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Note.-When great force is expressed in the language, the
Examples. tone becomes " loud” in awe.
Thou SLA'VE, THOU WRETCH, THOU COWARD!
Thou little valiant, great in villainy!
Thou ever strong upon the stronger side !
Thou FORTUNE's champion, that dost never fight
But when her humorous ladyship is by
To teach thee safety!
Pale TRE'MBLING, COWARD!-[Tremor] thère I throw my The Almighty's fearful võice : attend! It brēaks
gàge : The silence, and in sõlemn wärning speaks.
By that, and all the rights of knighthood else, Thou breathêst! (00-) forest õaks of centuries
Will I make good against thee, arm to s'em,
What I have spóke, or thou canst worse devise.
Rule 7.-Indignation is marked by full "loudness," "low" [oo] At God's almighty will,
note, and deliberate "slowness ;" a swelling “medial stress ;" The affrighted world falls headlong from its sphère !
and the effect arising from the blending of “pectoral" and Plänets, and suns, and sy stems disappear !
“guttural” tone, to all the extent consistent with "pure
"orotund,” in vehement style. The characteristic inflection is Solemnity.
uniform “falling." Father! thy hand
Examples. Hath reared these vēnerable columns ; Thou
In this complicated crisis of dànger, wéakness, and caldmity, terrified Didst weave this vērdant roof. Thou didst look down
and insulted by the neighbouring pòuers, unable to act in America, cr Upon the naked earth, and, förthwith, rose All these fair ranks of trees. Thěy, in thy sun,
acting only to be DESTRÒYED, WHE'RE || is the man who will renture
to flatter us with the hope of success from perseverance in measures Büdded, and shook their green lčaves in thy brēeze, And shot towards heaven. The century-living crow,
productive of thèse dire effects ?- Who | has the EFFRONTERT to attempt
it ? WHERE || is that man? Let him, if he DA'RE, STAND FORWARD, Whose birth was in their tóps, grew old and died
and show his fa'ce. Among their brànches, till, at last, they stood, As now they ständ, mässy and tall and dark,
Rule 8.-Courage, joy, ardent love, and ardent admiration, Fit shrine for humble worshipper to hold
are distinguished by “loud," " high," and "lively" utterance ; Communion with his Måker!
swelling “medial stress ;" perfectly smooth and "pure' Reverence.
"quality" of tone; and frequent “falling " inflections.
Example of Courage and Ardent Admiration.
Now for the right !-now | for the CA'NNON PEAL!-
FOʻRWARD!-through BLOOD, and TÒIL, and CLÒUD and Fies!
Glorious—the SHÒUT, the SHOCK, the crash of STEEL,
The VOLLEY'S ROLL, the ROCKET'S BLASTING SPİRE.
Thou Child of Joy!
Suout round me: let me hear thy shouts, thou happy
Ardent Love and Admiration.
Oh! speak again, bright angel; for thou art
As glorious to this sight, being o'er my head,
As is a winged messenger of hòaven
Unto the white upturned wondering eyes
Of mòrtals, that fall back to gaze on him,
When he bestrides the lazy-pacing clouds,
And sails upon the bosom of the air.
Rule 9.-Excessive grief and sorrow are expressed by " loud,
“high," and "slow" utterance ; " tremor," or "intermittent Won from the võid and formless infinite.
stress ;” and “pure” “quality,” where not interrupted by Rule 5.—Revenge is " loud" and "low.” in utterance; when out the utterance of these emotions.
sob, or “aspiration.” The “falling inflection" prevails throngtdeliberate, it is “slow,"—when violent, it is "quick ;” it has the “medial stress ;” and “aspirated," " pectoral," and "gut
Example. tural quality," combined. It is marked by a prevalent “ down.
Capulet. Hà ! let me sèe her :-Out, alds! she's cold; ward slide."
Her blood is settled; and her joints are stiff ;
Life and these lips have long been separated;
Death lies on her, like an untimely fròst
Upon the sweetest flower of all the field.
Accùrsed time! unfortunate old man !
Lady Capulet. Accu`RSED, UNHAPPT, WRETCHED, HA TEFTL
day! Shylock. There I have another bad match: a BA‘NKRUPT, a
Most MiSERABLE hour that d'er time sdu, PRODIGAL, who dare scarce show his head on the Rialto ;-a
In lasting labour | of his pilgrimage! BEGGAR, that used to come so smug upon the mart: let him look to his
But one, poor òno, ONE POOR and LÒVING CHÍLD, BÓND : he was wont to call me U'SURER ; LET HIM LOOK TO HIS BOʻND :
But one thing to rejoice and sólace in, he was wont to lend money for a CHRISTIAN COʻURTESY: LET
And cruel dèath I hath catched it from my sight! HIM LOOK TO HIS BOʻND!
Rule 6.-Scorn is characterised by “loudness,” by drawling “slowness," and a tone which, in the emphatic words, begins
LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-XVIII. on a "high" and slides to a "low” note; by " thorough To any reader who has carefully studied our lessons on Geostress," and often a laughing “ tremor,” making the beginning, metry up to this point, and looked through the table of angles the middle, and the end of every emphatic sound
distinct, of regular polygons appended to the last lesson, it will be and prominent, and cutting to the ear. The "quality" of the obvious that there are various methods of constructing any voice in this tone is strongly " aspirated,” but not " guttural ;" regular multilateral figure whose sides and angles are equal the "inflection " is usually “falling," but sometimes becomes to one another. They may be drawn indeed by the aid of the the "wave" or "circumflex.”
protractor only in the first place; or by means of the circle and
protractor, or circle and scale of chords in the second place; the compasses to the extent of the straight line A B, set off the or, lastly, by a regular process of geometrical construction points E, D, C, in the circumference of the circle A EDC B. Join The construction of the triangle, or trigon, which stands first in A E, E D, D C and C B. The figure A EDCB is a regular pentagon, the table of regular polygons, already referred to, and which and is described on the straight line A B as required. is the equilateral triangle, has been explained in Problem XVII. If it be required merely to describe a regular pentagon, (Vol. I., page 209), and that of the square, or tetragon, in Problem nothing being said about its XVIII. (Vol. I., page 255). As the remarks which will be made on construction on a given straight the construction of the pentagon by the different methods above line, we may proceed in the enumerated will apply equally to these, due regard being had to following manner :
:-From any the difference in the number of the sides and the opening of the point, K (Fig. 66), as centre, angles, nothing more need be said about them except in availing with any distance, KA, as ourselves of them in the construction of figures whose sides are radius, describe the circle A D B. multiples of 3 and 4; as the hexagon, the number of whose Join A K, and at the point x, sides is 3 x 2, or 6; and the octagon, the number of whose sides in the straight line A K, make, is 4x2, or 8; any number being a multiple of a lesser number by the aid of the protractor, when it can be divided without a remainder by that number. the angle A K B equal to an 300 This brings us to
angle of 72 deg. This is done
115 PROBLEM XLVI.—To construct a regular pentagon on a given because the angle at the apex straight line by the aid of the protractor only.
of the triangles into which &
Fig. 66. Let A B (Fig. 65) be the given straight line on which it is re- pentagon may be divided by
quired to construct a drawing straight lines from each of its angles to its centre, regular pentagon. Pro- is an angle of 72 deg., as may be seen from the table. Join duce A B indefinitely A B, and opening the compasses to the extent of A B, set off both ways to x and y, the points E, D, c in the circumference of the circle A D B, as and apply the base, or before, and join the chords A E, E D, D C, C B, to complete the straight edge of the pentagon.
protractor, to the This gives us the key to the method of inscribing any reguR straight line X Y, so lar polygon in a given circle, or, in other words, the method of
that the mark or notch dividing the circumference of a given circle into any number of
At the centre of the given circle make an angle containing
given in the last lesson, angular and similar triangles into which the polygon may be
we find that the "angle divided by drawing straight lines from each of its angles to its of the polygon for the pentagon, or, in other words, the centre. Join the points in which the circumference of the angle formed by any two sides of the pentagon, is 108 deg. The circle is intersected by the legs of the angle, or, in other words, degrees on a protractor are usually marked by tens ; look there. draw the chord of the arc of the circumference of the circle fore to the left of 90 for 110, and make a mark on your paper intercepted between the legs of the angle. The straight line at the extremity of the second line to the right of 110 on the thus obtained will be one side of the required polygon, which protractor, which will of course indicate 108. This is represented may be completed by setting off arcs along the circumference by the point z in Fig. 65, the extremity of the fine line on the of the circle, by opening the compasses to the extent of the semi-circular arc of the protractor marked 108. Join a Z and chord of the arc intercepted between the legs of the angle made produce it indefinitely to P, and along A P set off ac equal to at the centre of the given circle, to determine the length of the AB. Apply the protractor to the straight line AP, so that the side of the required polygon. The polygon is of course finally mark in the centre of its base line may rest on c, as indicated finished by drawing the chords of the arcs thus set off along by the dotted lines in the diagram, and determine the direction the circumference of the given circle. of cQ, and set off along it c d equal to c A or A B. Repeat the The student is recommended to attempt the construction of process to find the point E, and then join E B. The figure all the polygons named in the table whose angles are expressed ACDEB is a regular pentagon, and it is described on the given in terms involving degrees only. straight line A B as required.
PROBLEM XLVIII.—To construct a regular pentagon on a given The process above described applies equally to the construc- straight line without the aid of the protractor and the circle; that tion of any regular polygon having the angle of the polygon is, by a regular process of geometrical construction. expressed in degrees only; but when the angle of the polygon Let A B be the given straight line on which it is required to is expressed in degrees and fractional parts of a degree, this construct a regular pentagon without the aid of the protractor mode of construction would be attended with difficulty and and circle. Produce A B indefinitely both ways to x and y, and much uncertainty, unless the protractor were sufficiently large to bisect it in c. At the extremity a draw the straight line AD, admit of minutes being marked along its edge as well as degrees. of indefinite length, For the sake of practice, which alone can ensure accuracy as at right angles to
jo well as neatness and nicety in geometrical drawing, the reader A B, and along it set
K may attempt the construction, by means of the above process, off A E, equal to AB, of all the regular polygons in the table given at the end of the and join C E. Then last lesson, whose angles are expressed in degrees only.
from Cas centre, PROBLEM XLVII.-To construct a regular pentagon on a given with the distance straight line by the aid of the circle and protractor.
CE, describe the Let AB (Fig. 66) be the given straight line on which it is semicircle F E G, required to construct a regular pentagon. Bisect A B in F, and meeting the straight at the point r draw the straight line ry of indefinite length line x y in the points at right angles to AB. On referring to the table we find that F and G. From A each of the angles at the base of the triangles into which the pen as centre, with the tagon may be divided by drawing straight lines from each of its distance A G, de angles to the centre, or, in other words, half the angle of the scribe the arc G H,
Fig. 67. polygon, is 54 degrees. Apply the protractor to the straight and from B as cenline A B, so that the mark in the centre of the base line or tre, with the distance B F, describe the arc F K, and let the chord may rest on A, and set off the straight line A u of inde- arcs GH, F K, intersect in the point L. Bisect the arcs F L, finite length, making an angle of 54 deg. with A B. From the G L, in the points M and N, and join AM, ML, BN, N L. The point k, the point of intersection of the straight lines A H, FG, figure A BNL M is a regular pentagon, and it is described on with the radius X A, describe the circle A EDCB, and opening given straight line A B as required.
PROBLEM XLIX.—To construct a regular pentagon by aid of odium adversus equos gerit. 18. Pictæ vestes apud Homerum com. the circle and the scale of chords.
memorantur. 19. Multa animalia congregantur et contra alia dimi. Let x (Fig. 66) represent a scale of chords constructed to cant. 20. Hippotámus segetes circa Nilum depascitur, suit the radius of the circle ADB (see Problem XX., Vol. I.,
EXERCISE 70.--ENGLISH-LATIN. p. 256), for the purpose of obviating the necessity of making 1. There is no faithful society among the bad. 2. Man has no another figure. Then with K as centre and a distance equal to arms against death. 3. Beyond death is life. 4. We hasten to the the chord of an angle of 60 deg. on the scale, describe the circle Rhine. 3. The friends are before the house. 6. My sons are at my AD B. Apply the compasses to the scale of chords, and open house (apud me). 7. Are your children at your house! 8. The king them to the extent of the space intercepted between x and the is mild towards the conquered. 9. After death good men are happs. dotted line marked 72 deg., and mark any two points on the all things.12. Men dwell below the clouds. 13. My children are in
10. What is (there) below the earth? 11. God is above and through circumference, as A and B, with the compasses opened to the my power. 14. In (apud) Cicero are many beautiful sayings (dicta). extent indicated. These are the extremities of an arc, the 15. I love the country on accoant of thee (on thy account). 16. The chord of which subtends an angle of 72 deg. at the centre, k, of soldiers are within the walls. the circle ADB. Set off the arcs A E, ED, DC, along the cir
PREPOSITIONS WHICH GOVERN THE ABLATIVE CASE. cumference of the circle and join A E, E D, DC, and B. The figure A EDC B is a regular pentagon.
A, before consonants by E, not before vowels
Ez, before vowels and out of.
consonants. scale, if he be not in possession of one, and then draw all the Ab'aque, without.
(motion). rogular polygons named in the table whose angles are expressed Clam, without the knowledge of. Pre, before (of place, denoting in terms involving degrees only, according to the process just Co'ram, in the presence of. Pro, befors (of place). described.
(case). De, concerning.
Ten'us, as far as (stands after its LESSONS IN LATIN.-XVIII.
Cum is united with pronouns, thus : te'cum, with thee; vobis' PREPOSITIONS.
cum, with you; nobis'cum, with us. The Latin prepositions may be divided into two classes, ac
VOCABULARY. cording to the cases which they govem or require. Some require Alienus, -a, -um, an- Latro, -ōnis, m., a rob. Phænices, -um, m., the an accusative, others require an ablative case.
ther's (E.R. alienate).
lus, a Roman com- Potest, is able, has An'te, before. In'tra, tithin. Apes, apis, f., a bee. mander.
power Ap'ud, at, near, in the house of, in Juxta, beside.
Aquila, -æ, 1., an eagle. Mori, to die.
Remedium, i, n., a the writings of. Ob, on account of. Audītus, •ūs, m., the Morior, 3, I die.
remedy (E. R. reme. Cis or Ci'tra, on this side of. Pe'nes, in the power of.
Nidifico, I, I build a dial). Cir'ca, around, about (used of both Per, through, by means of.
Aufugio, 3, I flee.
Senectus, -atis, 1., old time and place). Post, after.
Canto, 1, I sing. Nidus, i, m., a nest. Cir'cum, around (of place only). Præ'ter, passing by, near.
Coccyx, -ygis, m., a Nihil potest, has no Sidus, eris, 2., a star,
a constellation, Con'tra, over against (of place), Prop'ter, on account of.
Commeo, 2, I move, Occasus, -as, a going Sinus, -Us, m., a besom, against (of hostility). Secun'dum, along.
bay, or gulj. Er'ga, in regard to. Su'pra, above.
Debilito, 1, I weaken. Opes, opum, 1., power, Triumphus, i, m., a Ex'tra, out of, without (in opposition Trans, across.
Dens, dentis, m., a riches, etc. (This triumph to vrithin). Ui'tra, beyond.
tooth (E. R. dentist). noun is used in the Unquam, erver, In, into. Ver'sus, towards.
Elephantus, -i, m., an sing. in the gen., Venenum, -i, 2., poison. In'fra, beneath.
acc., and abl. cases Viator, ris, D., &
as if from nom. ops, Hebesco, 3, I grow dull.
traveller Versus stands with ad or in, the accusative being between Infans, -antis, an infant and when used in the Visus, is, m., the the two, thus : in Italiam versus, toward Italy; ad oceanum Inventus, -a, -um, dis- sing, means aid, as- sight. versus, toward the ocean. The ad and in are omitted before covered.
Xerxes, -is, m., Iezes, names of cities; as, Romam versus, toward Rome.
Inventus est, was dis- Ortus, -ūs, m., a rising.
a Persian monarch. VOCABULARY.
Pario, 3, I bring forth. Arma, orum, pl.,, Finis, -is, m., an end. Pictus, -a, -um, painted
EXERCISE 71.-LATIN-ENGLISH. arms.
Galli, -orum, the Gauls, (E. R. picture). 1. Venenum aliquando est pro remedio. 2. Infans nihil potest sine Cadacus, -a, -um, fall- the French,
Pluto, -ōnis, Pluto, the alienā ope. 3. Aquilæ non nidificant in arboribus. 4. Coccyx parit ing, perishable. Generösus, -2, - um, ruler of the lover ro- in alienis nidis. 5. Senectute hebescunt sensus.
6. Quidam homines Camelus, i, m., generous.
gions in classical my nati sunt cum dentibus. 7. Xerxes cum paucissimis militibus ex camel. Metus, -üs, m., fear. thology.
Græcia aufugit. 8. Metellus elephantos ducit in triumpho. 9. Cantat Causa, -æ, f., a cause, Mirabilis, -e, admirable. Propero, 1, I haston. coram latrone viator. 10. Sidera ab ortu solis ad occasum commeant.
a reason (E. R. to Mors, mortis, f., Raritas, -átis, f., rarity. 11. Britannia a Phænicibus inventa est. 12. Apes sine reginà esse DOU cause, excuse).
Rhenus, i, m., the possunt. 13. Dulce est pro patria mori.
Seges, seg&tis, f., a field tion, speak of. Odium, -i, n., hatred, of corn.
1. Is poison ever a remedy ? 2. Xerxes fights in Greece. 3. In old Congrego, 1, 1 meet Officium, -i , n., duty Species, -ei, f., appear. build in another's nest ? 5. Thy sister sings before many persoas)
age the sight and the hearing are weakened. 4. Does the cueko? , together (E. R. con. (E. R. official).
ance, beauty. gregation). Periculosus, -a, -um, Vestis, -is, 8.
, 2 gar. the army hastens into Italy. 8. Metellus with many soldiers is in 6. They hasten from the west to the east.
7. Coming out of Greece Depascor,1, I feed upon. dangerous (E.
ment (E. R. vest). Exspiro, 1, I breathe perilous).
Britain. 9. My son is born without teeth.
10. Is the army without Victus, - , -um, con elephants ?* 11. The elephants are led in triomph by the general. out, erfrire, die. Piscis, -is, m., a fish, quered.
Is it sweet to die for (one's) conntry? 13. What are mortals without EXERCISE 69.-LATIN-ENGLISH. the aid of God ? 14. Do all birds build (their) Dests in trees! 15
. 1. Nulla firma amicitia est inter malos. 2. Propero ad mortem. The boy is in the house without the knowledge of his father. 16. TE 3. Galli habitant trans Rhenum. 4. Nulla habemus arma contra mor: is sweet to see infants happy in the bosom of their mother. 17. I tem. 5. Vir generosus initis est erga victos. 6. Cometæ ob raritatem thy sister with thee? 18. Without his father the boy has no power, et speciem sunt mirabiles. 7. Servi parent propter metum, boni 19. My daughter is with me. 20. How many children are there) propter officium. 8. Navigatio juxta litus sæpe est periculosa. 9. with you? 21. How many men are there in Britain ! Nemo est beatus ante mortem. 10. Quam ob causam (ob quam causam) rides? 11. Infra luna omnia sunt caduca.
FORMATION OF WORDS.
12. Multos per annos (per multos annos) inter barbaros habitas. 13. Plutonis regnum infra
I have thus gone through the several parts of speech in the terram ponitur. it. Imperium populorum est penes reges. 15. Pisces Latin language, in a general way, aiming chiefly to make you extra aquam exspirant. 16. Res præter opinionem cadit. 17. Camelus familiar with the nouns and adjectives. Before I pass on to
a full treatment of the verb and to the laws of literary combi• By Virgil, and generally in the writings of the Latin poets, this nation comprised under the name of syntax, I wish to show you word is spelt littus,
how great is the verbal treasure of which you have laid the
foundation; and at the same time to lead you to some ac- Ornatio, an adorning.
Motiuncula, a small movement. quaintance with the manner in which words are formed. Without Ornator, a male adorner.
Motor, a mover. here entering into a learned discussion as to which was the Ornatrix, a female adorner.
Moto, I move frequently.
Mobilis, movable. original part of speech, I shall take the verb as containing the Ornamontum, an ornament.•
Mobilitas, movableness. primitive root, and aid you in deducing therefrom cther forms.
Adorno, I adorn greatly.
Mobilitor, movably. In the course of the previous lessons you had the verb amo, I
Momontum, moving power.
Exornatio, a complete adorning. Immobilitas, immovability.
Admoveo, I move to.
Admotio, a moving to.
Perorno, I adorn thoroughly. Amoveo, I move away.
Commoveo, I move together.
Commotio, a commotion.
Domoveo, I move down. have
Moveo, I move. Inamabilis, adj., not lovable. Deamo, I love greatly.
Motio, a moving.
Dimoveo, I separats by moving. Adamo, I begin to love. Redamo, I love again.
Motus, motion or movement. Promoveo, I move forward. A careful inspection of the list will show you how one word Now from these instances you may infer what a number of ensues from another. Thus amabilitas comes immediately from words you have already come into contact with. If in these amabiliter, which in its turn comes from amabilis ; and amabilis, lessons you have had 1,000 Latin words, you have obtained a an adjective in bilis, is formed from the stem ama. The root clue to the import of some 10,000 Latin words, and require ama, am, or ma, is also traceable in other languages, being the only a little reflection to aid you to a full perception of them foundation of unthp (mee'-teer), mother, in Greek, whence comes and of their signification. the Latin mater, which also means a mother. We must not, I advise you to prosecute your studies now on your own however, diverge from our subject. Before you proceed to study basis, while at the same time you go forward with me. The the following lists, you will do well to commit to memory this way in which you may assist yourself is this : procure a Latin LIST OF PREPOSITIONS AS USED IN COMBINATION WITH dictionary, and write out lists of connected words according to VERBS, ETC.
the models just given. With a little care you will be able to find
the words in the dictionary. If you use a good dictionary, you PREPOSITIONS.
FORMS INTO WHICH THEY PASS, A, away, from; ab, abs, au.
will make few mistakes. Having made a list, commit it to Ad, to;
ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at. memory. Then make and learn others in succession. In this Am'bi, on both sides, round; amb, am.
way you will learn not only the Latin, but a good deal of philoAn'te, before.
logy, or the science of language ; and your progress will be Cir'cum, around; circun, circu.
rapid as well as sure. Cum, with; co, cog, col, com, con, cor.
You may perhaps be thinking what dictionary to purchase. Con'tra, against.
The best and cheapest that you can buy is “Cassell's LatinDe, doven, Dis, apart, in different directions; di, dil, dir.
English and English-Latin Dictionary,” which contains an inE, out of, out and out, thoroughly :
credible amount of useful information. The price of this useful i, il, im, ir.
volume is 78. 6. In'ter, between ;
intel. In'tro, within.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XVII. Ob, against;
0, oc, of, og, op, 08. Per, through, thoroughly:
(Vol. II., p. 122.) pe, pel, Post, after.
EXERCISE 67.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Præ, before.
1. What o'clock is it? 2. It is ten o'clock. 3. Is it six o'clock? Præter, along, by.
4. It is five o'clock. Pro, forcards ; prod, pol, por.
5. The year in which we now live (vivimus) is Re, back;
the one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eighth since the birth of red.
Christ. 6. My father is in his sixty-fourth year. 7. Your sister is in Re'tro, backwards.
her sixty-tbird year. 8. My mother is in her fifty-eighth year. 9. Se, apart. Sub, under;
Your father is in his fifty-eighth year. 10. The elder brother is in his su, suc, suf, sug, sul, sum, sup, sur.
thirty-third year. 11. The younger brother is in his twenty-second Sub'ter, beneath.
year. 12. The elder sister is in her twenty-eighth year. 13. The Su'per, over. Traps, across.
younger sister is in her twentieth year. 14. There are a thousand
soldiers in the city. 15. Two thousand enemies besiege the city. 16. Remark that in, not, changes the n like in, into.
One thing (aliud) pleases one person, another (thing pleases) another. FORMATION AND CONNECTION OF WORDS.
17. One thing displeases one person, another (thing displeases) another.
18. The soldiers of each army are very brave. 19. Each is a vice, both LAUD (PRAISE).
Doctus, taught, learned,
to believe everything, and nothing. 20. The perfidious man reposes
confidence in scarcely any one. Law, praise. Doctor, a teacher.
21. The friendship of one faithful man Laudate, praisingly. Doctrina, teaching.
has more worth than the society of many unfaithful. 22. The true Laudatio, a praising. Documentum, a proof.
power of virtue is known to the wise man only. 23. The inhabitants Laudator, a male praiser. Docilis, teachable.
of the whole city are joyful concerning the victory of the army. 24. Laudatriz, a female praiser. Docilitas, teachableness.
The life of no man is in every respect happy. 25. I have two friends, and
I love both greatly. 26. My friend has two sons and two daughters.
1. Decem milia milites hostium in patriam irrumpunt. 2. Mille
milites urbem defendunt. 3. Urbs a duobus millibus quingentis mili. Allaudo, I praise greatly. Addoceo, I teach thoroughly.
tum defenditur. 4. Duodetriginta milia equitum, et tredecim milia Allaudabilis, worthy of great praise. Condoceo, I teach together, exercise.
quingenti peditum patriam defendunt. 5. Pater meus agit annum Collaudo, I praise in several respects.
quintum et septuagesimum. 6. Mater mea agit annum sexagesimum Collaudatio, a great praising.
Dedoceo, I unteach, that is, I cause tertium. 7. Frater meus major natu agit annum septum et tricesimum. Collaudator, a great praiser.
to forget or ronounce.
8. Frater meus minor natu agit annum tricesimum. 9. Soror mea Collaudabilis, worthy of praise in
major natu agit annum tricesimum quartum. 10. Soror mea minor natu several respects.
Edoceo, I teach out and out, "by ngit annum duodevicesimum. 11. Quota hora est? 12. Undecima. Ilaudabilis, not worthy of praise.
13. Quid annum agis ? 14, Ago annum alterum et quinquagesimum, Perlaudabilis, worthy of great praise. Perdoceo, I teach thoroughly.
15. Habemus fidem neutri, neque infido neque assentatori. 16. Nullius
vita est beatior quam sapientis. 17. Pater ambulat cum duobus filiis DOCE (TEACH).
ORX or ORNA (ADORN).
et duabus filiabus. 18. Duo fidi amici sunt una anima in duobus corDoceo, I teach. Orno, I adorn.
poribus. 19. Alia aliis placent. 20. Aliud alii displicet. 21. Deus Docenter, in the way of teaching, Ornate, ornamentally.
totius vitæ est moderator,
LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XVIII.
charged with starch, and is used as food in another form. The SECTION XXXIII.-LEGUMINOSA, OR THE LEGUMINOUS
peas and teans of our gardens may be considered as exclusively TRIBE (continued).
belonging to temperate climates. Tropical regions, neverthe
less, have their papilionaceous substitutes. Amongst the most The order Leguminosæ is that beyond all others which furnishes remarkable of these is the underground bean of Brazil (Arachis the greatest number and variety of
hypogæa), an annual plant, the fruit substances useful in medicine, do
of which, very soon after impregnamestic economy, and the industrial
tion, elongates downwards, penetrates arts. Many possess a saccharine
below the earth, and buries itself principle which pervades their roots,
some two or three inches deep. The the stem and leaves containing but
fruit having thus dug its own grave, little. Of this kind is the liquorice
ripens in this curious position, and (Glycyrrhiza glabra).
produces oily seeds very agreeable to The confection used in medicine
eat. In the greater nuraber of spe for disguising the flavour of any dis
cies the ripe pod-husk is tough and agreeable preparation and for coughs
leathery. In the carob bean, howis prepared in Spain from the rhi.
ever, it is soft and good to eat. The zomes of the Glycyrrhiza glabra, and
carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua) is a in Italy from the roots of the Gly.
very common tree on the shores of cyrrhiza echinata. Many acres at
the Mediterranean, and its pulpy Mitcham, in Surrey, and Pontefract,
saccharine fruit is eagerly eaten by in Yorkshire, are devoted to the cul.
animals. It is supposed by some ture of the former plant. The sweet
that the denomination carat weight, taste is due to the presence of a kind
equal to 3 grains troy, employed by of sugar, to which the name of gly
jewellers for weighing diamonds, etc., cyrrhizin has been given, and which
is derived from the seeds of this cannot be crystallised like the sugar
plant: it is more probable, how. obtained from the sugar-cane, maple,
ever, that it is taken from the term beet, and other sugar-yielding plants.
carat, a name originally given to the It should be said that liquorice is
seeds of the Abyssinian coral flower, used in great quantities by brewers
or coral tree (Erythrina Abyssinica). for giving a
The seeds of dark colour
this plant to porter.
are very The leaves
small and of some of
uniform in the Legumi.
size and nosæ fur.
weight. nish us with
Many Pa a valuable
pilio nacea medicine.
have a muA m o n g
cilaginons these may
saccharine be named
ly bitter and officinalis
aromatic, and its va164
and yieldrieties, Cas
ing excel. sia lanceo.
lent pastur lata, Cassia
166 obovata, and Cassia acu
list are the tifolia, the
vetches, treleaves of
foils, clo which, when dried, fur. nish the
diffuses & tive called
somewhat senna. In
disagree Fig. 164 we
able odour, give a representation of the leaves, blossom,
mation by and bud of
164. THE BUNDLE-FLOWERED cassia (CASSIA FLORIBUNDA). 165. BLOSSOMS AND LEAVES OF THE LOGWOOD TREE Turkish lathe Cassia
(HÆMATOXYLON CAMPECHIANUM). 166. EVERLASTING PEA (LATIYRUS LATIFOLIUS). floribunda,
whom er. or the bundle-flowered cassia, a pretty annual which bears a treme fatness is considered the greatest point of personal beauty, yellow flower.
feminine thinness being a quality held in aversion by the Torks. Certain species possess roots furnished with tubers containing The delicious Tonquin bean (Dipteryx odorata) used by perfumers
, Etarch and sugar. Of this kind is the alhagi of the Moors and also by snuff-makers for scenting snuff, owes its distinctive (Alhagi Maurorum), native of Asia and
tropical Africa. In characteristic to the presence of a sort of volatile oil, nazed by Persin this vegetable exudes from its stem a delicate manna. the chemists coumarine.
The fruits and seeds of many Leguminosæ, such as the haricot Among the Papilionaceæ that are more ornamental than aseful bean, gathered before maturity, contain mucilage and sugar, may be named the sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus), a favourite and thus furnish us with a delicate article of vegetable food hardy, climbing annual, and the deciduous climber known as If allowed to grow quite ripe, then the seed becomes highly the everlasting pea (Lathyrus latifolius). The peculiar pales
age. Fore most in this
Pers, and la cernes. The
yet its seeds are held in great esti