167 V

green leaves and pink blossoms of this plant are admirably there except in hot-houses; but we have, at least, the delicato rendered. as far as their form and manner of growth are con- | blossomed, odour-diffusing sweet pea. cerned, in Fig. 166. The garden peas that are grown for the table SECT. XXXIV.-BORAGINACEÆ, OR THE BORAGE TRIBE. are varieties of the Pisum sativum, or common cultivated pea. Although it will be impossible in this work to do more than Many Leguminosæ of the Old World

mention the names of many natural orcontain an astringent juice, which, being

ders of plants, a detailed list of which caused to flow from incisions and dried,

will be given in a tabular form at the becomes hardened into substances em

end of these lessons, yet we will at least ployed in medicine and the arts. Of

find space for a description of the natuthis description is the substance resin.

ral order which contains that universal Several American species are used for

favourite, the myosotis or forget-me-not. dyeing; for example, the so-called Brazil

*Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla or Pernambuco wood is the produce of

hypogynous, monosepalous, or regular a leguminous plant, the Cæsalpinia echi

sub-labiate; stamens five, inserted on nata. Sappan wood (Casalpinia sappan)

the tube of the corolla alternate with the is another, as in like manner is logwood

divisions; carpels four, rarely arranged (Hæmatoxylon Campechianum, Fig. 165),

in pairs ; seeds inverse dicotyledonous, and red sandal-wood (Pterocarpus santa

little or no albumen ; radicle, superior. linus). But assuredly the most impor

There is a certain tribe of plants tant of all the leguminous dye materials

which Linnæus termed Asperifolie, on is indigo (Fig. 167), the produce of the

account of the hair-like projections with Indigofera tinctoria, a native of tropical

which their leaves and stems are studded. Asia, but now cultivated in many other

Prominent amongst these vegetables is tropical regions. Blue indigo, however,

borage; hence the modern term Boragidoes not exist ready formed in the in

nacere, now applied to the order. digo plant, but is procured from it by

Remark the peculiar fashion in which submitting the plants to a sort of fer

the flowers of a forget-me-not grow. mentation. The chemical nature of

The stem which bears them is coiled up indigo is very peculiar, differing from all

like the main-spring of a watch, and as other dye-staffs, and does not admit of

the flowers grow the coils unfold. This being explained in few words. The

kind of inflorescence is denominated by method, however, of preparing indigo

the botanist gyrate, from the Latin blae may be described briefly as fol.

gyro, to move in a circle, and is as dislows :—The plant, when sufficiently

tinctive of the borage tribe and certain grown for the purpose, is pulled up and

allies as the minute characteristics enusteeped in water, as we steep

merated in our preliminary list. flax for the preparation of linen

Let us now pay attention to yarn, until fermentation takes

the flower. The calyx consists place. A yellow solution is thus

of five sepals, which remain procured, which is drawn off

joined to each other to the exfrom the decaying vegetable

tent of half the flower, thus matter, and exposed to the air.

constituting the tube. The In course of time a precipitate

border of the corolla is also di. of a dark-blue colour is ob

vided into five lobes. Lastly, tained—the indigo of commerce

we observe five stamens and an --which is dried and pressed

ovary, from which springs one into lumps for exportation. In

style, terminated by a double digo is obtained principally from

stigma. In correspondence with Hindostan and the islands of

four lobes of the ovary, we obthe Eastern Archipelago. The

serve four nut-like things which plant is also cultivated in Cen.

used to be mistaken for seeds; tral America.

they are really fruits. This peThe so-called aloe wood is a

culiarity of fruit and of inflo, resinous aromatic wood fur.

rescence (gyrate) are the grand nished by a leguminous tree

distinctive characteristics of which grows in certain moun

the borage natural order, the tainous regions of Cochin China.

members of which are all harmIts botanical name is Aloexylon

less, and many of them the Agallochum.

sources of valuable dyeing maCopal resin, a valuable con.

terials. We insert a drawing stituent of many varnishes, is 1

(Fig. 168) of the bugloss or oxthe produce of a leguminous ve

tongue (Anchusa officinalis), a getable, of which the name and

plant belonging to this order. even the true locality were long

A decoction of the roots of unknown. The tree yielding it


the bugloss was once much used is now demonstrated to be the

as a demulcent drink. From Hymenwa verrucosa, a native of

the roots of another plant of this Madagascar, and called by the 167. THE INDIGO PLANT (INDIGOFERA TINCTORIA). 168. THE order, called the alkanet (Annatives Tanrouk-rouki. Balm BUGLOSS, OR OX-TONGUE (ANCHUSA OFFICINALIS).

chusa tinctoria), a resinous dye of Peru, balsam of tolu, and

of a red colour is obtained. The gum tragacanth, are also the produce of various species of borage (Borago officinalis), from which, as we have said, the name Leguminosa. This is a long list of products of plants used in of the order is taken, is supposed to possess some cooling promedicine and dyeing, but we might fill whole pages in this way, perty, and its leaves and flowers are often put into “cool tan80 fertile in medicinal products are the Leguminosæ. Suffice it kards,” or drinks made of wine, water, sugar, and lemons. The to say, that tamarinds, cassia, senna, gum-arabic, and catechu young leaves may be used in salads, or they may be boiled and (one sort), are all the produce of vegetables belonging to this eaten like spinach. The blossoms of plants belonging to the natural order. None of these medicinal and highly odorous spe- borage tribe are, for the most part, of a beautiful blue of lo cies are natives of our temperate clime, or admit of being grown l deeper tint than the flowers of the forget-me-not.





the Merchant's Books to the Dealer's credit, that is, on the Or.

side of the Dealer's Account in the Ledger. The very reverse of PRINCIPAL RULES FOR FINDING THE DEBTOR AND

this would take place in the Dealer's books, supposing they

were kept on the same system as the Merchant's books. Let 3. WHEN a Merchant buys Goods of a dealer on Credit, he us illustrate this rule by an example: On the 20th of February, becomes the Debtor, and the dealer becomes the Creditor. The 1863, I, a Cotton Merchant, bought of James Smith, a Cotton quantity and the value of the Goods are accordingly entered in Dealer,* 15 bags of Cotton, weighing Net 4319 lbs. at 7ļd. per the Merchant's books to his own debit, that is, on the Dr. side of lb. Discount 14 per cent. for 1 month, value £132 188. iid. the Account of the Goods in the Ledger; the quantity and the Here, the first entry of this transaction would be in the Day. value of the Goods, or at least their value, is also entered in Book, or Goods Bought Book, as follows:

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The second entry would be made in the Journal or Month | given in our last lesson. The third entry would be made in Book, which would be similar to the preceding in effect, but the Ledger twice, in the following forms :different and somewhat abridged in form, as in the example

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When the Merchant pays the value of the Goods which he Speculations or Adventures of any kind, whether they relate to bought on credit in money or in bills, the nature of the trans. Shipments or Consignments to foreign markets, to the import action is completely reversed; the dealer is now considered to i of foreign produce, or to the purchase of large quantities of become the Debtor, and the Merchant to become the Creditor ; Goods at home, in the expectation of a sudden rise in their on the business principle formerly mentioned, viz., that a person price. Separate Accounts are usually opened in the Ledger for is debtor for what he receives, and creditor for what he gives all transactions of the latter class, in order that the Merchant away. The value of the goods thus paid is then entered in the may distinctly ascertain the actual amount of his gain or loss Merchant's books to the Dealer's debit, that is, on the Dr. side on each Speculation or Adventure, as well as on all other of the Dealer's Account ; and also to the Merchant's credit, that accounts of property or business of every kind. Hence, the is, on the Cr. side of the Merchant's Account of money or bills. Accounts opened in the Ledger kept by Double Entry are In this manner the transaction is settled between them, and the generally of three kinds, namely, Personal Accounts, Property accounts so far as regards the two parties are balanced.

Accounts, and Profit and Loss Accounts. The Personal Accounts These explanations are equally applicable to transactions of are, strictly speaking, the only real Accounts, being the Accounts a more complicated nature, if it once be clearly understood in of the Persons who transact business of any kind with the Mer these transactions who are the Debtors and who are the Creditors, chant. The Property Accounts are the Accounts of the difand why they are so. The object of making entries in a Mer. ferent kinds of Property belonging to a Merchant; those in chant's books in the manner above described—that is, under the which he usually deals or effects business transactions; in Personal Accounts (of the customers or dealers), and under the short, those by which he ultimately expects not only to make a Fictitious Accounts (of the Goods bought or sold)—is to avoid the livelihood, but to be able to retire with a decent competency, continual repetition of the Merchant's own name in his own if not a fortune: these accounts constitute the staple commo books as a Debtor or Creditor. By this method also, a very im. dity of his business. The Profit and Loss Accounts are the portant end is gained, viz., that of keeping a distinct account Accounts of Charges, Interest, Discount, and Eapenses of every of all the various kinds of property which belong to him, or kind which add to or subtract from the profits of his business ; which pass through his hands in the course of his transactions and the accounts of Speculations and Adventures by which extra in business. Hence, the universal rule, which cannot be too ordinary profits are expected to be made, but which often termi: often repeated, that the Article received by a Merchant is always nate in extraordinary loss, and sometimes in the actual ruin of made Debtor in his Books to the Person from whom it was re- the Merchant. ceived; and the Person who receives an Article, or to whom it is i From our previous explanations, the general rules for finding given, is always made Debtor to the Article which he has received, the Debtor and Creditor are in some measure anticipated. Never or which has been given to him. This is invariably the practice theless, we shall here arrange them in a more formal manner, in in keeping books by Double Entry, whether the Article received order to assist the learner : or given be Goods, Cash, or Bills.

1st. A Personal Account is debited (made Debtor) to a ProThis principle, moreover, is extended to such mercantile perty Account, when a Person receives property from you, or transactions as the Purchase and Sale of Stock, either in the when you send it to his order. Government Funds or in the funds of Public Companies ; the 2nd. A Personal Account is debited to & Profit and Lose effecting of Insurances on Goods, either for export or import; the settlement of Profits and Losses; and the engagement in | • This name is given merely for the sake of distinction.


Account, when you incur Expenses for him, or transact Business | India'ner, m. Indian | Pfeil, m. arrow. | Verbün'dete, m. con. on his Account (as Agent or otherwise), for which you are to | (of America). Römisch, Roman. I federate, ally. receive Commission, etc.; and when Shipments or Consignments

Jagd, f. hunt, chase. Rütli, n. Rütli (a Verlic'ten, to lose. are made to a person either as Principal or Agent.

Kampf, m. combat, mountain in Swit-| Ziege, f. goat. 3rd. A Personal Account is credited (made Creditor) by a



Zunichit', next to. Property Account, when you receive Property from a Person, or

Meh'rere, several. Sammt, together with | Zusam'menfommen, to when he sends it to your order.

Nadt, naked, bare. Scene, f. scene. I come together. 4th. A Personal Account is credited by a Profit and Loss Nebst, together with. / Verabredung, f. agree-/ Zuwider, contrary to, Account, when a Person incurs Expenses for you or transacts Oberst, m. colonel. I ment.

against. business on your Account (as Agent or otherwise), for which he

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. is to receive Commission, etc., and when Shipments or Consignments are made to you, either as Principal or as Agent.

Vergebend suchte er sich diese trüben In vain he sought to drive these 5th. A Property Account is debited to a Personal Account Geban'ten aus dem Sinne ju gloomy thoughts from his when you receive Property from a Person, or when he sends it


mind. to your order.

Bei diesern Kampfe criar'ben un'. At this battle our arms ac. 6th. A Property Account is credited by a Personal Account fere Waffen wenig Ghre.

quired little honour. when a Person receives Property from you, or when you send it | Von allen Bäumen zieht die Giche Of all trees the oak attracts to his order.

den Bliß am meisten an.

the lightning most. 7th. A Profit and Loss Account is debited to a Personal Mit dem Verspre'den ist das Halten With the promising the perAccount, when a Person incurs Expenses for you, or transacts


forming is connected. Business on your Account (as Agent or otherwise), for which he

EXERCISE 104. is to receive Commission, etc.

1. Aus diesem Grunde verließ ich mein Vaterland. 2. Außerdem 8th. A Profit and Loss Account is credited by a Personal

nadten Leben hatte er nichts gerettet. 3. Bei dem Kampfe verloren mehrere Account, when you inour Expenses for a person, or transact

Soldaten ihr Leben. 4. Unsere Truppen rüdten dem Feinde entgegen. Business on his Account, eto.

5. 9th. A Profit and Loss Account is debited to a Property

Dem Freunte gegenüber saß der Prediger. 6. Der Verabredung gemäß

Men tamen die Verbündeten in der Nacht auf dem Rütli zusammen. 7. Nach Account, when Property is risked in a Speculation or Adventure.

dem Falle Carthago's ging das römische Reich seiner Auflösung immer mehr 10th. A Profit and Loss Account is credited by a Property

entgegen. 8. Nächst dem General fommt der Oberft. 9. Id habe Herrn Account, whon the returns of a Speculation or the net proceeds

N. nebst seinen Kindern zum Essen eingeladen. 10. Wir werden Sie in of an Adventure are received.

den ersten Tagen sammt unserem Freunde besuchen. 11. Mit Pfeil und 11th. A Property Account is debited to a Profit and Loss Ac

Bogen geht der Inrianer auf die Jagd. 12. Seit tem treißigjährigen count, when the returns of a Speculation or the net proceeds of

Kriege Hat c8 nicht ähnliche Scenen gegeben. 13. Von mir dürfen Sie an Adventure are received.

Alles fortern. 14. Zum Himmel aufschauend gab der Krante seinen Geist 12th. A Property Account is credited by a Profit and Loss

auf. 15. Jhm zunächst stand der König. 16. Dem Wunsche seines Vaters Account, when Property is risked in a Speculation or Adven

| zuwider trat er in das Heer. tare.

EXERCISE 105. 13th. The Profit and Loss Account, specially so denominated, 1. I am going on, according to my former custom. 2. My is debited to a Personal or Property Account for any loss which friend went to meet my enemy. 3. Opposite me sat my mother occurs in business.

by the side of my uncle. 4. I rode across the park. 5. He is 14th. The Profit and Loss Account, so called, is credited by inquiring after my sister. 6. Since I was there, I have heard 2 Personal or Property Account for any gain which arises in nothing more about the affair. 7. I have not seen him since business.

| yesterday. 8. I have sent the letter to his house. 9. He went The converses of the two preceding rules are so obvious, that out of the room. 10. I was with my brother. 11. This is we leave them to the ingenuity of our pupils ; it is quite possi. against the law, ble that a teacher may sometimes explain too much, and thus

SECTION LV.-PREPOSITIONS REQUIRING THE give his pupils no opportunity of exerting their powers of

ACCUSATIVE. thought. We have often erred in this respect ourselves. We shall conclude this legson with an old rhyme, which, to a certain

The prepositions durch, entlang,* gegen, sonder, um, eto. (&$ 113, extent, includes the preceding rules :

114), govern the accusative, as : Sie haben mich durch Ihre Groß.

muth besiegt, you have vanquished me by your magnanimity. “ By Ledger laws, what I receive

Ich ging mit ihm den Fluß entlang, I went with him along the river. Is Debtor made to those who give;

Das Schidjal hat sich gegen mich empört, (the) Destiny has risen up Stock for my Debts must Debtor be,

against me. Alle Hoheit der Erde ohne herzliche Liebe ist Staub, all the And Creditor by Property;

grandeur of the world without heart-felt love is dast. Ich habe Profit and Loss Accounts are plain, I Debit Loss and Credit Gain."

diesen Morgen einen Spaziergang um die Stadt gemacht, I have taken (made) a walk round the town this morning.


An'richten, to cause,do. Gin'treffen, to come in, Difen, open, frank. SECTION LIV.-PREPOSITIONS REQUIRING THE | Arznei', f. medicine. I arrive.

Destreich, n. Austria. DATIVE.

Aufopfern, to sacri. Entlang', along. Dhne, without. fice.

Erschießen, to shoot(to Richten, to direct. THE prepositions entgegen, gemäß, nebst, seit, etc. (S$ 111, 112),

Aus-nahme, f. excepo kill by shooting). Rüstung, f. prepara. govern the dative, as :- Dem Strome entgegen schwimmen ist nicht

tion. leidt, to swim against the stream is not easy. Er erzählt die Sache

Gefan'gen, caught, tion, arming, arter Wahrheit gemäß, he relates the affair conformably to the truth.

Bereit', prompt,ready. captured (as noun, mour.
Gt, nebit seinen beiden Söhnen, ist in Amerika, he, together with both

Besig, m. possession. prisoner). | Schimmern, to glitter,
Besorg'niß, f. fear, ap- Gegen, against.

glimmer. his sons, is in America. Seit dem Tage, an dem er seine Heimath ver.

prehension. ließ, if alle Freude von ihm gerichen, since the day that he left his

Kai'serin, f. empress. Schle'sten, n. Silesia. country (home), all gladness has forsaken him.

Vestra'fen, to punish. Kranfheit, f. sickness. Stüd, n. part, piece.

Dazwischy'enfunft, f. in. Küste, f. shore. Wahr'heit, f. truth. VOCABULARY.

terposition. Marie', f. Mary. Wider, against. Auf'lofung, J. dissolu- 1 Entgegengehen, to gol Fordern, to demand, | Ebbe, f. tide.

Mode, f. fashion. Zweifel, m. doubt. tion. to meet.

ask. Aufidhauen, to look up. Ontge'genrüden, to ap- Degenů bersißen, to sit * Entlang, however, requires the genitive when it precedes the Außet,except, besides. proach toward. opposite.

word it governs, as :-Wir hatten den ganzen Tag gejagt, entlang des Bogen, m. bow. Erst, first.

| Gemäß', conformably Waldgebirget (Schiller), we had hunted the whole day along the moun. Gartha'zo, Carthage. I Fall, m. fall.


tainous forest.

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pany of their own, had made settlements which soon became for

midable to our own. Chandernagore, on the river above Calcutta, HOW ENGLAND BECAME POSSESSED OF INDIA.

Pondicherry, about eighty miles south of Madras, the Isle de We are so apt to take things for granted, just as we find them, Bourbon, and Mauritius, or Isle de France, in the Indian Sea, that we are often not struck by facts which of themselves are were the principal stations of the French in the East. In sufficiently startling. Compare England with India for size, for 1744, when war broke out between France and England, the the number of inhabitants, and is it not remarkable enough that hostilities which were being carried on in the western hemisphere one should exercise domination over the other-should, by means by the principals were continued in the eastern by their colonists. of a force ludicrously disproportionate to the number of native La Bourdonnais, Governor of Mauritius, and Dupleix, Governor of inhabitants, hold undisputed sway over it? It was not always Isle de Bourbon, commanded for the French; and on the English 80. Time was when the sovereigns who ruled in India were side, at the beginning of the war at least, there was no comunapproachably mighty in comparison with the sovereigns who mander capable of holding his own against them. Madras was ruled in England. The latter country was to the former but as taken by an insignificant force, and the efforts of the British the cloud no bigger than a man's hand, which appeared on the officers who were sent from Europe to the assistance of the horizon of Indian splendour when the very name of Indian poten colonists were frustrated by the superior tact and ability of the tates was sufficient to awe the most adventurous Englishman, French. It seemed as if the remaining settlements must fall and when, indeed, the power of India was a substantial reality. into the enemy's hand, for Dupleix (La Bourdonnais had re

But how came the English in India at all? Why they, rather turned to France, and died there) had established alliances with than other Europeans ? The story, with all its details, is a long the native princes, and had almost persuaded them the British one, but an outline of it may be given within the limits per were an unnecessary evil which ought to be abolished, when mitted to our sketch.

unexpectedly a man arose and burst forth into fame, who was The English cannot assume as their motto the legend borne destined to overthrow all other European power than the British by one of their regiments, Primus in Indis. Vasco de Gama, in India, and to build up a great part of that vast empire which and his Portuguese companions, who in May, 1497, stepped the British have founded in those parts beyond sea. ashore at Calicut, were the first Europeans who had been seen in This man was Robert Clive, the son of a Shropshire gentleman, India since the days of Alexander the Great. Under the com. and a clerk or writer in the East India Company's service in the mand of distinguished soldiers they made good their footing, Madras presidency. He was nineteen years of age when the war and established themselves along the coasts of Malabar and the broke out between England and France, and being obliged, on Persian Gulf, at Goa and Ormuz. With the Portuguese remained account of the scarcity of officers, to serve as one, he soon for more than sixty years the monopoly of such trade as there became known as a daring and skilful soldier. He had been was between India and the West, but when this began to attract taken prisoner by the French, and had escaped in a way which by its richness, the Dutch took part in it, and established them- by its boldness had established a reputation for him, and it was selves in Java, and in one or two places on the Indian continent. seen that he was a commander ready-made and well skilled in Not till the last years of the sixteenth century was English com. the peculiar ways of the native people. mercial energy aroused to the importance of the Eastern trade, The first occasion on which he greatly distinguished him. and when in 1600 the first company of “ Adventurers," the first self was when he surprised Arcot with a force of 500 men, East India Company, was enrolled under a charter from Queen less than half of whom were Europeans. Arcot was the capital Elizabeth, the English merchants found themselves forestalled in of Chunda Sahib, the native prince in league with Dupleix, and what were deemed the most desirable places in India by Dutch, who was at the time besieging Trichinopoly, a dependency on Portuguese, and Spaniards. They established themselves, how. Madras. To relieve Trichinopoly, Clive, having accepted a ever, at Surat, and at Bantam, in the island of Java, and for captain's commission, and renounced commerce, marched swiftly some years confined their operations to quite moderate ventures, to Arcot, carried it without striking a blow, and possessed himthough they had the entire monopoly of the trade with England, self of the citadel and all the stores. He entrenched himself and had very large powers to protect themselves in the main in the citadel, created the diversion he wished for from the tenance of their monopoly.

besieging army at Trichinopoly, and stood a siege himself from During the civil war in England a rival company sprang up, a force of 10,000 men, of whom more than his own strength which for over fifty years carried on its business to the detriment were Europeans. After repulsing repeated attempts of the of the interests of both societies; but in 1702 a union was enemy to storm, he sallied out upon them, effected a junction effected, and the great company known as The East India Com. with a force of Mahrattas and a few Europeans which had come pany was formed.

from Madras, and gained a complete victory; not only routing In 1610 the English first obtained a right to a portion of the troops, but capturing the military chest and all the artillery. Indian ground. They obtained permission from a Hindoo prince Clive relieved Trichinopoly, and a second time defeated the in the Carnatic to buy a piece of land in the neighbourhood son of Chunda Sahib with a great overthrow; then, turning his of the Portuguese settlement of St. Thomé, and there they built arms against the French, compelled them to surrender at Fort St. George and the town of Madras. By treaty between Seringham, an island in the river Cauvery, so that their posses. Charles II. and the Portuguese Court, the town and island o! sions in India were reduced to very small dimensions. In 1754 Bombay were made over to the English in 1668, and by per- they signed a peace with the English local government, by which mission of the native princes a factory was also established they gave up all the points on which they had insisted. Dupleix about the same time at Hooghly, on one of the branches of the was recalled, and Mahommed Ali, the friend of the English in Ganges. Disturbances between the Company's servants and India, was acknowledged by them to be Nabob of the Carnatic. the natives caused a petty war, and at one time it was a ques. In 1755, when Clive, who had been in England on account of tion whether any Europeans should be allowed to remain in the his health, was about to return to India, the king's government dominions of the Great Mogul, whose power extended over gave him the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the army, and the almost the whole of India, and who dwelt at Delhi in unheard-of East India Company made him governor of Fort St. David, at splendour. It was only by the most complete submission on the which place he arrived on the 18th of June, 1756-a day ever part of the Europeans that terms were made, and even then the memorable in Anglo-Indian annals as the day of “the black English, afraid of the possible consequences of what had hap- hole at Calcutta." Surajah Dowlah was the Nabob or Viceroy pened, removed their station from Hooghly to Chuttanuttee, of Bengal, owning a nominal allegiance to “ the king of kings" about twenty-five miles lower down towards the mouth of the at Delhi, but, as a matter of fact, independent of him. This man river. In 1698 they obtained from the Great Mogul a grant of was actuated by the most intense ill-will towards the English, the land on which their factory stood, in return for an annual I and he took occasion of their strengthening their works at Fort quit rent. The fort which they built for the defence of the William (Calcutta), to pick a quarrel with them. Without factory was called Fort William, and the place is now the site formal notice of his intention, he appeared before the place of the city of Calcutta.

with a force to which the garrison had nothing to oppose, though The influence of the Dutch and Portuguese had ceased to be they did make a stand for two days. At the end of that time hostile, or even a matter of consequence, before the union of the the place surrendered, and Surajah Dowlah swore to give his two English companies, that is to say, before 1702; but the prisoners their lives, though he confiscated their property, and French, who had, ander Louis XIV., started an East India Com- forbade any Englishman ever again to set foot in his dominions.

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