ; ter sometimes stands as iter. internal cavity to lodge their food while it is being dissolved To form an adverb, find the stem and add the terminations. and absorbed ; plants have no stomach. Most animals have a Adverbs formed from adjectives or participles of the second denervous system, that is, a material by which the whole organism clension end in e. Adverbs formed from adjectives or participles is connected into a sentient individual, and which conveys voli. of the third declension, in ens and ans, end in ter. Adverbs tion through the frame; no plant has a nervous system. These formed from the other adjectives of the third declension, end contrasts between a typical animal and a typical plant must in iter. satisfy the reader. The lower groups in both kingdoms present! You ought now to have no difficulty to know which are adjecspecies which it may be difficult to assign to their respective tives of the second, and which adjectives of the third declension. spheres : but by keeping in mind the typical or ideal plant or But for your assistance I interpose a few remarks. Adjectives animal we shall usually be able to determine the position of follow the first, the second, and the third declension of nouns. every form which presents itself.
Adjectives which have the nominative singular in a, and genitive In the next lesson we shall give an outline of the classification singular in æ, follow the first declension. Adjectives which have of the animal kingdom, only giving its main features, and not the nominative singular in us or um, and genitive singular in! descending into the minor divisions, and then take a type of follow the second declension. Adjectives which have the nomieach class, and describe it so as to bring out its peculiar charac-native singular in is, etc., and genitive singular in is, follow the teristics. The student will find it a great and material help, as third declension. There are no adjectives of the fourth or bit he proceeds in his study of this subject, if he does not content declension. I add instances of himself merely with committing to memory the written descripstion of various characteristics in the construction of animals,
ADVERBS FORMED FROM ADJECTIVES. but refers to the particular animal selected as an illustration, Clare, clearly, brightly; from clarus, 2, clear. and so fixes the truth in his mind by the aid of actual ex Liběre, freely;
liber, 2, free. perience. With a view to enable the reader thus to verify the Pulchro, beautifully;
pulcher (pulchri), 2, beautiful. statements for himself, and to impress them intelligently on his Prudenter, prudently;
prudens (prudent), 3, prudent, memory, the types chosen will, so far as it is possible, be
amans (amant), 3, loving. ordinary and familiar animals in each department.
fortis (fort), 3, brave. It will prevent confusion in the mind of the reader not only of
audax (audac), 3, daring. the following lessons, but of all books on this subject, if he ! Adverbs, like adjectives, undergo comparison. Thus, clare, have a clear idea of the terms applied to the different grades of clearly, positive; clarius, more clearly, comparative; clarissime, the groups in classification. We give the principal names most clearly, superlative. Properly the comparative adverb mployed in the order of their importance, reading from left to the neuter gender singular number of the comparative adjective :
thus, clarus, clarior, clarius. The superlative is formed by the
3rd, conversion of us of the adjective into e: thus, optimus, best; / Cases.
vos, you. optime, in the best manner. Instances follow of
G. nostri, nostrum, of us; vestri, vestrum, of you; sui, of them, themselves. ADVERBS IN THE THREE DEGREES OF COMPARISON. D. nobis, to tis;
vobis, to you;
sibi, to themselves. Ac. nos, us;
se, themselves. Positive. Comparative,
| Ab, nobis (a nobis), by us; vobis (a vobis),by you; se (a se) by them, thenLate, joyfully; lætius, more joyfully; lætissime, most joyfully.
selves. Docte, learnedly; doctius, more learnodly; doctissime, most learnedly Lerita, lightly; levius, more lightly; levissime, most lightly. Sui, sibi, etc., you see are the same in the plural as in the singular. Feliciter, happily; felicius, more happily; felicissimo, most happily. In pronouns, the vocative, when it exists, is generally the same Magnifice, splendidly; magnificentius, more magnificentissimo, most as the nominative. The preposition cum, with (governing the splendidly; splendidly.
ablative), is put after me, te, etc., and joined to them; as, mecum, Similiter, similarly; similius, more similarly; simillimo, most similarly.
with me; tecum, with thee : so, secum, with them, or with themThese adverbs are irregular :
selves; nobiscum, with us; vobiscum, with you. Positive. Comparative.
In order to give emphasis, met is subjoined to all these forms, Bene, well; melius, better ; optime, best.
except tu, and the genitive plural of ego and tu; thus, egomet, Male, ill; pejus, worse; pessime, worst.
temet, sibimet, nosmet, vosmet: tu takes te, as tute; se, for Multum, much; plus, more ;
plurimum, most. the sake of force, is doubled, as sese.
maxime, very greatly. Nostri and vestri differ in use from nostrum and vestrum. VOCABULARY.
Nostri is simply of us; nostrum is ours; nostrum denotes a
class, and is used with partitives, that is, words which signify Administro, 1, I ad-, Habito, 1, I dwell, re-l Que (stands after the minister (E, R. ad- main (E. R. habita- word, thus, plusque),
one, etc., of a class, as nemo nostrum, none of us, considered as minister). tion).
a number or a class, and not an individual or individuals. Edifico, i, I build In dies, every day. Quotidie, daily.
VOCABULARY. (E. R. odisce). Laboro, 1, I labour. Rus, ruris, n., the coun
Æquālis, -e, equal. | Imperium, -i, n., a com- , Præceptor, oris, m., Atque, and. Nego, 1, I deny (E. R.
Apud, with, at home. I mand, a government & preceptor, or inCivitas, -ätis, f., a city negation).
Scriptus, -a, -um,
structor, or state (E. R. civic, Occultus, -a, -um, hid critten,
master of himself. Impero,l (with dative), Præceptum, i, n., a civil). den (E. R. occult). Sedo, 1, I set down, com
Attente, adv., atten. I command (E. R. precept, a command. Cogito, 1, I think. Patiens, patient.
Salutāris, -e, salutary, De, concerning. Periculum, i, n., a Sono, 1, I sound.
Canto, 1, I sing (E. R. Inter, prep. (with acc.), healthful. Dimico, 1, I contend. danger (E. R. peril). Supero, 1, I overcome
Semper, always. Grecia, -e, f., Greece. Pugno, 1, I fight (E. R. (E. R. superior).
Clamo,1, I cry out (E.R. Irātus, -a, -um, angry. Tractatio, -ōnis, f., a pugilist). Vito, 1, I avoid.
Ludo, 3, I play (E. R. handling, a treatise EXERCISE 47.—LATIN-ENGLISH.
Disco, 3, I learn (E. R. illusory).
(E. R. to treat of). disciple).
Magister, -tri, m., a Veritas, -ātis, f., truth. 1. Milites fortiter pugnant. 2. Pugnantne fortiter milites ? 3. | Doleo. 2. I am in pain, teacher (E.R. master). | Voco, 1, I call (E. R. Nonne fortiter pugnant milites ? 4. Romani fortius quam hostes pug. I griove (E. R. dolor. Narro, 1. I relate (E. R. vocative). nant. 5. De Græcia magis atque magis cogito. 6. Nonne de patre
1 narrative). ultum cogitas ? 7. Literas magis atque magis quotidie expec. tamus. 8. Capidissime adventum matris expectas. 9. Rus patrem
EXERCISE 49.-LATIN-ENGLISH. plus plusque in dies delectat. 10. Bene domum ædificas, 11. Ædifi
1. Ego canto. 2. Tu clamas. 3. Amicus vocat. 4. Nos parrimus. catne domum optime? 12. Literæ sunt pessime scriptæ. 13. Verba 5. Vos saltātis. 6. Fratres laborant. 7. Ego fleo. 8. Tu rides. 9. tua male sonant. 14. Servi de domino pessime cogitant. 15. Puellæ
Frater dolet. 10. Nos præceptores docēmus ; vos discipuli discitis. patientius quam pueri laborant. 16. Occultissima pericula difficillime
11. Ego ludo. 12. Tu discis. 13. Soror acu pingit. 14. Nos vitantur. 17. Difficile est Græcos superare. 18. Fortissime dimicant.
scribimus. 15. Vos legitis. 16. Fratres pingunt. 17. Ego salio. Græci. 19. Seditio facilius quam bellum sedatur. 20. Civitas optime
18. Tu feris. 19. Puer dormit. 20. Nos magistri erudimus vos, o administratur. 21. Audaciter négat. 22. Urbem feliciter habitant
discipuli. 21.* Vos, boni discipuli, attente auditis præcepta nostra. cires.
22. Virtutes inter se æquales sunt. 23. Imperare sibi (one's self) maxiEXERCISE 48.--ENGLISH-LATIN.
mum est imperium. 24. Iratus non est apud se. 25. Tractatio liter1. Is the war easily composed ? 2. The war is composed with very
arum nobis est salutaris. 26. Veritas semper mihi grata est. great difficulty (superlative from difficilis). 3. He fights bravely. 4.
EXERCISE 50.-ENGLISH-LATIN. They fight more bravely. 5. The Greeks fight very bravely. 6. Greatly do you hope for (expecto) the coming of spring. 7. The coming of 1. I relate. 2. Thou dancest. 3. (Our) brother labours. 4. We apring is most eagerly hoped for by all boys and girls. 8. They hope sing. 5. You labour. 6. (Our) friends dance. 7. I, the teacher, for your letter daily more and more. 9. Bad words sound badly. 10. teach; you, O scholars, learn. 8. We grieve. 9. Thou paintest. 10. The soldiers contend more and more. 11. Hidden things are not easily The young men strike. 11. We instructors do not try to teach you, avoided. 12. Mothers labour more patiently than daughters. 13. The O angry boys! 12. Good scholars ought (debeo) to command themselves. sedition is happily composed (that is, being put down). 14. He writes 13. To command one's self is a virtue. 14. It is difficult for (Dat.) 2 letter beautifully. 15. The Romans fight more bravely than the the angry man to command himself. 15. The angry are not masters of Greeks. 16. The country delights my mind very much. 17. Is thy themselves (apud se). 16. Command is always pleasant to thee. 17. mind delighted much by the country ? 18. Very much do I think of Is not command pleasant to us? 18. To thee, not to me, is truth may home (domus), my brothers, and my sisters. 19. The state is ad. pleasant. 19. Truth is salutary to thee, to me, to us, to all. ministered very ill by the Romans.
Acriter, valorously,ener- | Modus, i, m., a mode Propter, prep. (with The personal pronouns ego, I, and tu, thou, are declined , getically,
or manner (E, R. Acc.), on account according to the ensuing table.
Cantus, būs, m., a
mood, modify). I
Nunquam, never. personal pronoun of the third person, he; that is, no pronoun
Proximus, -a, -um,
Caput, -itis, n., a head. Obrēpo, 3, (with Dat.), nearest, next, a neighwhich exactly corresponds to our he. Nle, which is often given
Cives, -is, m., a citizen I creep upon.
bour, as such, signifies that person, and sui (no nominative) is a reflective
(E. R. city).
Par, paris, like (E. R. Reditus, ūs, m., a pronoun; that is, it has a reference to a subject preceding As, De (with Abl.), of, con pair, peer).
return, however, parts of sui agree with parts of the personal pronouns, cerning.
Parentes, -um, C., pa Splendeo, 2, I shine it is inserted in this table of
Discordo, 1, I disagree. rents.
(E. R. splendid, re
Expěto,3, I desire, strive Per, prep. (with Acc.), splondent).
Vitium, i, n., vice, Singular,
Faveo, 2, I am favourable Porto, 1, I carry (E. R. faults. Caves, 1st.
porter), X. ego, I:
tu, thou. G. mnei, of me;
EXERCISE 51.-LATIN-ENGLISH. tui, of thes;
sui, of him, himself. D. mibi, to me;
tibi, to thee;
1. Obröpunt vitia nobis nomine (under the name) virtutum. 2. Nos Ac. me, ma ;
favemus vobis, vos non favetis nobis. 3. Tu me amas, ego te amo. Ab. me (a me), by me; te (a te), by thee; se (a se), by himself. | 4. Mihi mea vita, tibi tua cara est. 5. Virtus per se splendet semper.
6. Cantus nos delectat. 7. Parentes a nobis diliguntur. 8. O mi fili, tiam amittunt. 4. Humida est humus. 5. Nocet humus humida. nunquam mihi pares! 6. Frater me et te amat. 10. Egomet mihi 6. Acuti dentes sunt leporibus. 7. Acutis dentibus edimus omnes, sum proximus. 11. Tute tibi imperas bene. 12. Virtus propter sese
opter sese 8.
8. Fortes sunt milites tui.
9. Fortesne sunt tui patris milites ? 10. colitur. 13. Suapte natură virtus expetitur. 14. Cives de suisinet Credula spe delectantur. 11. Tauri cornua valida sunt. 12. Eximia capitibus dimicant. 15. Sapiens omnia sua secum portat. 16. Nos sunt regis virtutes. 13. Quam pulchra est porticus. 14. Sermonem vobiscum de patris reditu gaudeinus. 17. Ta tecum pulchre pugnas. Latinum discere debes. 15. Ultimam horam expavescunt homines. 18. Deus tecnu est. 19. Sæpe animus secum discordat. 20. Hostes 16. Valido agmine domus custoditur. 17. Avari vitantur. 18. Morosa nobiscum acriter pugnant. 21. Oratio tua tecum pugnat.
feminæ nunquam amantur. 19. Morosi sunt molesti. 20. Sempiterna
estne amicitia ? 21. Spes est sempiterna. 22. Quam tardi sunt gradus EXERCISE 52.- ENGLISH-LATIN.
tui! 23. Glacies lubrica est in hieme. 24. Nemo famem sitimque 1. I carry all mine (my things) with me. 2. Do wise men carry all diligit. 25. Quies avolat cito. 26. Commodus navibus est portus. 27. their property (all theirs) with them? 3. Thou lovest me, I love thee. Timidi nunquam sunt securi. 28. Sermone patris esne contentus ? 4. Thy life is pleasant to me, my life is pleasant to thee. 5. Bad men 29. Potentem principem feriunt. 30. Caduci flores leguntur. 31. In always disagree with themselves. 6. The hindling (pursuit) of letters itinere flores legit. 32. Græca lingua est pulchra. 33. Sæpe inveniuntar is very pleasant to us. 7. Men love themselves. 8. Do women love tumida maria. 33. Exoptatæ sunt consolatio quiesque vera amicitiæ. themselves ? 9, Bad men love themselves very badly. 10. Virtue is 34. Semper beatus est nemo. beautiful by (per) itself. 11. On account of thyself I love thee. 12. My native country is more pleasant to me than thice to thee.
1 1. Nothing is more suited to the nature of man than benevolence. KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN, XII. AND 2. Nothing is more lovely than virtue. 3. Light is swifter than sound. XIII. (Vol. I., pp. 358, 388.)
4. Nothing is better than wisdom. 5. Many men are more chattering EXERCISE 39.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
than swallows. 6. The poor are often more munificent than the rich. 1. Hope is uncertain and doubtful. 2. The power of hope is great
7. In adversity men are often more prudent than in prosperity. 8.
The life of the richest is often very miserable. 9. The pretence of love in the minds of men. 3. Is not the power of hope great in thy mind ?
is worse than hatred. 10. Nothing is better than reason. 4. Boys easily indulge in vain hope. 5. We ought not to lose the
11. The sun
is greater than the earth. 12. The moon is less than the earth. 18. hope of happier times in the miseries of life. 6. O hope, thou re
The sage is the happiest of all men. 14. Homer is the most apcient freshest the minds of wretched men with a sweet solace! 7. By vain hope we are often deceived. 8. Human affairs are often uncertain
of all the Greek poets. 15. Flattery is a very great evil. 16. The city
of Syracuse (in Latin, the city Syracuse) is the greatest and most and doubtful. 9. The condition of human affairs is doubtful. 10.
beautiful of all the Grecian cities. Thou oughtest to oppose virtue to adverse things; 1.6., thou oughtest
17. Evil speakers are very bad men.
18. Thy brothers are of all men the most given to evil speaking. 19. to withstand adversity by virtue. 11. A wise man does not dread
In friendship, similarity of character has more power than relationship. adversity. 12. O human affairs, how often you deceive the minds of men! 13. The mind of a wise man is not beaten down by adversity.
20. Thy sister is more amiable than mine. EXERCISE 40.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
EXERCISE 46.- ENGLISH-LATIN. 1, Spes vitæ incerta est. 2. Spes longæ vita est vana. 3. Spe 1. Nihil est pejus quam amoris simulatio. 2. Maximus est sol. 3. animum recreo. 4. Sapiens non facile in ærumvis afllictatur. 5. Sol major est quam luna. 4. Brevissima est hominum vita. 5. DiritFortium animos hominum afflictant adversæ res. 6. Fortium hominum issimi supe sunt infelicissimi. 6. Pauperrimi nonnunquam sunt felicis. animi adversis rebus afflictantur. 7. Spei solatio sapientis animus simi. 7. Labor est facillimus. 8. Meus labor facilior est quam tuus. recreatur. 8. Virtutem in vitæ ærumnis non amittere debemus. 9. 9. Mores hominum sunt dissimillimi. 10. Rex est munificentissimus. Conditionis ærumnæ hominem afflictant. 10. Spem felicioris temporis 11. Pessimi non sæpe sunt felices. 12. Boni sunt felices. 13. amittit.
Optimi sunt felicissimi. 14. Felicissimus omnium est Deus. 15. OnEXERCISE 41.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
timia pessimis nonnunquam contemnuntur. 16. Infirmissima est
amici mei valetudo. 17. Patris hortus pulcherrimus est. 1. The faithfulness of friendship refreshes the mind in the wretched |
hortus pulchrior est. 19. Difficillimus est labor. 20. Urbis muri sunt ness of life. 2. The examples of true friendship are rare. 3. To the fidelity of friends we owe (our) safety in adversity. 4. A true friend
humillimi. 21. Patriam amant plurimi. 22. Nihil melius est quam
virtus. 23. Portus est celeberrimus. 24. Deus omnium est maximus, preserves his fidelity even in the miseries of life. 5. Fidelity prepares
optimus et sapientissimus. 25. Lacedemoniorum mores erant simpli a port even for the wretched. 6. A safe port is prepared for me. 7.
cissimi. 26. Velocissimus est equus. 27. Corvi sunt nigerrimi, 28. An uncorrupted friend is rare in adversity. 8. He rests in the fidelity
Pater tuus est benevolentissimus et munificentissimus. 29. Frater of (his) friends. 9. The coming of spring is sweet. 10. The day flies
tuus domum pulcherrimam ædificat. 30. Pulcherrima domus ædificatur quickly away. 11. Fair days are rare in spring. 12. He calls together
a fratre tuo. 31. Modestissimæ esse debent virgines, 32. Soror tua the soldiers into the city on (an) appointed day. 13. On a fixed day,
inodestior est quam frater. 33. Similis hominibus est simia. 34. my friends are called together into my house. 14. Sad are the days
Similissima estne simia hominibus ? 33. Omnium animalium similisof the wretched.
sima hominibus est simia. 36. Nihil dulcius est quam amicitia. 37. EXERCISE 42.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
Lacedemonii fortissimi erant. 38. Velocissima est lux. 39. Lux velo1. Veri amici fidem servant in ærumnis vitæ. 2. Fides amicitiæ non cior est quam sonitus. est spes vana. 3. Rarumne exemplum est fides incorrupti amici ? 4. In adversis rebus portum debemus veris amicis. 5. Vero amicitis solatium amicos convocat. 6. Cito avolant sereni dies. 7. Certā die
LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.-I. convocant duces agmina. 8. Constituta die milites a rege convocantur.
INTRODUCTION. 9. Cupide adventum veris expecto. 10. In vere rara est tristis dies. EXERCISE 43.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
BOOKKEEPING, as the word implies by its compound origin,
signifies the art of keeping a set of merchant's books or a set 1. I have a faithful and dear friend. 2. Thy slave is unfaithful. 3.
of tradesman's books in such a manner as to show, at any time The earth is round. 4. True friendship is everlasting. 5. Hunger
that may be required, the debts owing to the merchant or the and thirst are troublesome. 6. The miser is never contented. 7. The king is powerful. 8. Thy step is slow. 9. The virtue of thy father
tradesman; the debts which either owes ; the property which is remarkable. 10. The fountain is clear and cold. 11. The generals
either possesses; and the amount of the gains or losses which have an illustrious name. 12. A limpid river delights all men. 13. either has made or experienced in business. More concisely, The stng has high horas. 14. The affair is great and unusual. 15. Commercial Bookkeeping may be defined as the art of arranging Here are vast marshes. 16. Credulous hope deceives boys. 17. Men the entries of mercantile transactions, in books adapted for the have a small day (short life). 18. No one is always happy. 19. The
purpose, in such a systematic and orderly way, that a merchant ice is slippery. 20. The wooden bridge is guarded. 21. Not all soldiers
may, at any period of the year, ascertain the actual worth of a are brave. 22. The magnificent porticoes are defended. 23. The har. bour is convenient. 24. We eat with sharp teeth. 25. The night is
trading concern. long and cold. 26. A good man is praised, a bad man is blamed. 27.
A correct statement, in business form, of any mercantile Old age is often morose (cross). 28. Unhoped for safety comes.
transactions written in the proper book, or transferred from one The sea is vast, deep, swelling. 30. Much desired rest is easily lost. book to another, is called an Entry, because it is then said to bo 31. We learn Latin. 32. Dost thon not teach Greek ? 33. Barbarous nations are distant. 34. Timorous hares fly away. 35. The flower is 1 The book into which the entries of all the transactions of any perishable. 36. The last hour is coming. 37. Riches are uncertain. trading concern are ultimately collected in a proper but abridged 38. My mother loves ancient customs. 39. Thy words are hard. 40. form. for the purpose of ascertaining its actual worth at any How moist is the ground. 41. The fields are not easily tilled in winter.
period of the year, is called the Ledger, from the verb lego in EXERCISE 44.- ENGLISH-LATIN.
Greek or Latin, to gather or collect. 1. Amantur fidi amici. 2. Sunt mihi magnæ divitiæ, or magne When the entries of transactions in business are made only divitim sunt mihi, or magnæ divitiæ mihi sunt. 3. Expectatam amici. once in the Ledger, the books are said to be kept by Single Entry;
9 22 Rapharnel inserted or Enleged.