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RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.

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to complain), the complainant in a suit in opposition to the Catch a full-grown frog, place him under a glass vosgel into defendant. Plaintiff and plaintive are the same words differently which air can freely enter, and watch him. How he puffs ! employed.

What causes that gasping, gulping motion in his throat? He “We were here entertained with an echo repeating a whole verse in is swallowing air, and forcing it into the lungs. The task is a softer and more plaintive tone, indeed, but with surprising precision evidently a laborious one; see how tightly he shuts the mouth and distinctness."-Eustace, "Italy."

at intervals, lest the air should escape. Why must the creature Ir. For remarks on this suffix and its meaning, see Or.

use such violent efforts to keep its lungs inflated, when we breathe almost unconsciously? Our ribs keep the chest ex

panded without exertion; but the frog has no ribs, and a RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.

succession of "gulps" is necessary to draw suffioient air into

the lungs. No doubt the absence of ribs is good for the frog, THE FROG.

but the work of filling “ the chest" is much harder in conse"WHAT are the frogs about this morning, mother?” said a quence. When a man is engaged in strong exercise, and requires keen little country boy to a stout dame, who was carrying on an increased supply of air, the mouth is opened to allow of more her head a basket of live poultry to the neighbouring market free breathing; but if we keep the frog's mouth open for a short town. “Oh, bless'ee, child,” replied the matter-of-fact woman, time, the animal dies from suffocation. The frog can, how"how should I know what the frogs be a-doing? Thee'd better over, absorb air through his skin, having in this respect some be a-larning yer Catechism for schoolmaster, than go a wool advantage over us. Indeed, the covering me abrane of this gathering about them frogs." The boy felt he should get no animal may be called an absorbing machine, ar by it the reptile help from “mother," though he“ did mightily wish to know" | can imbibe, in a short time, water equal in woght to that of the what made the frogs croak so much in the early twilight of that whole body. Suppose a man weighing cne hundred pounds spring morning.

were oapable of absorbing through his skin, in one hour and a Now, reader, can you tell why the frogs were thus croaking half, a hundred-weight of water, this would only be on a par with from overy shallow pool and moat ? Draw near to the places the imbibing power of the frog. Thus it happens that the whence the sounds proceed. What multitudes of frogs are just animal has generally a supply of water at command, and when showing their heads above the water ; how earnestly they give suddenly startled from a soft resting-place, indignantly ejects a out that croak, croak, croak; and their bright eyes show a quantity of pure water at the intruder. At one time this singular excitement for such cold creatures! See what & gluey. emitted fluid was supposed to be poisonous; but if any reader like substance, speckled with numerous black spots, floats on is enthusiastic enough to taste the liquid, he will ascertain its the water. Ah! that explains the agitation in the frog kingdom nature. There will not be much to boast of in this feat, the this morning. The race of these creatures is not to perish, like experiment having been often made. the dodo or the old English rat; provision is now being made The skin of the frog is, in places, 80 transparent, that the for the next generation of these unlovely but interesting reptiles. blood may be seen circulating in the vessels beneath, by the The black specks in that jelly-looking substance are the eggs, aid of a powerful microscope. The foot shows this beautiful which have just been deposited, and the parents are singing a process in the most impressive degree. merry ditty on the happy occasion. By each one of those female Can a frog bite? The reader can put his finger for a short frogs above 1,200 eggs will be placed in the water, where the time into the reptile's mouth, and thus get a reply for himself. kun will gradually develop the hidden life in each dark speck. We say for a short time, presuming that the experimenter does

Has the reader ever traced the growth of a frog from the not wish to suffocate his frog, which would be the result of long egg? The process is worthy of observation. Let us collect keeping its mouth from closing. Well, our naturalist has made some of that substance in which the eggs are embedded, and the trial, and finds that nothing like a bite can be given. There place it in a vessel, with some of the water and weeds from the are, indeed, about eighty teeth in the mouth, but they are all in pool. We may now be able to watch all the changes. What is an undeveloped state. The frog can “ bolt," but not masticate the first transformation? The eggs become marked with little its food, and why teeth are given at all is a mystery. furrows, some vital power being clearly at work within. Next The use to which a frog or toad can put its tongue is best we see, in place of the egg, a tiny lump of jelly-like life, which seen when the creature is at dinner, feasting on insects and ants. clings to one of the water weeds. How does it hold on? By a The tongue then acts as a javelin, a trap, and a hand. How small sucker, which it clearly knows how to use. Is this, then, still the reptile stands, as he feeds; how rapidly that wonder. the first form of the frog baby? The reader may call it so, if fully elastic tongue darts out upon the unsuspeoting ants; how he please, but it is not a frog at all yet. Mark the third sure is the aim; how firmly the prey is held by the trap-like change; our bit of jelly has acquired gills and a tail, and see point; and how instantaneously the living food is hurried to the how swiftly it moves in the water. It is now really a fish, captor's mouth! When the meal is over the tongue is doubled though called a tadpole. But what is going to happen? The up, the tip being then at the back of the month. The frog may animal is changing again; a pair of hind legs are forming. well dispense with teeth, having such a compensating apparatus. This is the fourth state. What next? A pair of front limbs are The heart of a frog has some resemblance to that of a fish, developed, and it is now evident that the creature does not mean having, strictly speaking, but two divisions instead of the four to remain a fish; it has reached the fifth transformation. But found in the hearts of the larger animals. This reptile is rather what has become of the long tail ? Has a part dropped off ? a phlegmatic little fellow, the circulation of the blood being Certainly not; it has been absorbed into the animal's system, very slow, though quick enough for all his wants. and will soon entirely disappear. We have here reached the We have referred to the absence of ribs in the frog, but the sixth stage in a frog's life. The month now gradually widens, creature has a well-set, though short spine, and its muscular assuming the form which belongs to the fully-developed reptile. strength is enormons. Measure the length of a frog's leap, Are the transformations complete now? No; the most remark- when the jump is done in good style. It will often be found able change is the last. Hitherto the creature has breathed by that this dull-looking creature is able to leap about fifty times gills-2 beautiful living machine for obtaining oxygen from its length at one bound. If a man had muscular power equal water; but now a means must be provided for breathing air. to that of a frog he could clear 300 feet at a jump, and would Lungs, therefore, are gradually formed, and the whole series of be able to leap over a wall 100 feet high. What lover of gymwonderful transmutations is complete. Thus our frog has passed nastios will not henceforth look upon a frog with deep respect! through eight changes, each bringing him one step nearer to the These reptiles and their cousins, the toads, can endure surfinal shape and condition. All these mysterious processes can prisingly long fasts, for months sometimes, especially if allowed be noted by many readers for themselves, and some will, doubt the privilege of living in a damp place. They also reach a less, tako opportunities for tracing the frog from its cradle to comfortable old age, living to about fifty years, when permitted "full age." In warm and moist weather the newly-perfected to pass life in a quiet and do-nothing style. But some readers froga appear in such multitudes that the lanes swarm with the may here remind us that frogs and toads have been said to little creatures, and it is difficult to walk without stepping on live for hundreds of years, in the hearts of trees or rocks, them. Indeed the rustics of some districts believe in “frog without food or air. If this were so, we should say these were Blowers," thus accounting for the sudden and numerous swarms very lucky frogs indeed, and we should like to possess one of hopping reptiles.

of the breed. We may, indeed, offer a silver medal to any

one producing a frog which has lived even ten years without legs. We hardly know whether to pity the baby or the reptile food or air, without fear of being out of poeket by the proposal. | most. In some parts of Great Britain women believe that

Many of our readers are, of course, aware of the experiments stomach affections, and even consumption, may be cured by made to test the truth of such strange reports, but to others swallowing a frog alive! To judge by one case, the revolting they may be unknown, and we will therefore describe some of remedy was at least harmless; one of these frog swallowers them. Toads were selected for the experiments, but the results a Mrs. Mary Inglis, being alive in 1857, aged eighty years, would, doubtless, be true for frogs. A French naturalist enclosed Some Wiltshire farmers have a notion that live frogs are an three toads in close boxes for eighteen months; at the end of the excellent medicine for the “cud” disease in the cow, and adtime one was dead, and the remaining two in a dying state. Dr. minister the dose without the slightest regard to the frog's Macartney buried a toad in a vessel, covered with a slate only, feelings or the cow's tastes. a foot deep in the ground. At the end of a fortnight the creature Among the various species of frogs that exist, the tree-frog is seemed “ all right," and as plump as before. He then enclosed one of the most peculiar. It is found in Europe as well as diffethe same toad in an air-tight vessel, and buried it; in a week the rent parts of America and Asia. Speaking of the tree-frog, Sir animal was dead, and even much decayed. But the most deci. Emerson Tennent says: “In the shrubberies around my honse sive experiment was carried out by Dr. Buckland. He placed at Colombo (Ceylon), these graceful little frogs were to be found twelve toads separately, in twelve holes cut in blocks of soft in great numbers. They possess in a high degree the power of limestone, and also a like number of toads in twelve blocks changing their colour, and one which had seated himself on the of hard, flinty sandstone. Each of the twenty-four cells gilt pillar of a dinner lamp, was scarcely to be distinguished was covered with a plate of glass, over which a slate was from the ormolu to which it clung. They are enabled to ascend placed, and each cover firmly cemented to its own stone. glass by means of the suckers at the extremity of their toes." The imprisoned toads, thus

Literature has not scorned secured, were buried three feet

to notice the frog. Homer, an deep on the 26th of November,

ancient Greek poet, has repre1825. At the same time four

sented this sedate reptile as a toads were deposited in holes

warrior of mettle, in the comic cut in the heart of an apple

poem, "The Battle of the Frogs tree, the opening being securely

and the Mice.” The reader who plugged up. Four others were

wishes to see how the two also placed in a plaster of Paris

singular armies behaved will, of bowl, and completely covered

course, study the poem for him. with a luting. The thirty

self. The great comio post of two reptiles were examined

ancient Athens, Aristophanes, on the 10th of December,

named one of his dramas "The 1826. Mark the result. On

Frogs," and all who wish to that day every toad in the hard

hear how poetically these crear stones, all in the tree, two in

tures can chant, and what a the plaster of Paris, and all the

first-rate chorus they make, wil small ones in the soft limestone,

find their curiosity gratified in were dead. The remaining

that play. The ballad-makers two in the plaster were dying ;

of Queen Elizabeth's time must but several in the pervious

have seen something humorous stones were in tolerable health,

in this animal, as they have and of these two were actually

celebrated his courtship in the fatter than when placed in the

once-popular songholes. It is thought that some water had filtered through the

« The frog would a-wooing ride

With his buckler by his side." more porous stone, and insects had certainly penetrated into

The reader will not fail to obone cell. The surviving toads

serve the high respect paid to were placed in their respective

the creature in these verses; he holes for another year, and at

THE FROG.

is provided with a horse and a the end of that period all were

shield, being, in fact, treated as dead. Thus, not one toad out

of knightly rank. The modern of thirty-two could live even for two years, when deprived of version of the old ballad is, we regret, less dignified, though air and food. Yet there are thousands of people who still firmly more domesticbelieve that toads and frogs can exist for ages without nourish

“Froggie would a-wooing go, ment in the heart of a rock. No doubt these reptiles are often

Whether his mother would let him or no." found strangely enclosed in hollows of trees and stones; but if! The heralds, too, have complimented the frog by having some their hiding-places were closely examined, it would often be times placed his figure as a symbol on knightly tombs. It is found that some small opening existed, through which an egg supposed by some that three frogs constitute the proper national might have been carried by water. The animal, when hatched armorial bearings of France, instead of the three fleurdein its hidden rock-pool would be unable to escape, and an aper That this is not at all improbable, any one may see, who ture, however minute, would admit drops of water and even small take the trouble to compare an heraldio fleur-de-lys with the out insects, on which a frog might live comfortably for many years. line of a frog laid on its back and having its legs extended.

We need not inform the reader that one species of frog is We must not entirely pass over the connection of the 10% eaten in many countries, and is said to be as delicious as a crab. with science. Galvanic electricity is now a mighty agent, stoop They are sold in the markets, being first skinned alive, in which ing to cure “the rheumatics,” or whispering a telegram tom state the reptiles crawl about as if nothing extraordinary had India. What can that have to do with a frog? Many reade happened. This species, called the edible frog, is found in the will surely remember how galvanism was discovered by the fenny parts of Cambridgeshire, where its peculiar croak has vulsive movements of a skinned frog, which Madame Ga gained for it the poetic or ironical name of the "Cambridge had prepared for her learned husband's dinner. The repo shire Nightingale."

having been placed near an electrified substance, displayed taas Has the fror

employed as a doctor? To this strange strange muscular excitement which induced Dr. Galva question

Yes. In Lincolnshire and the sur investigate the matter. The inquiry ended, as we know, roumdi

1 perhaps still is, the custom to use great discovery which bears his name. this

5 sore mouth, called in those parts Thus, our frog has the fivefold honour of being harmless er aotually thrust the living animal habits, interesting for its transformations, useful as food, assu ng the struggling frog by its hind | ciated with literature, and connected with science.

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COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-III. to the performance of definite vital acts, which acts are there

fore done more efficiently, then the animal occupies a higher SUB-DIVISIONS OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM-TABLE OF SUB

station. Just as political economists will tell us that nations DIVISIONS OR CLASSES-PROTOZOA.

are more or less civilised in proportion as the principle of the The main divisions into which the animal kingdom is divided sub-division of labour is followed out in their communities, so were given in the last lesson. We have now to sub-divide the comparative anatomist will esteem that animal the highest these branches into classes, a class being the next lower deno- whose body is made up of the greatest number of diferent mination in our arrangement. The order in which we now organg. This idea has given origin to a technical term, which, enumerate the classes will be an ascending one. We shall though barbarous English, is useful for conciseness. When proceed from the lowest animals to the highest. This order is the reader meets with the expression that an animal manifests evidently the more scientific, because, other things being omitted greater differentiation of parts than another, he will henceforth from the consideration, it is always easier to proceed from the know not only what is meant, but also the bearings of the more simple to the more complex. Thus, in chemistry it is statement. Differentiation, however, must be distinguished usual first to treat of the

from multiplication of elements, or the most sim.

parts. The possession by ple forms of inert matter,

an animal of many organs and then to proceed to com

all alike in function and pounds, made by the unions

structure, is a sign rather of these elements. By this

of a low than of a high stamethod of procedure it is

tion. A worm's body is true that we deprive the

composed of very many student of anatomy who

rings, while the beo has has just commenced the

only thirteen at most; but, study of a valuable aid.

with the exception of the In studying the higher

head and tail segment of animals, a knowledge of

the worm, they are all alike, his own body, however su

while every ring of the bee perficial, the consciousness

is dissimilar. This latter of what he feels, however

animal, therefore, is much faulty the inductions there

higher, because it mani. from, and the constant pre

fests a greater differentiasence of a similar living

tion of organs. . subject on whom to expe

The tendency of an ani. riment, all furnish illustra

mal to produce a repetitions to the tyro of struc

tion of the same structure, ture in relation to life.

whether the structures so When, however, we begin

formed be set forth in a by a description of animals

radical manner or in a lonso far removed from him.

gitudinal series, is called a self as the Protozoa, there

"vegetative repetition of is nothing which he learns

parts." about them which fits in

The most prominent feawith his previous concep

WI.

ture in the vegetable forms tions. The animals them.

which clothe the landscape, selves can inspire him with

and which therefore give little interest as compared

to us our ideas of vegetable with those higher beings

life, is their unlimited with whom we have not

growth, resulting in the only an essential community IV.

almost infinito production of structure, but whose very

of like parts. The forest tree instincts and sympathies

has ten thousand leaves, we share. The student,

all built upon a framework however, should remember

of netted veins of the same that his conceptions of the

pattern. When the chestphenomena of life, and his

nut puts forth its " milky interest in animals, will

cones," it does so in rich dawn upon him with greater

profusion, and each of these clearness and a more genial

bears many flowers, all warmth. og he proceeds and I. AM@BA (AFTER PRITCHARD). II. SHELL OF POLYCYSTINA (MUCH MAGNI.

alike. Thus, the phrase arrives at the study of the FIED). III. SECTIONAL DIAGRAM SHOWING THE CIRCULATION IN A SPONGE

vegetative repetition is dehigher forms, by having

(AFTER HUXLEY). IV. GROUP OF VORTICELLA (MAGNIFIED). V. NOCTILUCA
MILIARIS (MUCH MAGNIFIED).

rived from the most promifirst mastered the succes.

nent feature presented to sive steps by which the great problem of life has been worked and impressed upon the mind as associated with vegetable life. out. One question must be answered before we can proceed Combining this idea of vegetable growth with the knowledge along the road which we have decided to be the best and safest. that the vegetable kingdom has never developed any organic When may an animal be said to be higher or lower than another form at all comparable for the exhibition of the higher functions in the scale of the animal creation? The self-complacent of life to those which we find in the animal kingdom, we assume assumption that man is the highest animal, and that an animal that this vegetative repetition of parts is a sign of a low grade is higher or lower in proportion as he is more or less like to of structuro : so doubtless it is, but it is not a sign of the lowest him, will serve us but little ; because, as we have seen, animals | grade. In tracing upward the different forms assumed by living cannot be ranged in a single series, and there is no link of animals, the idea strikes the mind that Nature's first effort was to connection between some of the branches we have given and form a simple individual like a cell. The next step seems to bo that to which we belong. One principle alone shonld guide us an indefinite multiplication of similar celliform bodies in such in our arrangement, and that is illustrated by the following connection with one another as to form an aggregate individual, axiom :--An animal may be said to be higher than another if and then these parts become more specialised and consequently its structure is more complex. If an animal performs many or more interdependent, and at the same time more definite and all of the functions of life by or through one structure, it is low fewer in number. in the scale ; but if certain parts are separated and assigned. In the following table we have, as far as it was possible, VOL. II.

34

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may be learnt by ear as well as nursery songs, and are so learnt easy to perceive musical effects, than to find words that will in large classes. Progress is thus made, but the pupil's great diffi- sufficiently represent them ; but if the names must be given, culty is in remembering, when fourths, thirds, sixths, sevenths this note should be called (in reference to its effect in a slow are grouped promiscuously together, what is the precise sound movoment) THE STRONG or firm NOTE. [mental effect] belonging to each. And to learn this without the Son has a similar effect to Doh, but is not equal to it in incessant practice of professional singers (which makes it an power. It may be distinguished (when sung slowly) as THE affair not of mind but of habit) an appeal must be made to the GRAND or clear NOTE. understanding, and the pupil must be taught the quality of the ME has a somewhat graver and softer effect than 80H. It sounds characteristic of each interval. . . . M. Jeu de may be denominated (especially in slow movements), THE Berneval's system (M. Jeu was professor of sight-singing at the STEADY or calm NOTE. Royal Academy of Music], which may be termed an intellectual When DOH, ME, and son predominate in a tune, they con. method, differs entirely from that of Wilhelm, which is purely tribute to its general character: if the movement be a quick mechanical from beginning to end. M. Jeu draws the attention one, great BOLDNESS and DECISION ; and if the movement be a of his pupils to the fact that each interval [it would be more slow one, they give it DIGNIFIED SOLEMNITY. Of course, the correct to say note of the diatonic scale has a sound so peculiar power of any particular note to give a character to the tune in to itself, that, when its character is once understood, they can which it occurs, will depend on the frequency and the emphasis never be at a loss to distinguish it from any other. For example, with which it is used, and will be modified, also, by the kind of the soventh (TE) may be remembered by noting its tendency to "measure" and the rhythmical arrangement in which it occurs. ascend to the eighth (Dow). The ear cannot rest or repose on | In studying the following examples, let the pupil always strike the seventh. It is a note of passage, leading to the ootave of the the chord of the key-note, and part, at least, of the scale before key. The fourth (FAH) and the sixth (LAH) are in like manner he begins to sing the phrase; for our assertions in reference to notes of passage, but having a tendency to descend. The fourth the mental effects of notes are not true, unless the ear is first (FAH) leads to the third (ME), and the sixth (LAH) to the fifth filled with "a sense" of the scale in which they occur. (son); while the first (DOH), third (ME), fifth (s0H), and eighth | For "dignified solemnity,” notice the power of DOH, ME, and (upper DOH), are all notes of repose-notes upon which the ear son in the following opening phrases from Handel. You will may rest-employed, therefore, as the concluding chord of every remark how, in each case, the great artist takes advantage of composition, and remembered with ease as the most natural these bold and grand notes to bring out, by contrast, & very progression from the key-note to its octave. For example : marked effect on some of the other notes, as with RAY on the

word "fair,” and with Fal on the word “Redeemer ;" but KEY G. Leading notes.

of these notes we shall speak afterwards. You will also notice how the "triple time" (trinary measure), in the second er. ample, allows increased emphasis and power to the great potes

which so fully express the grand and sure confidence of faith. fi-m :d | 1:-18 :d KEY F.

3 1 6 6 1 KEY G. Notes of repose.

S :d 1 d' :t.l S :1 1r:

| An - gelse - ver | bright and fair! ||

KEY D. ( t :-|d:-ll d:-|m:H 8 :-| d':7 8

1 3 6 8 (Let the learner in the old notation pay no attention to the new marks at the beginning of the staff. They will be explained

d':-:m.,rid :-:

1 f :-m:fim: in their place, and are inserted here for the sake of those who understand music. He has only to look for the place of DOH

I know that my Re- deem - er lives. I indicated by the square note as before.] The way to impress To illustrate the peculiar effect of ME, when sung slowly-50 these distinctions on the mind is, after having given the expla- full of SERENE REPOSE—it might be enough to refer to the nation, to sing or play to the pupil various intervals, and to calm and restful effect of the best known of all chants, of direct him to write them down, finding out for himself what the which the churches will never weary-Tallis's Gregorian Chant. intervals are by listening attentively. We would strongly re.

KEY F. commend the frequent repetition of such an exercise as one of the most profitable in which a pupil can be engaged. The teacher, however, must be careful, in singing, not always to use the same words or syllables, so as to give any other clue to the interval (noto] than the actual sound (mental effect] belonging to it. (This is the practice of “copying by ear," which we shall recommend to our pupils in its proper plag] As an instance of the facility with which this power may be acquired, we may mention that we once heard a little boy, under six years of age (taught by M. Jeu), name correctly the intervals of every chord we struck on the pianoforte, the boy standing with m : rid

Ihis back to the instrument. Perhaps it is only the children of musicians—in the habit of hearing musical sounds from the But another striking illustration occurs to us. A minister had woment of birth-who would at the same age attain an equal heard, and had been greatly moved by Mendelssohn's song proficiency; but there is practically no difficulty in teaching “Oh! rest in the Lord.” He preached on the text, and thought either children or adults to distinguish by the ear separate inter- much of that repose which comes, not with weariness or sleep, vals played upon a flute or a violin, and this kind of practice is but with living blessedness. Some time after, thinking on to generally as pleasing as it is profitable to the pupil.”

power of the notes of the scale, it occurred to him that Mendels Let us now simply state our own conclusions in reference to sohn must surely have expressed the idea of rest in God, chiefly the three principal notes of the scale, asking our pupils to by means of the third note of the scale, ME, which we bi verify or reject them by observation.

called the note of serene repose. “If by any other note," he Dou (being the "governing" note) gives a sense of POWER said to himself, “ that peculiar effect was produced on my to the hearer, and of SECURITY to the singer in a greater mind so strongly, then the theory about mental effects must degree than any other. The singer feels it to be the note to to the ground." He at once analysed the song, and tone which he can from any point, most easily return. It is more that the very first emphatic note was that which he bad e

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pected—that the power of this note was brought out, by placing it in ever-varying but most effective positions; and that, even when the key changes, the ear is surprised and pleased by the recurrence again of this same third note in the new scale. Among other studies in this delightful song, it was pleasant to notice the change in the manner in which the word “Lord” is expressed in the latter part of the song. At first, it is attered with the firm and sure confidence of the note DOH; but, when that spirit of confidence has risen to a somewhat tri. umphant feeling, then it must use the “clear" and "grand" note son.

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KEY C.

d':- S: m .r:d.r.lm :r ld:-14trum - pets, I beat . .... the drums. II The chorus in Judas Maccabæus, “Lead on! Lead on!” begins thus :-KEY D. : 8 dl : s d' : 8 d': s d'. The call to arms in the same oratorio makes the most emphatic use of these notes. The most inspiring call is evidently that in which the “trumpet note" son is chiefly used. The following are some of the phrases in which the call to arms is the most bold and decided :

KEY с.

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r d :-1give the thy heart's de - | sires. Notice the effect of ME, in each case where it occurs on the strong parts of the measure, but especially in the last case in this quotation. What full-hearted satisfaction and perfect rest it brings? The words and the music aid each other to move the heart.

For the effect of "boldness and decision," which DOH, ME, and son (sung somewhat quickly) give to a tune, we may quote the martial music of Handel. “See the conquering Hero comes" begins thus :

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KEY G.

LESSONS IN GERMAN.—XXVII. SECTION LI.-VERBS REQUIRING THE DATIVE OR

ACCUSATIVE. SOME verbs govern the dative or accusative, according to their signification, as :-laß mir eine von deinen Büchern, leave me one of your books. laß mich zwei Worte mit deiner Mutter sprechen, let me speak two words with your mother. Er bekommt das Geld, he gets the money. Diese Speise befommt mir nicht, this food does not agree with me.

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