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characterised by animals with largely developed and multi-! Now these three forms of speech which I have just given tudinous feelers.
stand in Latin, thus :Finally, those animals which we call protozoa, on account of
S Pater est doctus the simple condition of their bodies, can manufacture, from their
Father is learned. jelly-like substance, any number of long feelers. These they
| Pater est doctior
Comparative often render so branched and long as to give to the animals the
Father is more learned. name of “rhizopods,” or “root-footed," because the feelers,
Pater est doctissimus
Superlative which also perform the function of feet, look like the branching
3 Father is most learned. roots of a tree.
Look at the terminations of the adjective. In the first case
it is us; that is the positive, or ordinary form of the adjective. We have now set before our readers the principal facts con. In the second case, it is ior: that is the comparative. In the nected with what are called in popular phraseology the “five third case, it is issimus : that is the superlative. You thus see senses;" and we have given, as far as the discoveries of physio- | that what in the English is expressed by more is in Latin exlogical science extend in the present day, a description of
pressed by ior; and what in the English is expressed by most the organs with which an all-wise and beneficent Creator has is in Latin expressed by issimus. Remember, then, ior is the furnished his creatures, from the protozoa, the first link in the form of comparison, issimus is the superlative form. Yon great chain of the animal kingdom, up to man, who stands
might thus obtain for yourself the rule, and say that to the but "a little lower than the angels,” to enable them to see, hear, stem of the positive add ior, and you have the comparative ; and smell, taste, and touch-five great powers wonderfully contrived to the stem of the positive add issimus, and you have the superto administer to our pleasure and gratification, as well as to lative. Such in reality is the rule. These two endings, ior m. onable us to discharge the several functions that form the work and f., ius n.; and issimus, a, um, are to bo added to the stem which He has allotted to each on earth.
of adjectives and participles, in order to convert the positive To enable the unscientific reader, and those even who can do degree into the comparative and the superlative. I subjoin some little more than read, to follow us step by step, and appreciate instances : and understand all that has been advanced, the description of each organ, its difference of formation in man and the lower
Læt-us, joyful l æt-ior, moro joyful ræt-issimus, most joyful, animals, and the various purposes for which it serves, has been
Pudic-us, modest pudic-ior, more modest pudic-issimus, most modest. given in language which we have carefully sought to render | Imbecin-us, weak imbecill-ior, weaker imbecill-issimus, weakest. as plain and clear, and as free from technical terms as possible. | Lev-is, light lev-ior, lighter
lev-issimus, lightest, When, however, it has been found absolutely necessary to use Fertil-is, fruitful fertil-ior, more fruitful fertil-issimus, most fruitful. technical names, which are applied by scientific men for the Dives Linh
Erich divit-ior, richer divit-issimus, richest, sake of brevity of expression, and a ready means of distinguish- | Divit-is sem ing one animal or organ from another, by reference to some
Prudens pru. prudent-ior, more pru- prudent-issimus, most prapeculiarity that it possesses, the explanation of these terms has
Prudent-iss dent dent
Amans been supplied directly or indirectly in the papers in which they
amant-ior, more loving amant-issimus, most loving, occur. The illustrations, too, that accompany the description
Felix ) of each organ of sense, will be found as useful by our readers in Felicis happy felic-ior, happior felic-issimus, happiest. enabling them to understand all that has been said of their formation, etc., as the map of a country, or the chart of a son If, however, the adjective ends in er, rămus is used instead is to him who would become acquainted with the physical con- of issimus, for the sake of sound, as :figuration of the former, or the heights and abysses that lie hid
Miser, unhappy, miserable; miser-ior, more unhappy; miser-rimske, from view beneath the waters of the latter. It may be as well most unhappy; pulcher (pulchr-i), beautiful; pulcbr-ior, more beautiful; to remind our readers that, in order to arrive at a thorough pulcher-rimus, most beautiful. comprehension of everything that is advanced in our lessons on Animal Physiology, they should be studied and mastered con
In like manner, vetus (gen. veter-is), old ; veter-rimus, oldest secutively from the first to the last. Under the diagrams that
(the comparative veter-ior is rarely used); also nuper-us, late accompany the lessons are given the technical names of the
(no comparative); nuper-rimus, latest. different parts of each organ under consideration.
The six adjectives which follow take limus in the superlative, In future logsons we shall enter on other branches of this
namely :great subject as interesting and important in every respect as
Facil-is, easy. (ficult. | Simil-is, like.
Gracil-is, thin. that which has been treated in the present series.
Diflicil-is, not easy, dif. | Dissimil-is, unlike. Humil-is, humblea
In full, thus :-
Facil-is, easy; facil-ior, easier ; facil-limus, casiest, etc.
There are some compound adjectives which form their com. DEGREES OF COMPARISON.
paratives and superlatives by endings different from these. When two objects are compared together, the ideas involved in Such adjectives are those which in the positive end in dicus, the words more and most come into prominence. Thus we say, ficus, and võlus; for instance, maledicus, magnificus, benetõlus. " the father is more learned than the son ;" * Cicero was the I have called these compound adjectives, because they are com most learned of the Romans." The question which we have to posed each of two words. Maledicus is formed from male, answer is, how are such forms of thought expressed in the badly (in an evil manner), and dico, I speak; and consequently Latin ? Observe that at the bottom of more learned and most denotes an evil-speaker; magnificus is formed from magnus. learned is the quality learned ; for no one can be more learned great, and facio, I do, and consequency denotes a great doet, or most learned without being learned. This ground quality is benevolus is formed from bene, well, and volo, I wish, and something positive, a real definite quality. Hence in grammar consequently denotes a well-wisher. To form the compared it is called the positive degree. It is the first step. A higher of these, add to the stem entior; and to form the superlative, step is indicated by our word more; and the highest by most. add entissimus ; thus:You thus see that besides the positive there are two other de
Superlatin. grees, of which the one is the higher, and the other the highest Maledic-us, abusive maledic-entior, more maledio-entissimus,. m of the three. The higher is called the comparative degree,
abusire. and the highest is called the superlative degree. Accordingly, Magnific-us, magnifi. magnific-entior, more magnificentissimus, there are three degrees of comparison, the positive, the compara
magnificent, tive, the superlative. It has been denied that the positive is a Benevolous, bonevolent benevol-entior, more benevol-entissima, ***
benevolent. degree of comparison. The term may not be rigidly correct, but it is in use, and no better substitute has been offered. Our business is not so much to criticise as to explain; and conse
• These comparatives and superlatives are evidently formed in the
regular way, from such nouns as maledicens, magnifices, and quently only then must we enter into criticism when it smooths
on, at least, are in use in the language, and have the same the way to explanation.
meaning as the other positives above given.
In Latin as well as in English, some adjectives depart from Ratio, -unis, f., reason (E. I, ratio). Simplex, simplicis, simple. the usual modes of comparison. As we say, positive, good; Res secundæ, favourable things, that Simulatio, -ōnis, f., simulation, comparative, better ; superlative, best; so the Romans said,
is, good fortune.
Sapientia, -, f., wisdom (E. R.' Sol, solis, m., the sun (E. R, solar). bonus, good; melior, better; optimus, best. Carefully learn by
Sonitus, -üs, m., a sound. heart the following
Secundus, -a, -um, favourable (E. R. Syracusæ, -arum, f., Syracuse. IRREGULAR FORMS OF COMPARISON.
| Valeo, 2, I am strong, I am worth
Simia, -2, f., an ape. [similitude). (E. R. valid).
Similitudo, -Inis, likeness (E. R. Velox, velocis, swift (E. R. velocity). Bonus, good melior, better
optimus, lest. Malus, bad pejor, worse pessimus, worst,
EXERCISE 45.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Magnus, great major, greater
maximus, greatest. 1. Nihil est naturæ hominis accommodatius quam beneficentia. 2. Partus, little minor, less minimus, least.
Nihil est amabilius quam virtus. 3. Lux est velocior quam sonitus. (plus (n.), more
4. Nihil est melius quam sapientia. 5. Multi homines inagis garruli Multns, much plures (m, and 1.) plurimi, very many.
sunt quam hirundines. 6. Paupěres sæpe sunt munificentiores quam (plura and pluria (n))
divites. 7. In adversis rebus sæpe sunt homines prudentiores quam Many Latin adjectives do not take any of these forms of
in secundis. 8. Divitissimorum vita sæpe est miserrima. 9. Simucomparison. Such are adjectives which have e before the ter
latio amoris pejor est quam odium. 10. Nihil est melius quam ratio.
11. Sol major est quam terra. 12. Luna minor est quam terra. 13. mination us; as idone-us, fit. These are formed by prefixing
Omnium beatissimus est sapiens. 14. Homěrus omuium Græcorum magis, more; and maxime, most; as, magis idoneus, more fit;
poetarum est veterrimus. 15. Adulatio est pessimum malum. 16. maxime idoneus, most fit: so, pius, pious ; magis pius, more Urbs Syracusæ maxima et pulcherrima est omnium Græcorum urbium. pious ; maxime pius, most pious. In the same way, form nearly 17. Pessimi homines sunt maladici, 18. Oinnium hominum maledi. all adjectives and participles ending in icus, imus, inus, ivus, centissimi sunt fratres tui. 19. In amicitia plus valet similitude orus, andus, andus, and bundus.
morum quam affinitas. 20. Soror tua amabilior est quam mea. In the English meanings added to facilis above, I have given
EXERCISE 46.-ENGLISH-LATIN. the forms easy, easier, easiest. Here you see changes made at the end of the positive, similar to those you have just been
1. Nothing is worse than the pretence of love. 2. The sun is very
great. 3. The sun is greater than the moon. 4. The life of men is instructed to make in the Latin. First, the positive easy is very short. 5. The richest are often the unhappiest. 6. The poorest changed into casi, and then to this, as the stem, we add er are sometimes the happiest. 7. The labour is very easy. 8. My for the comparative, like the Latin ior, and est for the super- | labour is easier than yours. 9. The customs (character) of men are latire, like the Latin issimus. This similarity of forms indicates very unlike. 10. The king is very free in giving. 11. The worst men in the two languages & sameness of origin. As too, in English, are not often happy. 12. Good men are happy. 13. Very good med we 19e more and most, so do the Latins use magis and maxime,
are happiest. 14. God is the happiest of all. 15. The best men are to denote the comparative and superlative. Magis and maxime
sometimes despised by the worst. 16. The health of my friend is very
weak. 17. Thy father's garden is very beautiful. 18. Thy son's most be used for this purpose, in the case of adjectives which
garden is more beautiful. 19. The labour is very difficult. 20. The do not admit the termination forms.
walls of the city are very low. 21. Most (plurimi) men love their Besides expressing the formal degree of comparison, the native country. 22. Nothing is better than virtue. 23. The port is Latin superlative signifies a very high degree of the quality in very much visited. 24. God is the greatest, best, and wisest of all. volved in the positive, as doctissimus, very learned ; pater tuus 25. The customs (or character) of the Lacedemonians were very est doctissimus, thy father is very learned. So in English, simpie. 26. The horse is very swift. 27. Ravens are very black. 28. Milton ases wisest :
Thy father is very benevolent and very liberal. 29. Thy brother
builds a very beautiful house. 30. A very beautiful house is built by “ The wisest heart
thy brother. 31. Virgins must (debeo) be very modest. 32. Thy Of Solomon he led by frand, to build
sister is more modest than thy brother. 33. The ape is like men. 34. His templo right against the temple of God.”
Is the ape very much like men ? 35. Of all animals the ape is most
like men. 36. Nothing is sweeter than friendship. 37. The LacedeLatin comparatives are declined like adjectives of two termi
monians were very brave. 38. Light is very quick. 39. Light is nations, and according to the third declension. Thus, positive
quicker than sound. altus, high, makes comparativo altior, higher; altior is masculine
** The Key to Exercisos in Lessons in Latin, XII., will be given in No. 28, and feminine, the neuter is altius. EXAUPLE OF A COMPARATIVE.—THIRD DECLENSION.
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XIII.
EXPLORATIONS AND DISCOVERIES IN AFRICA, 1830-1863. altior
altiora To give a detailed account of the additions that have been altiorum
made year by year to our stock of information respecting Africa altiori
by travellers and explorers in all parts of the continent since altius Ac. altiores
altiora altior altius altiores
the discovery of the principal embouchure of the Niger by the
brothers Richard and John Lander, would require more space
than that which we have at our command, as it is necessary now VOCABULARY.
to bring our sketch of the progress of geographical discovery to Accommodatas, -a, um, suited | Hirundo, hirundinis, f., a swallow. a close, and proceed with those portions of the subject which (E. R. accommodate, commodious). Homērus, i, m., Homer.
treat of the earth's position in space as one of the members of Adulatio, onis, f., flattery (E. R. Humilis, -e, humilis, low,
our solar system ; the great physical features of its surface; adulation).
Labor, -öris, m., labour. [nian. and its political division into states, empires, kingdoms and Affinitas, -ātis, ., rolationship Lacedæmonius, - , m., a Lacedemo republics, and their various subdivisions. All we can do is to (E. R, afinity).
Liberalitas, -ātis, f., liberality. Amabilis, -e, veorthy to be loved
touch briefly on the principal expeditions that have been set on Lupa, -æ, f., the moon (E. R. lunar). (E. R. amiablo). Lux, lucis, f., light,
foot to effect explorations in Africa since 1830, and to mention Amor, oris, m., lore (B. R. amorous). Mos, moris, m., custom; in the
the discoveries that have been made, first in Soudan or Nigritia, Beatus, -4, -um, happy.
plural, character (E. R. morals).
by Drs. Barth, Overweg, and Vogel ; secondly, in the interior Beneficentia, -, f., well-doing, kind Munificus, -a, -um, free in giving, of Southern Africa, by Dr. Livingstone and his companions ; estion (E, R, beneficence).
liberal (E. R. munificent).
and thirdly, in the eastern part of the belt of land that extends Beneficus, well doing, beneficent, | Murus, -i, m., a wall (E. R. mural). ten degrees north and south of the equator, by Burton, Speke, Brevis, -e, short (E. R. brevity). Natura, •æ, f., nature.
Grant, Baker, and Petherick. Celeber, -bris, bre, sought after, Niger, nigra, nigrum, black (E. R. In 1841, the British Government having resolved to effects visited (E. R. celebrity).
negro). Contemno, 3, I despise, contemn.
further exploration of the great river of Western Africa, Nihil (not declined), nothing. Corvus, i, m., a raven. Non nunquam, adv., sometimes.
Niger, and the densely populated countries through whic Crus, cruris, n., the leg (from the Odium, -i, n., katred (E. R. odious).
flows, sent out an expedition consisting of three steamers knee to the ankle). Pauper, pauperis, a poor man
Albert, Soudan, and Wilberforce. The vessels reached the Garralas, -a, -um, talkatire (E. R.! (E. R. pauper).
cipal mouth of the Niger in August, and the ascent of the parrulity). Quam, conj., than,
was commenced forthwith. The malaria aver, arising 1
the marsh lands and tangled jungle by the river-side, combined Linyanti in June, 1853, accompanied by Sekeletu, the chief o with the intense heat of the climate, proved fatal to the success the Makololo, and a number of his people, Dr. Livingstone proof the expedition. Fever broke out among the crews of the ceeded to explore the upper course of the Zambesi, which is vessels, and they were compelled to return and abandon the called the Leeambye above the Victoria Falls, a cataract not far enterprise after going northwards up the stream as far as Egga, from its junction with the Chobe. In his first journey from a large and populous town on the right bank of the Niger, about Linyanti he went northwards as far as the junction of the Leeba 325 miles from the sea, measuring in a direct line from the and the Leeambye, passing on his way Nariele, the chief town of mouth of the river Nun, the principal channel by which the the Barotse. In his second expedition from Linyanti, in Novem. waters of the Niger enter the Gulf of Guinea.
ber, 1853, he ascended the Leeba, reaching its source, a small Since that period the most notable journeys of exploration lake called Dilolo, in February, 1854. This lake is also one of that have been undertaken on the western side of Africa have the sources of the river Congo, or Zaire, whose principal headbeen the travels of M. Paul B. du Chaillu in 1856-59 in the stream is the Kasai. From this point Livingstone struck out equatorial tract watered by the Gaboon River, in which is the in a north-west direction for St. Panl de Loanda, on the west country of the cannibal Fans and the powerful gorilla ; and in coast of Africa, which he reached at the end of May. 1863-4 in Ashango Land and the country of the Ashiras, Leaving St. Paul de Loanda at the commencement of autumn, where he met with a race of dwarf negroes measuring from four and following the course of the Coanza for a considerable disfeet to four feet and a half in height, and having skin of a light tance, Livingstone and his party of Makololo arrived once more brown colour.
in the neighbourhood of Lake Dilolo in June, 1855, and reached In 1845-46 the great desert Sahara, which forms the barren Linyanti in the following September. From this point be centre of Northern Africa, bordered on the north and south by resolved to make his way down the course of the Zambesi to the a broad fringe of fertile country, teeming with luxuriant voge- coast, and he started on his new journey on November 3, 1855, tation, was explored by James Richardson, who visited the and arrived at Quilimane, on the north mouth of the river, in Touaricks and other wandering tribes of the people of Sahara, May, 1856, after travelling for nearly four years through the and has given a full account of the cities of Ghat, Ghadames, heart of Southern Africa from coast to coast. and Mourzuk, and the fruitful, well-watered oases in which they Dr. Livingstone then repaired to England, but after a brief stand. In 1849 he again set out to explore Central Africa, as rest he returned to Africa once more, to take command of an the leader of an expedition fitted out by the Foreign Office. To expedition that had been set on foot for the purpose of exploring this expedition Drs. Barth and Overweg were attached. Having more thoroughly the country watered by the Zambesi and its reached Tripoli towards the close of the year, they spent some tributaries. In this expedition he was accompanied by his time in making the necessary preparations for the journey, brother, Charles Livingstone, Dr. Kirk, Mr. Thornton, Mr. T. starting on their passage across the Sahara on March 23, 1850. Baines, and other Europeans. The chief result of their exploraIn the fall of the year they reached Damergu, and at this point tions was the discovery of the lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, from they separated, each traveller to pursue his explorations alone, the latter of which issues the river Shire, one of the northern and to meet his companions once more at Kukawa, the capital tributaries of the Zambesi. After traversing the country of Bornou, in the following year. Richardson died on his way watered by the Shire, and proceeding up the stream of the thither, at Unguratura, and Barth and Overweg were left to Zambesi as far as Victoria Falls, an attempt was made to explore continue their explorations alone. This they did with consider the Rovuma, a river a little to the north of Cape Delgado, which able success, but often at great personal risk, exploring Lake failed. A second attempt to ascend the river in September, Tchad and the rivers Shary and Yeon that enter it on the south 1861, was more successful, some rocky rapids being reached, and west, and traversing Bornon, Baghirmi, Kanem, and other about 160 miles from the mouth of the river, which prevented districts that lie grouped around the lake. On September 27, further progress. After spending some time in retracing his 1852, Dr. Overweg died, and Dr. Barth proceeded by way of steps over districts that he had already traversed, Dr. LivingSockatoo to Timbuctoo, which he reached on September 7,1853. stone returned to England in 1864. Here he remained until May in the following year, making While Livingstone had been busily engaged in South Africa, inquiries into the resources, commerce, and statistics of the sur other travellers, as we will show presently, had discovered the rounding country, when he quitted the city, in which he had large fresh-water lakes Albert Nyanza and Victoria Nyanza on spent eight months, and travelling along the left bank of the the equator, and Lake Tanganyika, the northern extremity of Niger as far as Say, he made his way once more by Sockatoo to which is about 100 miles to the south of the first named of Kukawa, and thence across the desert to Tripoli, arriving in these lakes. As it is doubtful whether Lake Tanganyika may England in 1855, after an absence of six years. A young not be the most southern of the great reservoirs which dis. German, Dr. Edward Vogel, who was sent out in 1853 to join charge their surplus waters into the Mediterranean through the Dr. Barth, was not so fortunate. . Ho did no fall in with Dr. channel of the Nile, Dr. Livingstone set out on another expedi"Barth, and while pursuing his explorations in Waday, a district tion in order to discover whether this were really the case or lying to the cast of Lake Tchad, he is supposed to have been not, and to explore the country between Lakes Nyassa and Tan. assassinated by order of the Sultan of that country.
ganyika, leaving the coast on his way inland in March, 1866. In Few travels in Africa, in the present century, have been the following year some deserters from his party spread a report attended with such important results, by way of extension of that he had been murdered on the west side of Lake Nyassa, our geographical knowledge of that continent, as the journeys of near its northern extremity. The researches of an expedition Dr. Livingstone in South Africa, from 1849 to the present time, sent out from England for the purpose of making inquiries into although it may be many years before our trade and commerce his fato, have disproved the assertions of the men who aban. may derive any perceptible benefit by the establishment of com- doned him; and it is possible that the traveller has been enmercial relations with the natives of those countries through gaged in exploring the coasts of Lake Tanganyika and following which he has passed. Some years previous to commencing his the course of the Nile northwards from its southernmost headexplorations Dr. Livingstone had been residing at Kolobeng, on stream through the chain of huge lakes that form such conspione of the head-streams of the river Limpopo, as a missionary cuous features of the country in Eastern Equatorial Africa. among the Bechuanas; and his visit to Lake Ngami, in 1849, In 1854, about the time when Livingstone was at St. Paul de seems to have created in him that zest for travel which has led Loanda, the first of a series of journeys was taken, that resulted him to traverse so large a portion of South Africa on foot, in the discovery of the great lakes about which we have just undeterred by the perils that beset the explorer on all sides, or been speaking. This was an expedition to Harar, a town in the the long years that he must frequently pass without meeting a country of the Somauli, abont 200 miles south-west, as the crow single human being who speaks the same language, or is even of flies, from Berbera, on the south coast of the Gulf of Aden. the same colour as himself. Two years afterwards he pushed The party was composed of Lieutenant (now Major) Burton, of his way northwards as far as Linyanti, the chief city of the the Indian army, Captain Speke, the discoverer of the Lake district inhabited by the Makololo, situated on the Chobe, one Victoria Nyanza, and Lieutenants Stroyan and Herne. A few of the southern affluents of the river Zambesi. On his return days after their return to Berbera, in 1855, they were attacked from this journey he determined to send his wife and children to by a party of Somauli, and in the conflict Stroyan was killed England, and having accompanied them as far as Cape Town ho and Captain Speke severely wounded once more turned his steps towards the interior. Starting from This, however, did not prevent Burton and Speke from prosecuting their explorations, and in June, 1857, they set out on an ex- of the observer must be fully prepared at all times to note down pedition inland from the coast of Zanzibar, having received in the peculiarities which influence the growth of trees and vegestructions from the Royal Geographical Society to proceed west- tation of all kinds and under all circumstances. When trees ward along the 6th parallel of south latitude, in search of some of are stripped of their leaves we have the advantage of studying the great lakes in the interior that were said to be in or near that the course of their growth Trees in winter are not to some latitade. Eight months later, in February, 1858, they stood on such interesting objects as they are when clothed with their the shore of Lake Tanganyika, about 600 miles from the coast; summer foliage, but to the student they offer, perhaps, even a and from the report of a nativo, who said there was a large stronger claim to his attention, as they present many features river running northwards out of the northern extremity of the which an uninterested eye would pass over as less worthy of lake, they believed they had reached the source of the Nile. regard. It is at this season that we have before us the skeleton This fact, however, they were not in a condition to prove, and or framework upon which depends the strength and proportion finding themselves exhausted by illness, fatigue, and privations, of the whole ; to understand a tree thoroughly we must be fully and harassed by the natives, they were compelled to leave the acquainted with its anatomy, that is, the character and dispoquestion in doubt, and retrace their steps to the coast. On sition of its branches. Trees individually differ as much in this their way back to Zanzibar, Speke left Burton at Kazeh, and respect as they do in their foliage, and therefore we are equally travelled northwards. His solitary journey resulted in the dis- capable of distinguishing any particular tree in winter as we are covery of the Victoria Nyanza, and to Speke belongs the honour in summer. Compare the branches of the oak with those of the of being the first Englishman whose eyes had rested on the poplar, the willow, or the cedar. The disposition of the oak, in broad expanse of the lake which is perhaps the largest, though a general way, is to send out its branches at right angles with not the only lake that helps to swell the waters of the Nile. the parent stem from which they spring (Fig. 98); the poplar
In 1860-63 Captain Speke, accompanied by a brother officer, collects its branches closer together, and lifts them upwards Captain Grant, travelled along the northern coast of the lake parallel with the main trunk; the willow droops; and the cedar Victoria Nyanza and countries in its vicinity, and found a large spreads out its branches horizontally. In short, each tree has its stream, now known as the river Somerset, issuing from the lake own marked characteristics in its ramifications, and is worthy at a point situated nearly in the middle of the north coast, and of as much attention and study in winter as when covered with falling at a short distance from its point of exit from the lake its fresh summer leaves. To draw a tree successfully we must over a broad ledge of rocks, forming a cataract which has been divide our attention between two important considerations. named Ripon Falls. Had the travellers been able to trace the First, the trunk and its branches ; second, the foliage. We Somerset northwards through the whole length of its course, repeat, that the first lesson to be received from nature is at the they would have found that it was only a head-stream of the time when the branches are totally bare of leaves, as then we Nile, and not the Nile itself; and they would have discovered can study to very great advantage the dispositions of the the Albert Nyanza, the lake from which the Nile really issues, trunk and boughs of every kind of tree separately, which, as we about forty miles northward of the point where the Somerset have remarked, may be called the skeleton framework of the enters the lake. Satisfied, however, that the sources of the tree, and it is evident, therefore, that the disposition of the Nile were discovered, they quitted the course of the river and foliage very materially depends upon the disposition of the proceeded northwards to Gondokoro, where they met Sir Samuel branches. We must now again recommend our pupils to follow and Lady Baker on their way to the south.
out the first instructions we gave respecting the drawing of a It was Sir Samuel Baker that ascertained in 1864 that the line, by first marking in with a point the place where the treo main stream of the Nile issued from the north of Lake Albert rises from the ground; then observe the inclination of the trunk, Nyanza, of which he is the discoverer. Worn out by illness and and place another point at that part of the main trunk from fatigue, he reached the edge of a precipitous line of cliffs tower which the first, and in most cases the largest branches start ing above the lake, one bright and beautiful morning, and beheld off; then observe the proportion that the remainder of the its waters spreading before him in every direction, with a back | tree, as a whole, bears to the part already marked in, and with ground of blue mountains in the western distance. “It was a few additional points determine the general size of the tree impossible," he writes, “ to describe the triumph of that moment. and the space it has to occupy upon the paper ; then return to Here was the reward for all our labour ; for the years of tenacity the points which are arranged for the commencement of the with which we had toiled through Africa. England had won the branches from the trunk, and mark in their courses and extent; sources of the Nile !"
join these points by lines, and lastly go through the same proWith a brief mention of Mr. Petherick (who has resided for cess with regard to the minor branches. All this is a preparacome years as consul at Gondokoro, and has explored a consider. tion for the completion of the drawing, and for where it will be able part of the country west of the Nile between Gondokoro necessary to follow out the mothod still further for the more and the Albert Nyanza) and Dr. Charles Beke (who has travelled receding branches; in short, we must allow nothing to pass through Abyssinnia, and who must be considered, for the present unnoticed in the arrangement that has the stamp of individuat all events, the chief authority on that country), as an inti- | ality upon it; after this the drawing will prove to be commation to the reader of sources from which he may derive paratively easy. When the places for the trunk, the most promuch useful and accurate information on the Nile countries, we minent boughs, and other branches are settled, the attention will close our historical sketch of the progress of geographical dis. only have to be directed to the form that each successive part covery from the earliest years to the present date.
presents. We will remind our pupils that there is a good moral maxim which we must follow in arranging the characteristic
parts of a tree, as well as in anything else, as it contains a prinLESSONS IN DRAWING.–XIII.
ciple applicable to drawing that should not be disregarded : let
each line individually be so placed that it may afford every OTR next subject in these lessons will be the theory and prac. advantage to its neighbour, and not take up the smallest space tiee of drawing foliage; by this we do not mean merely the which does not belong to it, or cause an adjoining line to be leafage of trees, but we include all herbs and plants that enrich pushed out of its proper place, or appear to claim for itself the ground, and add so materially to the effect of a picture by greater consideration than it justly deserves. The next important their variety of form, their colour, and wild luxuriant growth; step towards drawing a tree is the foliage : in this we must be all combining to make the meanest subject interesting. It guided principally by the light and shade ; when we look at a is not in the forest alone that we must look for beauty; a tree, the eye does not rest upon leaves singly, but upon foliago common without a single tree has its charms; its uncultivated collectively. The pupil may have remarked-if not, the obserand ondulating surface varied with patches of purple heath, vation we are about to make will induce him to consider itFellow furze, and ferns, its many irregular gravel-pits, over the that when we look at any object, but at trees especially, the eye sides of which grow untrained and uncared-for the bramble, the first rests upon the parts in light. They are the first to attract wild rose, the honeysuckle, the foxglove, with the broad-leaved the eye, and therefore, with regard to trees, it is the branches in dock-plant, will compose a picture in which all lovers of nature light upon which the eye rests, and it requires an effort to look must delight. Each season of the year makes its own demands into the shadows; it consequently follows that in drawing a upon our attention, each brings with it the changes of condi- tree we inust be especially careful to distinguish the lights, got tion to which the vegetable world is subject, so that the mind of course this is done by adding the shadows, but the sha: