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so named after a Russian princess. It is a native of Japan, 1 botanists, having regard to the aggregation of many individual remarkable for the beauty of its heart-shaped leaves, and its | florets in a compound flower, have imagined this great natural long, blue, odorous flowers, disposed in panicles.
order as representing the citizen tribe of vegetables-as being
more elevated in civilisation, so to speak, and as deserving to SECTION XXXVII.-COMPOSITÆ, OR COMPOUND-FLOWER
take precedence of all other natural families. To decide on TRIBE.
the matter of precedence is in no case an easy task; but it is Characteristics : Inflorescence in a capitulum, receptacle, or certain the Compositæ contain a great number of highly valuable torus, common, surrounded by an involucre; calyx tubular, plants; it is certain, too, that extraordinary means are taken adherent to the ovary; corolla epigynous, monopetalous; | by nature for their generation and preservation. How beautiful stamens five, rarely four; anthers united to the tube by their the provision made for the dispersion of their dried fruits, comedges; ovary inferior, unilocular, uniovular; ovule erect; fruit, monly termed seeds! These fruits, which the reader will now an achænium; plant, dicotyledonous, exalbuminous; radicle, remember are termed by botanists achania, remain upon the inferior.
torus, or receptacle enclosed by the withered bracts, antil ripe ; The Composite, of which at the present time not less than they are then dispersed. Various methods are adopted to bring 9,000 species are known, constitute the tenth part of the vege about this dispersion, and they are all beautiful. In some table kingdom, and, therefore, perhaps ought to constitute a species, the torus, after the withering of the floral envelopes, class rather than a natural order; nevertheless, the type which shoots op in the form of a spire, thus presenting every facility they present is so characteristic, that, in spite of their great for the achæniums to escape. In other species, as the colt's. numerical superiority over other natural groups, botanists have foot, the torus becomes, during the ripening of the fruit, inverteł continued to regard them as an order.
in such a manner that the fruits are emptied, as it were, out of For the most part the Composito are herbs, generally peren- their sockets. In the chamomile the same result is accomnials; certain species are ligneous ; indeed, a few are arborescent, plished by the assumption by the torus, as the fruits ripen, of constituting trees of large size. The leaves are generally a globular instead of a plane condition. In the cotton thistle, alternate, various as to their form, but always without stipules. the alveolar processes become so contracted during the ripening The capitula always present the general appearance of a corymb of the fruits, that the latter are extruded; but amongst all or a cyme; the aggregate inflorescence is therefore definite; provisions made by Nature for the distribution of the fruit of but each compound flower entering into the cyme or corymb is Compositae, perhaps the most beantiful consists in the plame, indefinite, as is sufficiently made known by the order of floral or aigrette, with which some are furnished. This plume is development—the extornal florets always being the first to ex- nothing else than the dried limb or free portion of the calyı. pand. Perhaps the best manner of studying the compound In the genera which have this appendage, it is worthy of remark, inflorescence is to regard each capitulum as a spike flattened that the involucrum is supplied with long, serrated, imbricated down upon itself in such a manner that what it loses in length bracts, which surround the achænia, protect them, and favour is gained in thickness. Upon this normal spike each floret their ripening. In certain species, the involucrum opens of grows from the axilla of a bract; therefore, we ought to find itself as soon as the fruits arrive at maturity, thus allowing upon this compound spike bracts in equal number to the flowers, the latter to escape and float on their winged appendages; in and situated externally to them. But the normal state is still others there is another provision. The involucrum, instead of further disturbed by the perishing, or abortion, to use a opening spontaneously, has a tendency to remain closed. Whilst phrase common in botanical descriptions, of some of the florets, the wing-like appendages of the achænia are yet unripe and in consequence of pressure made upon them by their fellows. devoid of elasticity, there is nothing to prevent the closing tenHence it follows that only the bracts appertaining to the outside dency of the involucrum from taking effect; but no sooner do florets ever arrive at maturity, and form the general involucrum. the fruits ripen than their plumes or wings, tending to expand The internal bracts are merely represented by minute scales, the ontermost ones to a horizontal position, force open the silk-like filaments, or hairs.
involucram by their spring-like elasticity, and the fruits are When we analyse in this manner the nature of a capitulum, now free to move in obedience to the first passing breeze. In the explanation is seen of the different aspect assumed by the this way the achænia are transported often to the distance of torus, or flower-disc, in various genera of compound flowers. In several miles. Not content even with this beautiful provision the chamomile it is covered with hair; in the blue corn-flower in all its simplicity, the plumes of certain Composite, mindfal, it is silky; in the onopordon, or cotton thistle, it is alveolar as it would seem, of their citizen-like traditions, aggregate to(Latin, alveolus, a socket, the diminutive of alveus, a large hollow gether into a compound plumule. In this manner oocasionali vessel), that is to say, studded with socket-like indentations, a mimic cloud of dandelion fruits may be seen pursuing their similar to those in which are embedded the teeth of animals, devious course to some unknown spot. Finally, in certain Compositæ, of which the Dandelion may be taken as an example, it is absolutely naked. In the greater number of cases, each floret of a compound
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXIX. flower bears stamens and pistils, as in the corn centaury (Fig.
caury (Fig. | SECTION LVII.-EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE VARIOUS 93, page 280, Vol. I.), the full representation of which will be
USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS. given in Fig. 173; but in others the florets of the circumference alone are pistilliferous, as is seen in the chrysanthemum (Fig.
. An. 101, page 280, Vol. I.); or even sterile, or devoid of both pistils Im Innern Deutsdlande geidab', In the interior of Germany and stamens. Again, certain remaining members of the Com
. Again, certam remaining members of the Com-1 was von jeher gedaby', wenn es events took place which have posite order have staminiferous flowers in the centre and pistil. dem Throne an einem Kaiser, oter ever occurred before, when liferous flowers on the circumference; of this kind is the marigold. dem Kaiser an einem Kaisersinne the throne was without an Finally, there are yet others, the flowers of which are entirely fehlte. (Schiller.)
Emperor, or the Emperor staminiferous, or entirely pistilliferous; and these flowers may
without an imperial mind. be on one or two separate plants.
Wir stehen weit von einander ab an We stand far from each other The calyx, the tube of which is adherent to the ovary and Jahren, an geprüf'tem Werth. in years, in recognised worth altogether confounded with it, terminates in a limb or free (Gothe.) portion, which is subject to numerous modifications of form; Gr ist an der Auszehrung gestorben. He (has) died of consumption thus furnishing excellent characters for the distinction of genera. Muß ich auch an deiner Liebe ziveis Must I likewise doubt of thy It is completely effaced in the chrysanthemum (Fig. 101); it feln? (Schiller.)
love ? forms a crown in the wild chamomile and tansy; and is developed Die Freunde werden irr' an dir ! (The) thy friends are becoming in tooth-like protuberances, or lamellar scales, in the sunflower (Schiller.)
perplexed about thee. (Fig. 83, page 241, Vol. I.), French marigold, and chicory. An dié Angst der Mutter denfit tu of the anxiety of the mother Frequently it degenerates into hairy or silk-like filaments, form nicht.
thou dost not think. ing a plume.
Er schrieb einen Brief an mich. He wrote a letter to me. ng are inserted upon the tube of the corolla, and (Er schrieb mir einen Brief.) (He wrote (to) me a letter.)
th its divisions; the pistil is composed of a Man fonnt den Vogel an den Fer One knows the bird by its (they ovary one-celled, uniovular. Certain fanciful tern.
to judge of Mr. Burke's conduct by the light of the conduct of
a great political leader at the present time. The circumstances, THE DAGGER SCENE IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS.
too, were different to anything within our experience. Let us On the 28th of December, 1792, the English House of Commons consider them a little, and see whether the famous “ dagger was occupied by a very grave subject, and the foremost men of scene” was so much out of place after all. the day took part in the debate. The subject under considera- In 1789 the French Revolution broke out—that is to say, in tion was whether or not aliens-that is to say, persons not sub- that year the French people, tired of the load of tyranny and jects of the King of England-should not be subjected to some legalised selfishness which had been imposed upon them for cenregulations, such as giving security for good behaviour, while turies, and moved by the exhortations of men who gave themresident within the realm. Among those who took part in the selves out as, and believed themselves to be, the friends of mandebate were Pitt, Fox, Sheridan, Erskine, Lord Sheffield, Grey, kind, rose in their wild strength, and, ignorant of the goal where and Burke, and the contest among them ran high.
true liberty and true national happiness were to be found, The Government had thought fit to bring in a bill for the goaded on by the fierce spirits who ever come to the surface, regulation of aliens, to the intent it might be known who was coming and going like bubbles in time of great public disand who was not in the country, and they justified their measure turbance, maddened by long years of suffering and oppression, by an appeal to the existing state of public affairs. Mr. Fox, conscious only of strength, unconscious how to use it, impelled who was at the time leader of the Opposition, vehemently forwards by the very fact that their existence depended on prodenounced the bill as utterly unnecessary, and quite unworthy gress, seeing that the interests and principles of all then existing of the Government. A few nights before, in the course of a governments were directly opposed to them—this great people debate on the influence of the French constitution, and more woke up to the conviction they were alive, and they exhibited an especially on a proposal of his own that the king should be amount of vitality and energy that truly took the nations by requested to send a minister to Paris to negotiate with the surprise. French Provisional Government, he had used the most violent In order to give an accurate idea of the causes which led to and inflammatory language, and had asserted that the country, the Revolution, it would be necessary to go back through the so far from being in the unsettled condition described by the history of France for a period of two hundred years. We have ministers, was perfectly quiet, perfectly loyal, and that there not space to do this even in a cursory examination, but we may did not exist any warrant, in fact, for the exceptional legislation mention some of the principal matters which proved intolerably demanded by the Government. His proposal had been, indeed, burdensome to the French people. The many obligations of rejected, but the same spirit which induced him to make it con- the feudal system (general notice was taken of these in Historic tinued to animate him, and on the Alien Bill he spoke with his Sketches, I.) were more offensively enforced, and therefore Fonted warmth, eloquence, and bitterness. The year before he more keenly felt, in France than in any other European country, had- not of his own will, certainly-publicly broken a friendship and there, too, they were exacted till a date far beyond that at with Burke which had lasted for a quarter of a century; Mr. which they had been quite abandoned elsewhere. This of itself Burke having on that occasion said in the House of Commons, was evil enough to rouse the indignation of the classes beneath ; adverting to the effect which his altered opinions upon the current but added to it was the injury done by a system of government, of French affairs would have upon his private friendships, of which the fundamental principle was feudalism ; that is to. alluding more especially to his friendship with Fox, “I know say, a principle which had regard solely to the interests of the the value of my line of conduct; I have, indeed, made a great few, who were to be supported in power and sustained in insosacrifice. I have done my duty, though I have lost my friend. lence at the expense of the many. And this system of governThere is something in the detested French constitution that ment was carried very far. At one time the nobles were the envenoms everything it touches."
exponents of it, each ruling absolutely and tyrannically on his Attempts were made to heal the mortal wound which the separate estate, grinding all he could out of his villeins, as they friendship of these two men had received, but to no purpose; were called, and caring nothing for their individual welfare. the breach was irreparable, and on the Alien Bill, therefore, Against this oppression the peasantry lodged a practical and Burke and Fox were widely opposed. On the 28th of December, brutal protest at the time of the Jacquerie, * in 1358, when the 1792, Barke, who did not rise till late in the ovening, spoke long hour of trial and humiliation had come upon the nobles of and eloquently on the question. He said that the ministers of a France through the hands of the Black Prince. When the monarchy could not, and ought not, to have their hands tied English armies overran the country, and the French had been behind them while the emissaries of republicanism, regicide, and beaten with a dreadful slaughter, the French peasants rose atheism poured into the country with the intention to destroy it, upon their native oppressors, and slew them root and branch, and were yet, through the weakness of the law, to be beyond often murdering, in their ignorance and blind fury, those who control. From discussing the principles he went on to describe were really their benefactors, and being guilty of the crime of tbe practice of those whom he called “emissaries of republi- | killing women and children. Only by the aid of the Black canism, regicide, and atheism," and whom he accused of trying Prince and his knights was this formidable insurrection of one to spread their doctrine of liberty, fraternity, and equality by class against another suppressed, and the lower classes would the sword. Information had come to him that 3,000 daggers have been relegated indefinitely to their former bondage, but for had been ordered from Birmingham by the friends of liberty, the desire of the French kings-a desire which could not be fraternity, and equality; and in order to make a deep impres- gratified without the help of the people—“to deliver the Crown sion on the house, he had resorted to the somewhat theatrical from wardship,” or to free it from the restraints imposed upon expedient of hiding a dagger under his waistcoat.
it by the power of the great nobles. At the proper moment, when the attention of the house was As a consequence of this coalition, temporary though it was, concentrated on him, and when his actions, whatever they might between the Crown and the people, some slight benefit accrued be, were certain of being reported, he put his hand inside his to the latter ; but when the object for which the Crown had waistcoat and drew forth the dagger, which he flung before him striven had been attained, the people found out by experience on the floor of the house. "This,” said he, pointing to the that it was unwise to put their trust in princes. Once more dagger, " is what you are to gain by an alliance with France; they were handed over, or, what had the same effect, were left wherever their principles are introduced, their practice must to, the tender mercies of the cruel, and they had to bear the follow. You must equally proscribe their tenets and their kingly tyranny as well. They had to live the lives of slaves persons from our shores;' and he ended an impassioned address on the estates of the landed proprietors, rising early and late. by begging the house to strengthen the hands, not of the taking rest, ministry, not of the Opposition, but of the country, by passing
“ Barred from delight by Fate's untimely hand, the Aliens' Bill.
By wealthless lot, or pitiless command," Happily for as, the times have passed away when such an
ch an condemned to ignorance lest they should learn to know their exhibition, so theatrical, so sensational, would be tolerated in
strength, and crushed under the weight of laws in the making of the House of Commons; happily, too, there has not, since 1792, been a recurrence of those circumstances which then made The Jacquerie was so called from the name Jacques Bonhomme, exceptional legislation of the kind mentioned desirable. But which was the generic name given to French peasants, as John Bull is manners and customs were different then, and it would be wrong the generic name descriptive of Englishmen.
which they had no voice, and the force and object of which they | fessional man, the curé of lowly birth but ample brains, as well as knew only through suffering.
the pompous prelate and the dissolute duke. The States-General In some respects the condition of the people as regarded the were to consider the situation of France. Within a week of lords was better than it had been before the Jacquerie, but what their meeting dissensions broke out which by their very nature they gained in this direction they lost in another, for whenever were difficult to be allayed, but which hatred, long cherished they succeeded in asserting a quasi independence on the during so many years, made inextinguishable as between the seigneurs, they became amenable to the heavy and far-reaching noble and the human classes. Lonis, to gain time, and in hope hand of the king, for whose service their persons were taken, of stilling the disorders, prorogued the assembly for a month ; and for whose prodigal expenses their little ewe lambs were but when the Commons, wishing to enter their hall, were refused killed. Nor was this all. Had the people been required to by soldiers with fixed bayonets, they adjourned to the Tennis make these sacrifices in behalf of a strong government, whick Court of the Palace of Versailles, and took an oath not to spent the money it drew from taxes in promoting the glory and dissolve till they should have attained the object for which they honour of the kingdom, they might have borne their lot without met, and they called themselves the National Assembly. A number doing more than murmur; but when they found that direct of priests and nobles from the other section of the States-General taxes were levied in addition to indirect taxes, which were laid joined them, and the king was obliged to yield. The Assembly upon the very necessaries of life, in order to support the king met again, and all caste privileges were abolished, taxes were and his courtiers in riotous living-when they found that not ordered to be levied on all classes alike, and the closed pro. only were they oppressed, but also that they paid for the means |fessions, the army and the civil service, were thrown open; of oppression, they did something more than murmur, and they restrictions were removed from the press, the public debt was bided their time for the expression of their wrath.
sécured, personal and religious liberty were promised. But the During the long reign of Louis XIV., the Grand Monarque, States-General would not dissolve, and when the king threatened as his flatterers called him, the people were blinded, though and then withdrew his threats, they assumed supreme power, they suffered, by the magnificence to which they contri. and the National Assembly was king in his stead. buted. The honest endeavours of a few ministers to do right On the 14th of July, 1789, the populace of Paris, excited by and justice towards the people, to improve the internal con. what had taken place, and anxious to make use of their newis dition of the country, and to develop its resources, had also gotten power, rushed in arms to the Bastille, the fortress in which beet fully appreciated; but with the death or withdrawal of these so many dark deeds had been committed, and, after a brief resistministers, their endeavours ceased also; and what they had done ance, overcame the guards, demolished the fortress, and, leading remained but as a token of what might still be, and as a foil to the governor and his officers to the Place de Grève, cut off their set off the absence of further efforts in the same direction. heads, which they paraded about on pikes. In the country the Frenchmen almost forgave Louis XIV., Louis the Magnificent, example of Paris was imitated; the people rose on the estates, the Grand Monarque, though men died of hunger outside his and murdered, outraged, and destroyed; they burnt castles and park railings, and though his lavish expenditure upon himself title-deeds, all the relics of the old system they could come and his glory had drained France of money and utterly aerosg; ousted the king's authorities in the towns, and set up rained her. He had a lustre borrowed from the great men who their own instead. In October, Louis, who had been forced served him, and had, like our Charles II., a certain way with with his own hands to "undeck the pompous body of a king," him which won the popular fancy. But when his grandson, and to submit himself on many occasions to the authority of the Louis XV., succeeded him, and fresh demands were made National Assembly, was driven to Paris from Versailles by a on the already exhausted country, not for the glory or even mob of hungry, unkempt folk, who had been induced to come the decent maintenance thereof, but for the expenses of mis- down in consequence of some indiscretion on the part of the tresses, the wages of sin, and the support of that ignoble royal guards. In Paris the royal power was at an end; the host who are ever found in the courts of bad princes, the people nobles saw it and fled, they and their families, and all they could turned and listened to the voice of those seduotive charmers transport, into foreign countries. Thousands of people left the who told them of a way by which they might be free of their country, and the gold they took with them was so great in burdens for ever. Mr. White, in his "History of France," says quantity that a circulating medium ceased almost entirely. In well, “ Debasing tyranny like Louis the Fourteenth's, degrading 1791 the Marquis de Mirabean, who at one time was the fiercest viciousness like Orleans' and Dubois', and the wider and more denouncer of the old order, but who had veered round on systematic demoralisation introduced by the king who was now beholding the excesses committed and to be committed by the ready to assume the sceptre, could not fail, sooner or later, to popular side, died, and with him went the last chance for produce fruits worthy of the altogether corrupted tree which had royalty. In all the clubs of Paris, in the churches, in every been planted in such soil and tended by such hands."
other house, was heard the voice of violence, proclaiming eternal The storm did not burst on the heads of those who had hatred to kings, and inflaming the popular frenzy against that gathered it; the offences of the fathers were visited upon the poor king who was really a prisoner in his palace at the children, in whose day the system of which they were the visible Tuileries. representatives was ripe for destruction. Upon the mild, The king having been put on one side, foreign princes feared good-intentioned, .weak Louis XVI. and his family did the for themselves, and, in the name of royalty generally, took up storm of popular anger break. Would-be friends of the people, arms against the Revolution. Thousands of French enigrants who thought, moreover, that they could stop the ball whenever swarmed in the enemies' ranks, and there is reason to think that they pleased after it had been set rolling, began the movement, Louis himself authorised negotiations which had for their object and in a very short time they found, to their infinite dismay, his release from restraint by means of foreign troops. Once bo that they could not "ride on the whirlwind and direct the attempted to escape, but through imperfection in the arrange storm."
ments he was detected at Varennes, and brought back to Paris ; Louis XVI., finding the country on the verge of bankruptcy, and and the people, who discovered his part in bringing the foreigner that the efforts of three of the most eminent financiers of the time into France, attacked his palace, slaughtered his guards and 34 had been tried in succession, but in vain, to redeem the finances, his servants, and would probably have slain him, had he more resolved to make an appeal to the notables of France, the peers, taken refuge, with his family, in the Hall of the N nobles, and magistracy, men who for the most part contributed Assembly. From the National Assembly the royal family were nothing in the shape of taxes towards the burdens of the State, removed to the prison of the Temple, which the king and queen though they enjoyed immense privileges-one, the most mon | never left again till the days of their trial and execution. strous, being that as nobles they were free from taxation. The | On the 10th of August, 1792, when the Tuileries were attacked notables accordingly assembled in 1788, but separated without | by an infuriated mob, monarchy wag virtually abolished in France lending the king any help; they would not give up their pen and the National Assembly, considering itself unequal to
i to the sions, they would not submit to be taxed, and they were not emergency presented by the new circumstances, called a their brothers' keepers; what had they to do with the sufferings democratic assembly than itself, the National Conventio of the vulgar? On the 1st of May, 1789, the States-General take the responsibility. The guides and apostles of this assembly met for the first time since 1614. In the States General all were those who were the fountain-head of all the violence olasses were represented, the starving shopkeeper, the ruined had taken place--Robespierre, Marat, and Danton. Unde farmer, the intellectual but untitled, and therefore despised pro-) was formed the Revolutionary Tribunal, a court erected for