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19.

Je ne connais pas celui qui me les a pris, mais je sais qu'il 11. The butcher has the meat. 12. The miller has the meat, and I demeure ici. 5. Avez-vous demandé vos livres ? 6. Je les ai have the coffee. 13. Have you the water and the salt ? 14. Yes,

15. Have we the demandés à mon cousin. 7. Vous les a-t-il rendus ? 8. Il me Sir; we have the water, the salt, and the oats.

tea ? 16. No, Sir; the girl has the tea, the vinegar, and the salt. les a payés. 9. Vous a-t-on volé beaucoup de fruit cette année ?

18. No, Madam, you have only the vinegar and 10. On m'a volé des légumes, mais on ne m'a point volé de fruit. 17. Have I the wine ?

the meat. 19. Have you the table ? 20. Yes, Madam, I have the 11. Avez-vous payé votre chapeau au paysan? 12. Je ne le lui

table, ai pas payé, je l'ai payé au chapelier. 13. À qui avez-vous

EXERCISE 2 (Vol. I., page 3). demandé des renseignements ? 14. J'en ai demandé au voya

1. Avez-vous le blé ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai le blé. 3. Qui a la geur. 15. Savez-vous qui vient de frapper à la porte ? 16.

viande ? 4. Le boucher a la viande et le sel. 5. A-t-il l'avoine ? 6. C'est M. L., qui vous demande. 17. Qui avez-vous demandé ?

Non, Madame, le cheval a l'avoine. 7. Avons-nous le blé? 8. Vous 18. J'ai demandé votre frère. 19. Votre frère a-t-il payé toutes

avez le blé et la farine. 9. Qui a le sel ? 10. J'ai le sel et la viande. ses dettes ? 20. Il ne les a pas encore payées, parce qu'il n'a 11. Avons-nous le vinaigre, le thé, et le café ? 12. Non, Monsieur, le pas reçu ses revenus. 21. Lui avez-vous payé ce que vous lui frère a le vinaigre. 13. Qui a le cheval ? 14. Le boulanger a le avez acheté ? 22. Je le lui ai payé. 23. Ne leur avez-vous cheval. 15. Avons-nous le livre et la plume ? 16. Non, Madepas payé votre loyer ? 24. Je le leur ai payé. 25. Ils nous ont moiselle, la fille a la plume, et le meunier a le livre. 17. Avez-vous la payé notre maison.

table, Monsieur ? 18. Non, Monsieur, j'ai seulement le livre. EXERCISE 94.

Qui a la table ?

20. Nous avons la table, la plume, et le livre. 1. Have you paid your landlord ? 2. I have paid him my

EXERCISE 3 (Vol. I., page 3). rent. 3. Have you paid him for the windows which you have

1. Have you the gold watch? 2. Yes, Madam, I have the gold broken? 4. I have paid him for them. 5. Has the hatter watch and the silk hat. 3. Sir, have you the tailor's book? 4. No, paid for all his hats ? 6. He has not paid for them, he has Sir, I have the physician's book. 5. Have they the baker's bread ? bonght them on credit (à crédit). 7. Do you pay what you 6. They have the baker's bread and the miller's flour. 7. Have you ome every day? 8. I pay my butcher every week. 9. Have the silver pencil-case ? 8. Yes, Sir, we have the silver pencil-case. 9. you paid him for his meat? 10. I have paid him for it. 11. Have we the horse's oats ? 10. You have the horse's oats and hay.

12. The shoemaker has the For whom did you inquire this morning 12. I inquired for 11: Who has the carpenter's cloth coat ? your brother. 13. Why did you not inquire for my father ? Have you the wooden table ?

13. The tailor has the shoemaker's leather shoe. 14. 14. I know that your father is in England. 15. Has the hatter wooden table. 16. Have they the silver knife ? 17. They have the

15. Yes, Sir, I have the carpenter's been paid for his hats ? 16. He has been paid for them. 17. silver knife. 18. The physician's brother has the silver watch. 19. Has your money been taken from you ? 18. My hat has been The shoemaker's sister has the silk dress. 20. Has she the leather stolen from me. 19. Have you asked your brother for your shoe? 21. No, Madam, she has the satin shoe. 22. Have we the money ? 20. I have asked him for it, but he cannot return it woollen stocking ? 23. No, Sir, you have the tailor's silk stocking. to me. 21. Has he no money? 22. He has just paid all his 24. Who has the cotton stocking ? 25. The physician has the cotton debts, and he has no money left (de reste). 23. Have you stocking. 26. The lady has the satin shoe of the baker's sister. asked your father for money? 24. I have not asked him for any, I know that he has none. 25. From what bookseller have you bought your books ? 26. I bought them from your book- ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-V. seller. 27. Are you wrong to pay your debts ? 28. I am right

CHARITY. to pay them. 29. Who is inquiring for me? 30. The physician is inquiring for you. 31. Who knocks ? 32. Your shoemaker CHARACTER can never be said to be complete without the knocks.

presence of the element of charity. So many false ideas, how

ever, are current concerning the nature of charity, that it may KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. be well to preface this article by reminding the reader that

For the use of those who are studying our Lessons in charity is not the synonym for a mere mawkish sentimentality. French, we now give the first portion of a Key to the exercises To be charitable, according to some theorists, is to be indifferent contained in those lessons. We have deferred its comience to the distinction between honour and dishonour, good and evil, ment until the present time designedly, that we might not and to treat even the most flagrant faults with palliative excuse subject our readers to the temptation of consulting the Key and toleration. Charity, like each of the virtues, must

exist in until after they had written the Exercises to which it relates, harmony with others, or it loses its claim to be considered a and made such progress as will enable them to detect and virtue. A charity which could exist apart from truth, righteousamend any errors they may have made when beginning our ness, and justice, would only serve to put a premium upon vice course of lessons. The only way to acquire a thorough know. and crime. What then, it may be asked at the outset, is ledge of a living language is to practise one's self in the use charity? It is the wise exercise of the affectionate side of our of it; and the best exercises will be of no service unless they nature; it is the letting love operate as a motive power in are written without any other assistance than is supplied by all our varied relationships, as citizens and members of a general grammatical information. When, however, the self. commonwealth in which each ought to consider the best teacher has thoroughly studied both lessons and exercises, it interests of the other. This can never be done by mere exis useful for him to be able to turn to a key, such as we are pediency, nor from a sense of utilitarian morality; it must be now going to give him, for the purpose of comparison and the the result of innate beneficence or kindness. Charity refers to inal correction of any mistakes he may not be able to perceive our estimates, as well as our actions ; it considers the weakness

incidental to its own nature, and is therefore lenient in its judgIt may be objected that we have given a Key to the exercises ment about others, not as blind to their faults, but as looking in each Lesson in Latin in the lesson that immediately follows to the frailties of our common humanity, and finding in the it. It must, however, be remembered that Latin is a highly errors of others counterparts of the shortcomings which

exist inflected language, and one which the learner will never attempt in ourselves. Charity considers that there is a common

weal, as to speak; while the grammatical construction of the French well as a private weal, and feels the claim of the outside world language is less complicated ; and that it should be the chief upon its powers of help and sympathy : thus realising that with object of the learner to speak French ; and, for this purpose, all the distinctions which

are evidently inherent in the

system to drill himself thoroughly in the rules of which each lesson of things, such as rich and poor, high and low, there is yet a is composed. To induce him to rely as much as possible on

brotherhood of humanity, in which the stronger are expected to his own resources, we have, therefore, deferred commencing help the weaker. Charity considers the terrible exigencies of 4. Key to the Exercises in Lessons in French until the present life into which many are born, and in looking at the lamentable time.

phases of character continually brought to light, it is ever on the EXERCISE 1 (Vol. I., page 3).

alert to educate the masses and to ameliorate the condition of 1. Who has the bread ? 2. The baker has the bread. 3. Has he generosity, no sudden surprise of human nature into an act of

their dwellings. Charity, moreover, is no spasmodic exercise of the flonr? 4. Yes, Sir, he has the flour. Yes, Sir, you have the meat and the bread. 7. The miller has the startling goodness, bat it is the spirit of the life, that which four . 8. The baker has the four and the wheat. Have we the underlies all our judgments of and

our actions towards others. book and the pen? 10. Yes, Miss, you have

the book and the pen. Charity, thus interpreted, is the co-existence and exercise of

himself.

अम

the affectionate with the intellectual and judicial faculties of

MECHANICS.-X. our nature. No character can claim to be complete without charity. It

THE PULLEY. is possible to let one side of our nature overtop the other, and In the machines we have so far considered, the essential parts thus human nature, when love is eliminated, becomes hard, were rigid. It was a beam, or a spoke, or a complete wheel, ce stern, and severe. Some men may be gigantic in intelligence, and an axle we had to deal with ; and if a rope was used, it was dwarfish in affection, but they are monstrosities in human only with a view to connecting the power or resistance with nature. Only the equable development of all our powers can be these rigid parts. But it may have escaped your notice that, in commensurate with our possibilities, and therefore our respon using a rope for this purpose you had fallen on a veritable sibilities.

machine. Such is the case ; a rope is a machine most conA moral science which found no room for charity would venient machine-which possesses the peculiar property of not develop character very much after the Roman type--hard, stern, only transmitting & force from one point to another in its and unbending-such as might exist with unflinching bravery original di. and unyielding energy, bat which effectually crushes the affec- rection, but tionate side of human nature. Moreover, it is necessary to guard also sending against the great mistake that charity means, in some sort, it, very little weakness of character, for there is no such inspiration to acts of impaired, self-surrender, self-denial, and self-sacrifice, as is to be found in round any

WO the influence of this virtue. In proportion to its power is the number of dimination of that selfishness which so often merges into corners, into cowardice, and cripples the exercise of the higher virtues. To a correspond. be charitable is, for the most part, to have that consideration for ing number others which makes us set aside the comfort or discomfort, the of successive rest or unrest of our own lives. Charity is a virtue which needs new direc

Fig. 67. careful culture; men are so apt to be disheartened by ingrati. tions. This tude and base treatment, that they tire in acts of beneficeno, practical advantage everybody is familiar with ; nobody more and sometimes they catch that cynical tone of mind which helps than the British sailor, whose daily work consists in zo sal to make them not only indifferent to the wants of others, but degree in sending the muscular power of his arms round all misjudgers of the race. We should never form our opinions of manner of corners for the benefit of the good ship he serigatek the baseness of men from one or two specimens of wrong-doers The Pulley, the third of the mechanical powers, is the instra we may meet with, or charity will receive no encouragement for ment by which this object is gained in practice. In its simple its culture, and we ourselves shall lose the sweet sensation form it consists of a rope which passes round a small solid wee

! which comes from its exercise. Let it be remembered that, if which is itself mounted in a block. In theory, neither wheel we were to argue from the score, not only of utility to others,

nor block are indispensable parts of the but utility to ourselves, we should commend charity, as it

machine; the single essential is the ministers largely to human happiness, to think well of, and to

rope, which is supposed to be perfety act kindly towards, those around us.

flexible, and to turn round a mere påst It often happens that, as nations increase in the luxuries of

without experiencing any resistance civilisation, they become more petrified by selfishness. There is

from rubbing against it, that is free a tendency in the eager race to be rich, or to be successful, to

friction forget the wants and claims of others, and to become isolated

The theory of the pulley, thus based from them : the fact that the poor are ever so charitable to

on the suppositions of perfect flexibusty the poor comes from this, namely, that they are not absorbed

and absence of friction, may be under in successful ambitions for themselves.

Fig. GS.

stood from the upper part of Fig. . Charity towards others in matters of opinion is much needed; Let A,"B, C, D be any number (say four) of rings represents: the tendency of every age has been to institute some sort of so many points, through which a rope passes, enabling a fare, inquisition of other, by which free thonght may feel its penalties. P, at one end to balance a resistance, w, at the other. It Mankind have been far too ready to put tyves and shackles on flexibility being perfect, and no friction between rope and ring. the limbs of those whose opinions they disliked and scorned; P is transınitted unimpaired, and we have therefore the pore and in no sphere has the erercise of charity been less experienced equal to the resistance, whether the rings are all fired in pos: and more required than in the region of human judgment and tion, or some be movable. opinion.

But in practice, the suppositions made do not hold good, The exercise of charity towards others will prepare as for the neither is the rope perfectly flexible, nor the friction nothing enjoyment of it in return. There is a knowledge of ourselves for the former reason each corner must be rounded of to bere which induces humility, and which, while it makes as conscions the rope from the sharp bends at A, B, C, D; and, for the latter, of our marvellous mistakes and errors, makes

us deeply sensitive these rounded corners are made into small wheels, as at 5, 7, 8, L. to the experiences of a charitable consideration. Most assuredly which move round with the there is a punishment awaiting the uncharitable, as for the rope, and prevent the power most part moral science teaches us that such vice is its own being diminished by the fricNemesis, and that the stern and unforgiving in the end have tion that would result, were meted out to them the same measure that they have meted out the rope allowed to slide round to others.

them. Thus the theoretical The virtue of charity is no foe to wisdom. Charity itself pulley in the upper part of requires the exercise of judgment and forethought. Otherwise, Fig. 67 becomes the practical charity is in no sense charity, so far as its outworking in acts one in the lower, where the of beneficence is concerned. Much as men may dislike the name rings are replaced by wheels ; of political economy, or political philosophy, it must be manifest and though some friction rethat, were the practical workings of charity presided over by mains, and default of flexiwisdom, as well as inspired by love, the blessedness of its 'bility to impair p in its transresults would be tenfold or twentyfold increased.

mission, we say practically, We have, however, kept in mind in this essay the fact that as we did before theoretically, charity is a matter which affects our judgments, and criticisms' that still the power is equal to of others, quite as much as our actual beneficence; and no one the resistance. can claim to have mastered the first elements of moral science The relations of the power in any practical way, much less to have graduated in the high and resistance in the various attainments of character, until, as a regulating faculty of the forms and combinations of pulley can now be easily determine affectionate nature, Charity takes its place side by side with There is first the Single Palley, which is of two kinds Ered sal Justice and Truth.

morable; and of these in various combinations, the more e

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ples forms, termed Compound Pulleys, are made. At a, Fig. 68, Sur, a French abbreviation of super, appears in surcharge, an we have a single fixed pulley, round which a rope passes, to the overcharge, an additional charge; in surcoat, an overcoat; in extremities of which the power and resistance are applied. The surtout, literally an overall (French, tout, all); in surfeit (French, rope being equally strained on both sides, these forces must be faire, to do), an overdoing; that is, eating too much. equal ; but, as both pull in the same direction downwards, the

“There are various degrees of strength in judgment, from the lowest strain on the beam which is their resultant is twice as much as

surmise to notion, opinion, persuasion, and the highest assurance which either the power or the weight, that is, double the resistance. we call certainty."-Search, Light of Nature."

Atb, in the same Fig., is the Movable Pulley, sometimes termed a “ Runner.” The rope attached at one end to the rafter above

Syn, of Greek origin (ovv, sune, with), occurs in the forms is thence carried downwards and round the pulley, and the syl, sym, syn; as in syllogism, symphonious, synchronous, etc. power is then applied, acting upwards, to the other end. At c

“Men have endeavoured to transforme logick, or the art of reasoning, is another form of this Runner, but the power is a weight, P, into a sort of mechanism, and to teach boys to syllogise, or frame arguacting downwards, but round a smaller fixed pulley, producing ments and refute them without any real inward knowledge of the

, thus the same effect as at b. In both these the forces are

“Up he rode, parallel, and the weight is evidently double the strain on either

Followed with acclamation and the sound string; whence, since the power is manifestly equal to the

Symphonious of ten thousand harps that tuned strain, we infer that the power is equal to half the resistance, or

Angelic harmonies.”

Milton, “Paradise Lost," weight raised.

“Sensations are impressed either at the same instant of time, or in If the two portions of the rope be not parallel, as in the contiguous successive instants. Hence it follows that the corresponding morable pulley represented at Fig. 69, the resistance, w, is associations are either synchronous or successive." --Belsham, "Philosophy equal and opposite to the resultant of the two equal strains on of the Mind.” the portions of rope attached to the hook a, and turning round Tetra, of Greek origin (Tetpa, tet-ra, four), appears in tetrathe fixed pulley b. The angle between these portions is bisected gonal, four-angled; tetrameter, a line consisting of four measures by the vertical line w t; and if we measure on the rope wb, a or feet, and in tetrarch, properly a governor of a fourth part, a portion, w g, equal to the power, and draw from g a line, g t, subordinate prince. perpendicular to w t, to meet that line in t, twice w t will repre- "And Eroude tetrarck herde alle thingis that weren don of him.”_ sent the resistance.

Wiclif, Testament” (Luke ix. 7).

Trans, in Latin, across, as in transpose, to put across from one
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—XIV. place to another; transport, to carry over the sea.
DERIVATION: PREFIXES (concluded).

“ With transport views the airy rule his own,

And swells on an imaginary throne."-Pope. Soli, of Latin origin (solus, alone), is seen in soliloquy (Latin, loquor, I speak), a speaking alone, being the only speaker; called trident (Latin, dens, a tooth), Neptune's sceptre; in trilateral

Tri, of Latin origin (tres, tres, tria, three), appears in triangle; also a monologue ; and in solifidian (Latin, fides, faith), one who (Latin, latus, a side), three-sided, and triliteral, having three supposes faith, and not works, alone necessary to justification.

letters, etc. "Such is the persuasion of the Solifidians, that all religion consists in believing aright."-Hammond.

When a county is divided into three of these intermediate juris

dictions, they are called trithings. These trithings still subsist in the Step, of Saxon origin, from steopan, to bereave, whence the county of York, where, by an easy corruption, they are denominated Anglo-Saxon, steop-cild, step-child, a child that is deprived of a ridings-the north, the east, and the west riding.–Blackstono, “ Com. parent. From this use the term steop or step was applied to mentaries." relatives that stood in a similar position, and thus we have steop- Vice, of Latin origin, signifying in the place of, as in vicegerent modor, a step-mother; steop-dohter, a step-daughter; steop-faeder, (Latin, gero, I bear), one governing as a substitute, viceroy, or 2 step-father; steop-sunn, step-son.

“ vice-king," see Hakluyt; also, vice-chancellor, vice-president. Sub, in Latin, under, as in subterranean (Latin, terra, the

“In the yeare 1228, one Reginald was viceroy, or petie king of Man."earth), under the earth; submersion (Latin, mergo, I dip), dipping; Holinshed. subscribe (Latin, scribo, I write), to write the name under a document. Sub may denote an inferior degree of the quality of who is in the place of another, hence a “vicarious sacrifice.”

Vicar (Latin, vicarius), comes from vice, and so denotes one the adjective to which it is prefixed, as sub-acid ; sub-deacon, an under-deacon (Greek, Olakovos, di-ak'-on-os, a servant). Sub

“ Nature, the vicare of the Almighty Lord,

That hote, colde, hevie, light, moist, and drie becomes suc in succession, succumb, etc.; suf, in sufficient,

Hath knit, by even number of accord, suffragan, etc.; sug, in suggest, suggestion, etc. ; sum, in sum

In easie voice, began to speak and say."-Chaucer. mons, etc. ; sup, in support, etc.; sur, in surprise, etc.; and sus, in sustain, etc.

“Then it was devised that, by their common seal(which is the tongue " To purse

of their corporation), they might appoint a deputy or vicar to do it

for them."-Spelman, "On Tythes."
The growing seeds of wisdom that suggest,
By every pleasing image they present,

Viscount is made up of the same prefix—that is, vice-and
Reflections such as meliorate the heart,

the Latin word comes, a companion, in low Latin count or earl ; Compose the passions, and exalt the mind."

so that viscount (pronounced vi'count) is the deputy, the lieutenant

Cowper, Task.of the count or earl. " Summons is a warning to appear in court at the return of the “ The viscont, called either procomes or vicecomes in time past, go. original writ, given to the defendant by two of the sheriff's messengers, verned in the countie under the earle, but now without any such called summoners."--Blackstone, " Commentaries."

service or office; it is also become a name of dignity next after the "The thing seemed not supportable to the noble prince, King Henry earle, and in degree before the baron."—Holinshed, Description of the Eighth."-Smith, Commonwealth."

England." "This impulse is the emotion or term surprise."-Cogan, On the Passions."

Ultra, of Latin origin (ultra, beyond), is used in ultramarine " It hopith alle things, it susteyneth alle things."—Wiclif, "Testa. (Latin, mare, the sea), properly, beyond the sea; applied to colour, Trent," 1 Cor. xiii. 7.

fine blue. Subter, meaning under, is sub in another form, and appears in

“ Ultramarine or azure is a very light and a very sweet colour." subterfuge (Latin, faga, flight), an evasion.

Dryden, “ On Painting." "The last is rather a subterfuge than an objection.” -More, “Immor. The blue colouring matter of the lapis-lazuli, or azure-stone, is tality of the Soul."

called nltramarine. Super, of Latin origin, the opposite of sub, signifies over, above, viviparons (Latin, pario, I bring forth), bearing (its young) alive.

Vivi (Latin, vivus, alive) appears in vivify, to make alive ; and in as in supernatural, above nature; supermundane, above the world; supervision (Latin, video, I see), overlooking.

" The usual distinction of animals, with respect to their manner of

generation, has been into the oviparous (Latin, ovum, an egg) and vivi"If a grammatical foundation be not laid deep at an early age, it parous kinds; or, in other words, into those that bring an egg, which will not often be laid in such a manner as to bear a large superstructure." is afterwards hatched into life ; and those that bring forth their young

alive and perfect.”—Goldsmith, “ Animated Nature.”

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-Snor.

I'm, of Saxon origin, not, reverses the meaning of the word to In this summary of prefixes in English, there are 41 prefixes When it is prefixed, as unnatural, not natural, the opposite of of Greek origin, 58 of Latin origin, and 15 of Saxon origin, making pataral.

in all 114 prefixes. “Thus was I, sleeping, by a brother's hand,

This statement presents some curious facts in the way of Of life, of crown, and queen at once despatched;

deductions. Out of 114 prefixes in English, only fifteen belong Cat off even in the blossomes of my sinne,

to the language of our nurseries. How largely indebted then Inhousi'd, disappointed, unanel'd."

must the English be to the Greek and the Latin; and how Shakespeare, Hamlet."

necessary to every student of English is some acquaintance with Tianeld is undiled, not having received the oil of extreme unction; those languages. Let it be observed that it is not merely that disappointed means not prepared. To housel is to minister the in English there are ninety-nine

prefixes derived from the Greek communion to one who is on his death-bed. Housel comes from and the Latin; but these prefixes enter into combination, and the Saxon husel, the host, or sacrifice of “ the sacrament of the form very many words, the exact meaning of which can be known Lord's Supper."

by those only who are acquainted with their compound parts. C'n, from the Latin unus, one, is exemplified in unanimous Truly ours is a composite language. It is also a rich language, (Latin, animus, mind), of one mind; in uniparous, bearing one and has great flexibility, owing to the diverse sources whence at a birth; in unison (Latin, sonus, sound), one single sound ; in its vocabulary comes. How poor comparatively would the lanunivocal (Latin, vox, a voice), having one voice or meaning. Un, guage have been, but for the treasures it has derived from the of Saxon origin, has in some measure yielded to in; thus, for classical tongues! the old form unperfect, we now say imperfect. “ Unpossible" Since so many of our prefixes are of foreign origin, our comis quite obsolete.

pound words must also be to a large extent of foreign origin. Under, of Saxon origin, is found in such words as undersell, Consequently monosyllables may in general be regarded as underprop, undervalue, underwent. In the word understand, Saxon. the derivative or secondary meaning is very remote from its I have given above the Greek, the Latin, and the Saxon, as primitivo; namely, to stand unler. Undertaker and underwriter the sources whence our prefixes are derived. The French might have, in process of time, come to have very special significations. have been added; but the French is not an original source; Undertaker, originally one who took on himself a certain duty, words derived by us from the French may in general be traced is at present applied to persons who are entrusted with the back to the Latin as their parent. management of funerals; and underwriters, properly signifying A little attention may lead the student to suspect that there those who wrote (their names) under a legal document (in Latin, is some genealogical connection between the three sources of our subscriptor), is a word limited to persons who render themselves prefixes. By comparing particles together, he might be led to liable in a policy of marine insurance.

trace a resemblance between dia and dis; hemi and demi; her Uni, of Latin origin (unus, one), occurs in unicorn (Latin, and sic; hept and seven ; holo and whole; in and in; en and in; cornu, a horn), an animal with one horn; and uniform (Latin, non and not, etc. In reality such a genealogical connection does forma, form), having one form.

exist. The Greek, the Latin, and the Saxon (or Teutonio) are Up, of Saxon origin, is found in uphill, uphold, uplift, upspring, sister languages, being branches from the one stem called by upstart, etc.

linguists the Indo-Germanic or Indo-European stem, which A summary of these prefixes arranged according to the sources comprises the Sanscrit, or the old sacred tongue of Hindostan; whence they are derived, is presented in the following tables :- the Celtic, or parent of the Gaelic ; the Erse, the Latin, the 1.--PREFIXES FROM THE GREEK.

Welsh, the native Irish; and the Teutonic, the parent of the 1. A, not.

Greek, the German, the Dutch, and the Saxon-English. This 15. Hept, seven. 29. Ortho, straight. 2. Amb, about. 16. Hetero, another's. 30. Pan, all.

family of languages then extends, you see, with some exceptions, 3. Ana, up. 17. Hex, six.

31. Para, by the side of. from the banks of the Ganges to the western shores of Ireland. 4. Anti, opposite. 18. Hier, sacred. 32. Pent, five.

It extends also from the North Cape to the Strait of Gibraltar. 5. Apo, from. 19. Holo, whole. 33. Peri, around.

The epithet Indo-Germanic is in origin prior to the epithet 6. Arch (k), first. 20. Hyper, above. 31. Phil, fond of. Indo-European. Indo-Germanio was intended to include two 7. Auto, himself. 21. Hypo, beneath. 35. Phys, natural.

classes of languages, namely, the Sanscrit (Indo) and the Ger8. Cata, down, 22. Melan, black. 36. Pleos, full.

manic (Teutonic or Saxon); but when it had been ascertained 9. Deca, ten. 23. Meta, after.

37. Poly, many. that the Celtic was a kindred tongue, a more comprehensive 10. Dia, through. 24. Meter, mother. 38. Proto, first. 11. En, in 25, Micro, small. 39. Pseudo, false,

epithet was required, and Indo-European was formed. But 12. Epi, upon. 26. Mono, alone. 40. Syn, with.

Indo-European errs somewhat in excess, since some dialects 13. Eu, well, 27. Neo, new. 41. Tetr, four.

spoken in Europe are not of Indian, Celtic, or Teutonic origin. 14. Hemi, half. 28. Olig, feu.

That the English, as well as the Greek and Latin, is connected

with the Sanscrit, may be seen by comparing together these 2.-PREFIXES FROM THE LATIN.

numerals in the different tongues. 1. A, from.

21. Magn, great. 41. Quadr, four. 2. Ad, to. 22. Mal, bad. 42. Quinque, five.

Sanscrit. Greek, German, English. Latin. Erse. 3. Ante, before. 23. Mille, a thousand. 43. Re, back.

1. eka

ein

unus 4. Bene, well. 21. Mod, limit. 44. Rect, right, 2. dwi

duo
5. Bi, twice.
25. Molli, soft.

straight.
3. tri

three tres 6. Cent, hundred. 26. Mort, death. 45. Retro, backuards. 4. chatur tettar vier four

quatuor keathair pedwar 7. Circum, around. 27. Multi, many. 46. Se, apart.

5. panchan pente

fünf
five quinque kuig

pump 8. Cis, on this side. 28. Non, not.

47. Semi, demi.
hex sechs six

chwech 9. Co, with, 29. Ob, towards. 48. Sept, seven.

7. saptan hepta sieben seven septem secht 10. Contra, against. 30. Octo, eight.

49. Sex, six.

8. ashtan okto acht eight octo ocht 11. De, dounwards. 31. Omni, all.

50. Soli, alone.
9. Davan enneka neun nine novem

not
12. Demi, half.
32. Par, port.
51, Sub, under.
10. dasan deka zehn

decem deich deg 13. Dis, apart, not. 33. Per, through. 52. Super, over. 14. E, out of. 34. Pleni, full. 53. Trans, across.

To you there may not seem the close resemblance among these 15. Equi, equal. 35. Post, after. 54. Tri, three.

words, soverally, which is obvious to the student who is aware 16. Extra, beyond. 36. Pre, before.

55. Ultra, beyond.

of the changes which letters undergo in allied tongues, from 17. In, in, into. 37. Preter, against. 56. Uni, one.

laws and influences peculiar to each separate language; but 18. In, not,

38. Pro, forucard. 57. Vice, in place of. surely there is enough in the tabular view just given to illustrate 19. Inter, beveen. 39. Pusill, little. 58. Vivi, alive. what I state as a fact; namely, that the languages, of which 20. Intra, within. 40. Putri, rotten.

specimens appear above are kindred languages. Look, for 3.-PREFIXES FROM THE SAXON.

instance, at the forms through which the numeral three passes, 1. A, in, on, 6. For, the reverse.

thus : tri, treis, drei, three, tres, tri, tri.

11. Out, not in. 2. Be, intensive. 7. Fore, in advance. 12. Step, bereavement.

From these statements you will see that words which are 3. By, instrumental. 8. Mid, half-way. 13. Un, not.

found in the Sanscrit, the Greek, and the Latin, or in the 4. Down, descent. 9. Mis, failure. 14. Under, beneath, Sanscrit, the Saxon, and the Erse, may be designated Indo5. Ever, always. 10. Over, above. 15. Up, upwards. European, inasmuch as they exist in the three great branches of

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that stalk-I mean in the Sanscrit, the Celtic, and the stone, or rather of rocks, so rude and so immense that Pausanias, Teutonic.

in speaking of the walls of Tiryns, near Nauplia, in Greece, Of these three-namely, the Sanscrit, the Celtic, and the built thirty-six centuries ago, describes them thus :-“ These Teutonic-the first may be considered as the most ancient walls are constructed of unhewn stones, and are all of such tongue; the second stands next in age, and the third is the dimensions that a yoke of oxen could not shake the smallest of Foungest.

them. The interstices are filled up with smaller stones, which You have been led to regard monosyllables as to a large ex- serve to unite the larger ones." These walls present the same tent of Saxon origin. But many words, commonly considered appearance now which they did in the days of Homer and of Saxon, are rather Indo-European, being found in Sanscrit, in Pausanias. They are about 25 feet thick, and about 43 feet in Greek, and in Latin, or in one of these besides the modern English. height. Two temples, close to each other, in the island of Gozo, Such words as know, lick, break, yoke, sit, are the common near Malta, are analogous in their construction to the walls of property of the Sanscrit, the Latin, the Greek, the German, and Tiryns. They are built of immense blocks of stone, forming a the English.

sort of artificial hill, in which are placed the naves and arches Had I space to exhibit the proofs of the relationship of these of the temples; but some of the rocks bear traces of the mason's languages, I should dwell on the similarity which prevails in tools. the modifications of number, person, case, tense, etc., which It has been proved, by careful examination, that these edifices they severally undergo ; but I can, in addition, do nothing more were dedicated to the gods of Asia. To conclude: the walls of than set down in different tongues the variations of a few words Tarragona, on the east coast of Spain, are constructed, like the of universal prevalence, which indicate a common origin. preceding, of immense rocks in their natural state. The appli

cation of instruments to building, at a later period, caused the English. Sanscrit. Greek. Latin. Teutonic. Celtic.

edifices of the Pelasgians to assume another form. The stones Father pitri (pader) pater pater vater athair taken from quarries were cut into irregular polygons, and placed Mother matri meter mater mutter mathair

one upon another in such a manner as to make the different Son sunu

faces of the geometrical figures which they employed coincide, Daughter duhitri thugater

dauhtar dear Brother

the salient angles filling up the re-entrant angles formed by two bhrati

phrator frater brothar brathair Sister swarsi soror swistar siur

adjoining stones in a manner precisely similar to that used in Man manu homo

the present day for building walls of Kentish ragstone or DevonWoman vamani

femina

femen shire limestone. This was the ordinary manner of building Eye akshi

okko oculus
augo

under this system of construction. It is met with from Lake Nose

Van, on the frontiers of Armenia, to the west of Italy, Sardinia, Tooth danta odont dent thuntu dend

and the Balearic Isles; and it is found in temples and in tombs, Sun heli

helio sol
sauil haul

in public and private buildings, and in innumerable military Moon

mensi

mios

constructions. At last, a third method presents itself in the uda udat unda vato

dour
Day
dyu

dio
diu

walls of these early buildings-namely, that in which the

dag dia Sea mira

mari marei

muir

stones are fashioned in the square form ; and the buildings Light loch (to see) leuko luc licht lhwg

themselves, assuming the same form, exhibit a greater degree of civilisation, and the invention and application of more exact

instruments. The walls of the ancient Mycena were built in LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-III.

this manner.

The continued and progressive order of these Pelasgic conCYCLOPEAN OR PELASGIC ARCHITECTURE-EARLY MONUMENTS.

strictions is one of the most interesting facts in the history of AFTER the brief sketch of the origin of architecture in our the art of building-particularly when we refer them to an last lesson (Vol. I., page 369), we must notice in proper order antiquity which goes back to the heroic time of Greece. that system of construction, the monuments of which cover a Doubtless the gradual improvement which is to be seen in the great part of the Old World. This system had its origin among walls constructed by this original people, does not reveal all the the Shernitic tribes, which at the commencement of civilisation revolutions of this art in early antiquity; but it enables us to peopled the fairest part of the globe. This early system, noted perceive the progress of the greater part of the civilised world, a for the rudeness of its form, its stability without mortar, and progress which it must necessarily follow, because it is the the great size and irregularity of its materials, is attributed to nature of all human inventions to pass from early and rude the Pelasgians, a people originally from Upper Asia, who, attempts to successive periods of improvement and perfection. according to Herodotus, spread themselves over Phoenicia and The Pelasgic monuments, sketched and studied at the present Asia Minor, and colonised Greece and Italy. Examples of day, extend over a zone which, comprising the breadth of this style of architecture, called Pelasgic, are found extending Western Asia, stretches over Greece and Central Italy ; and from the borders of Persia and Armenia to the western limits this is not the whole of the ancient world, as we have already of Asia. The term "Cyclopean” is also applied to this kind of said, in which early monuments composed of rocks in their architecture, because, in Greece, these buildings of huge rough natural state have been seen by ancients and moderns; but blocks of stone were fabled to be the work of the Cyclopes--a they have been discovered in all the northern countries, and race of giants with one eye in the middle of the forehead, who in Africa, from Egypt to the neighbourhood of Carthage ; and laboured at the forges of Vulcan, the fire-god of the Greeks, and we have reason to believe that in these countries, to the primipatron of allavho wrought in iron. Crossing the Mediterranean, tive constructions, a second period succeeded, more refined in its it spread over Greece, where the most remarkable monuments productions, and forming a step from the first attempts to the described by ancient authors, from the age of Hesiod and more perfect examples, of which we behold the numerous ruins Homer, are traced, according to tradition, as far back as eighteen in India, in Central Asia, in the valley of the Nile, and in the centuries before our era. This was the style of construction oases of the desert. These monuments of transition, so to speak, used in the heroic times of ancient Greece; and at a later period have disappeared under early and actual civilisation, and have it was employed on certain important occasions.

even escaped the investigation of travellers. The migrations of the Pelasgi carried this system into Italy, and we meet with it at every step, particularly in the central

FIRST REGULAR CONSTRUCTIONS, PYRAMIDS, ETC. countries. Examples are also to be seen in nearly all the western The Pelasgi, proceeding from the Asiatic plateaus, or tableislands of the Mediterranean, in the Balearic Isles, and some lands, directed their steps towards the west; other Shemitic even on the coasts of France and Spain. In fine, by a remark. tribes marched towards the south and east, and peopled India, able coincidence, travellers who have drawn and described the Persia, Assyria, and Arabia, as well as Ethiopia and Egypt. monuments of Palenqué and Papantla, cities of Mexico destroyed The art of these tribes, like that of the western branch, passed long ago, and grown over by forests, exhibit constructions through a rude and primitive state, as we have shown-through similar to those of the Pelasgi. The gigantic remains of the the BETH-EL style, or constructions in unhewn stones. It Pelasgic monuments, to this day subjected to examination by cannot be supposed that these tribes were more privileged than travellers, bear traces of different modes of building. Those others, and were able, without previous attempts, to hew stones which seem to be the most ancient are composed of blocks of regularly, to mould and cement bricks, and to give to the union

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