Examples of Circumflex.

Tone of Mockery.---I've caught you, then, at låst!

Irony.-Courageous chief 1- the first in flight from pain!

Punning.-And though heavy to weigh, as a score of fat sheep, “INFLECTION" in elocution signifies an upward or downward

He was not, by any means, heavy to sleep. "slide" of voice, from the average, or level, of a sentence.

Example of Monotone.-Awe and Horror. There are two simple “inflections" or "slides,”--the upward or "rising," and the downward or “falling." The former is I could a tale unfold whose lightest word usually marked by the acute accent [']; the latter, by the grave

Would hürrow up thy sjul, frēeze thy young blood, accent [].

Make thy two éyes, like stárs, start from their sphères,

Thy knötted and combined locks to part, The union of these two inflections, on the same syllable, is

And each particular häir to stand on ēnd, called the “circumflex," or wave. When the circumflex com

Like quills upon the frētful pòrcupine. mences with the falling inflection, and ends with the rising, it is called the “rising circumflex," marked thus ['); when

Rules on the Rising Inflection. it begins with the rising, and ends with the falling, it is called Rule 1.—The “intensive" or high rising inflection expresses the “falling circumflex,” marked thus [^].

surprise and wonder, as :When the tone of the voice has no upward or downward slide, but keeps comparatively level, it is called the “mono

Há! laugh'st thou, Lochiel, my vision to scórn? tone," marked thus [-1.

Rule 2.—The “moderate” rising inflection takes place where Examples.-Rising Inflection.

the sense is incomplete, and depends on something which

follows :Intensive," or high, upward slide, as in the tone of As we cannot discern the shadow moving along the dial-plate, so we surprise :

cannot always trace our progress in knowledge. Há! Is it possible!

Note.-Words and phrases of address, as they are merely In the usual tone of a question, that may be answered by introductory expressions, take the "moderate rising inflection," Yes or No:

as :Is it really so ?

Friends, I come not hero to talk “Moderate" rising inflection, as at the end of a clause which

Sir. I deny that the assertion is correct. leaves the sense dependent on what follows it:

Súldiers, you fight for home and liberty ! If we are sincerely desirous of advancing in knówledge, we shall not Exception.--In emphatic and in lengthened phrases of address be sparing of exertion.

the falling inflection takes place, as :The "slight” rising inflection-marked thus [ ], is used On! ye brave, who rush to glory or the grave ! when the voice is suddenly and unexpectedly interrupted :

Soldiers ! if my standard falls, look for the plume upon your king's

helmet! When the visitor entered the room- . . *

My friends, my féllowers, and my children! the field we have The last-mentioned inflection may, for distinction's sake, be entered, is one from which there is no retreat. marked as above, to indicate the absence of any positive up

Gentlemen and knights--commoners and soldiers, Edward the ward or downward slide, and, at the same time, to distinguish

Fourth upon his throne will pot profit by a victory more than you. it from the intentional and prolonged level of the “monotone." Rule 3.-The “suspensive," or slight rising inflection, occurs

when expression is suddenly broken off, as in the following Falling Inflection.

passage in dialogue : “ Intensive," or bold and low downward slide, as in the tone

Poet. The poisoning dameof anger and scorn :

Friend. You mean

P. I don't. Dowx, ruthless insulter !

F. You do. The "full" falling inflection, as in the cadence at a period :

Note.--This inflection, prolonged, is used in the appropriate All his efforts were in vain.

| tone of reading verse, or of poetic prose, when not emphatio, The “moderate" falling inflection, as at the end of a clause instead of a distinct rising or falling inflection, which would which forms complete sense :

have the ordinary effect of prosaic utterance, or would divest Do not presume on wealth ; it may be swept from you in a moment.

the expression of all its beauty, The horses were harnessed; the carriages were driven up to the

Examples. door; the party were sdated : and, in a few moments, the mansion was left to its former silence and solitude.

Here waters, woods, and winds in concert join. The “suspensive," or slight falling inflection, marked thus

And flocks, woods, streams around, repose and peace impart. [ - ], as in the members of a “series," or sequence of words

The wild brook babbling down the mountain's side ; and clauses, in the same syntactical connection :-

The lowing herd; the sheepfold's simple bell; The force, the size, the weight of the ship, bore the schooner down

The pipe of early shepherd, dim descried below the waves.

In the lone valley ; echoing far and wide, The irresistible force, the vast size, the prodigious weight of the

The clamorous horn, along the cliffs above; ship, rendered the destruction of the schooner inevitable.

The hollow murmur of the ocean tide ; The “suspensive” downward slide is marked as above, to

The hum of bees, the linnet's lay of love,t distinguish it from the deeper inflection at the end of a clause,

And the full choir that wakes the universal grove. or of a sentence.

White houses peep through the trees; cattle stand cooling in the TABLE OF CONTRASTED INFLECTIONS.

pool; the casement of the farm-house is covered with jessamine and The Rising followed by the Falling.

hóneysuckle ;t the stately greenhouse exhales the perfume of summer

climates, Will you gó, or stay? Will you ride, or walk ?

Rule 4.-A question which may be answered by Yes or No, Did he travel for health, or for pleasure ?

usually ends with the rising inflection, as :Does he pronounce correctly, or incorrectly ?

Do you see yon cloud ? Is it the rising, or the falling inflection ?

Exception.-Emphasis, as in the tone of impatience, of extreme The Falling followed by the Rising.

earnestness, or of remonstrance, may, in such cases as the above, I would rather gò than stáy.

take the falling inflection, as :I would rathr- 12 than ride. He tray" - not pleasure.

* Shouting tone. not incorrectly.

+ The penultimate inflection of a sentence, or a stanza, sually rises, ising inflection.

so as to prepare for an easy cadence.

Cån you be so infatuated as to pursue a course which you know will Exception 1.-Emphatic, abrupt, and disconnected series, end in your rùin ?

may have the “ moderate" or the "bold” downward slide on Will you blindly rush on destruction ?

every member, according to the intensity of expression, as :Would you say so, if the case were your dren?

His success, his fàme, his life, were all at stake. Rule 5.-The penultimate, or last inflection but one, is, in

The roaring of the wind, the rushing of the water, the darkness of most sentences, a rising slide, by which the voice prepares for the night, all conspired to overwhelm his guilty spirit with dread. an easy and natural descent at the cadence, as :

Eloquence is action, noble, sublime, godlike action. The rocks crumble, the trees fàll, the leaves fáde, and the grass

The shore, which, but a few moments before, lay so lovely in its

calm serenity, gilded with the beams of the level sun, now resounded withers.

with the roar of cànnon, the shouts of battle, the clash of arms, the Erception.- Emphasis may sometimes make thè penultimate

curses of hatred, the shrieks of agony. inflection fall, instead of rising; as the abruptness of that slide gives a more forcible effect:

Exception 2.--Light and humorous description gives the

“ moderate" upward slide to all the members of a series, as :They have rushed through like a hurricane; like an army of locusts, they have devoured the earth; the war has fallen like a waterspout, Her báoks, her músic, her pápers, her clothes, were all lying about and deluged the land with blood.

the room, in "most admired disorder." Rules on the Falling Inflection.

Exception 3.—The language of pathos (pity), tenderness, and Rule 1.-_The intensive, downward slide." or "low." falling beauty---whether in verse or prose-takes the “suspensive,” infection, occurs in the emphasis of vehement emotion, as :

| or slight rising inflection, except in the last member of the

“commencing" and the last but one of the concluding” Os ! ON to the just and the glorious strife !

“series," which have the usual “moderate” rising inflection, Rule 2.- The “full ” falling inflection usually takes place atas :the cadence, or close, of a sentence, as :

No mournful flowers, by weeping fondness laid, No life is pleasing to God, but that which is useful to mankind.

No pink, no róse, drooped, on his breast displayed. Exception. When the meaning expressed at the close of one

There wrapt in gratitude, and joy, and lóve, sentence is modified by the sense of the next, the voice may

The man of God will pass in Sabbath noon. rize, instead of falling, as :

There (in the grave), vile insects consume the hand of the artist, We are not here to discuss this question. We are come to act the brain of the philosopher, the eye which sparkled with celestial upon it.

fire, and the lip from which flowed irresistible eloquence. Gentlemen may cry "peace, péace !” But there is no peace.

Note 2.-All series, except the plaintive-as by their form of Rule 3.-The“ moderate" falling inflection occurs at the end numbers and repetition, they partake of the nature of “ climax." of a clause which forms complete sense, independently of what

or increase of signification-should be read with a growing follows it, as :

intensity of voice, and a more prominent inflection on every Law and order are forgetten: violence and rapine are abroad: the

member, as :golden cords of society are loosed.

The splendour of the firmament, the verdure of the earth, the Exception.-Plaintive expression, and poetic style, whether in varied colours of the flowers which fill the air with their fràgrance, the form of verse or of prose, take the "elight" rising inflection, and the music of those artless voices which mingle on every tree; all in its prolonged form :

conspire to captivate our hearts, and to swell them with the most

rapturous delight.
Cold o'er his limbs the listless langour grew;
Paleness came o'er his eye of placid blue;

This remark applies, sometimes, even to the rising inflection,
Pale mourned the lily where the rose had died ;

but, with peculiar force, to cases in which the language is And timid, trembling, came he to my side.

obviously meant to swell progressively in effect, from word to

word, or from clause to clause, and which end with a downward The caks of the mountains fall: the mountains themselves decay slide, on every member, as in the following instance :-with years; the ocean shrinks and grows again; the moon herself is lost in hlaven ; * but thou art for ever the same, rejoicing in the

I tell you, though you, though all the WÒRLD, though an angel brightness of thy course.

from H'EAVEN, should declare the truth of it, I could not believe it. Rule 4.-The “ suspensive," or slight falling inflection, takes

Rule 5.-All questions which cannot be answered by Yes or place in every member but one of the “ series," or successive

No end with the falling inflection, as :-words and clauses, connected by the same conjunction, ex When will you cease to trifle ? pressed or understood.

Where can his equal be found ? Note 1.-A succession of words is termed a "simple series ;" Who has the hardihood to maintain such an assertion ? a succession of clauses a “compound series." A succession of

Why come not on these victors pròud ?

What was the object of his ambition ? words which leave sense incomplete is termed a “commencing series ;” that which leaves complete sense, a “concluding series.”

How can such a purpose be accomplished ? A"commencing series" is read with the "suspensive,” or slight

Exception.—The tone of real or affected surprise throws such falling inflection, on every member but the last ; a concluding questions, when repeated, into the form of the rising inflecseries, with the “ suspensive" slide on every member, except | tion, as :the penultimate, or last but one.

How can such a purpose be accomplished ! * Simple commencing series :"—

To the diligent all things are possible. The air, the earth, the wāter, teem with delighted existence. "Simple concluding series :"

LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XXII. Delighted existence teems in the air, the earth, and the water. I

MEASURES OF SURFACE OR SUPERFICIES. " Compound commencing series :"--

6. Definition.--A square is a four-sided figure, of which the sides The fuld expanse of the air, the surface of the solid earth, the

are equal, and the angles right angles. bquid element of water, teem with delighted existence.

Surfaces are measured by means of square inches, square feet, "Compound concluding series :”—

square yards, etc., i.e., by squares the sides of which are respecDelighted existence teems in the fluid expanse of the air, the surface

tively 1 inch, 1 foot, 1 yard in length, etc. the solid earth, t and the liquid element of water. I

7. To find the magnitude of a Square, the length of its side

being given. • Bising slide, for contrast to the following clause.

Raise the number expressing the number of linear units t"Penultimate" rising inflection, preparatory to the cadence, or

(inches or feet, etc.) in the side to the second power. This will closing fall of voice, at the end of a sentence.

give the number of square units of the same kind in the square. 7" Full” falling inflection, for the cadence of a sentence.

For instance, a square, of which the side is 4 inches, contains 16 square inches; a square, of which the side is 5 feet, contains 10. To find the magnitude of a Cube, the length of an edge 25 square feet. The truth of this will appear from the following being given. diagram :

Raise the number expressing the number of linear units in the Draw a square, each of the sides of

edge to the third power. This will give the number of cubic which suppose to be 4 inches long; divide

units of the same kind in the given cube. the sides into lengths of 1 inch, and com

For instance, a cube of which the edge is 4 inches long conplete the figure by drawing parallel lines,

tains 64 cubic inches ; a cube of which the edge is 5 feet long as in the margin. This divides the square

contains 125 cubic feet. into small squares, each of whose sides is

The truth of this will appear from the following diagram :an inch in length. Now, in any one row,

Take a cube, as in the diagram, such as we have indicated by the figures,

of which the edge is supposed to there are 4 such squares, and there are 4

be 4 inches long, and divide each rows. Henoe, there are 16 square inches

Fig. 1.

edge into lengths of one inch. in the given square.

Then, by drawing parallel planes, Suppose that two opposite sides be lengthened to 6 inches, so

as indicated in the figure, we can that the figure is no longer a square, but a rectangle. Dividing

divide the cube into a number of the figure as before into square inches, we see that there are

cubes, each of which is a cabic necessarily six rows, each containing 4

inch. Now, any one slice such as square inchas. Hence the number of square

that which is shaded clearly coninches in a rectangle, two of whose sides

tains 4 x 4, or 16 cubic inches, and there are 4 such slices. are 4 inches long, and the other two 6

Hence the cube contains 4 X 4 X 4, or 64 cubic inches. inches, is 6 x 4, or 24 square inches. The

11. Definitions.-A rectangular parallelepiped is a solid figure same method is evidently true for any

contained by six rectangular figures, of which every opposite other rectangle, so that, to obtain the

two are parallel. number of square units in any rectangle,

This differs from a cube in the fact that the length, breadth, we must multiply the number expressing

and thickness are not equal. the number of linear units in the length by

The volume of (i.e., the number of cubic units in) a parallelethe number expressing the number of linear

piped is obtained by multiplying the numbers together which units in the breadth.

express the number of linear units in the length, breadth, and The same is true if the lengths of the Fig. 2.

thickness respectively. sides be fractional parts of the unit of

This will perhaps be sufficiently apparent from the accomlength. For instance, to find the area of a rectangle of a foot panying diagram of a rectangular parallelepiped, of which the long and a foot wide. Referring back to Fig. 1, suppose now length, breadth, and height are supposed to be 6, 5, 4 inches that it is a square, each side of which is 1 foot. Then, dividing, respectively. as in the figure, each foot into 4 parts, the square contains 16 square parts, each of which, therefore, is ta of a square foot. Now the dotted line encloses a rectangle, one side of which is

and the other or of a foot, and this rectangle contains 6 of the 16 parts into which the square is divided; or the area of % of a square foot, i.e., I x by of a square foot.

Obs.-It must be observed that, in multiplying together the numbers, fractional or otherwise, which express the number of units in the sides of a rectangle, only one denomination must be used. The fact is, that we cannot talk of multiplying two geometrical magnitudes together. We cannot, for example, talk

There will evidently be six such slices as that we have shaded, of multiplying 3 feet by an inch, or by 2 feet; but we can each containing 5 X 4, or 20 cubic inches. multiply two numbers together which indicate the lengths of the The volume of the solid will therefore be 6 X 5 X 4, or 120 two lines, with reference to some one standard unit, and then cubio inches. deduce the geometrical result which corresponds to the nume

CUBIC MEASURE. rical result thus obtained.

1728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot, written 1 c. ft. 8. The following table of Square Measure is by the above

27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard , 1 c. yd. principle deduced from that of the Measures of Length. The

This measure is used in estimating the magnitude of timber, learner is recommended to do this for himself.

stone, boxes of goods, the capacity of rooms, ships, the solid SQUARE MEASURE.

mass of earth in railway cuttings, etc. 144 square inches (sq. in.) = 1 square foot

written 1 sq. ft. For example, 42 cubic feet are defined to be one tou of 9 square feet = 1 square yard

1 sq. yd. shipping. 304 square yards, or square rod, perch,

For liquids and dry commodities other systems are adopted,

, 1 sq. p. 272 square feet or pole

which we will give after we have explained the measures os 40 square perches 1 rood

weight. 4 roods = 1 acre

1 ac. 6.10 acres = 1 square mile

1 sq. m.

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXIV. The acre contains, as will be found by calculation, 10 square chains, or 100,000 square links, or 4,840 square yards.

ALTHOUGH it is not possible to give a detailed scheme of Flooring, roofing, plastering, etc., are often calculated by a elementary forms of which the capital letters of the writing “square" of 100 square feet.

alphabet are composed, as was done with regard to the small A hide of land is 100 acres.

letters, it may be as well, for the benefit and instruction of the

self-teacher, to make a few remarks on the method of forming MEASURES OF SOLIDITY OR VOLUME.-CUBIC MEASURE.

each of the capital letters. 9. Definitions.—A solid figure is that which has length, In the capital letters of the writing alphabet the letter I is breadth, and thickness. A cube is a solid contained by six the key, and forms the principal part of most of the letters; it squares, of which every opposite two are parallel. The sides of consists of a nicely tapering black stroke, commencing with a the squares are called the edges of the cube.

hair-stroke, and ending in a hair-stroke with a full point or All solids, or spaces which could be filled by solids, are scroll. The head or top of this letter is variously made ; measured by means of the number of cubic inches, cubic feet, etc., common form is seen in the capital letters in page 357; somswhich they contain, i.e., by cubes, the edges of which are times the head is formed like that of the capital J, which is the respectively 1 inch, 1 foot, etc., in length.

same letter in writing, with the black-stroke and the bottom The magnitude of any solid figure is sometimes called its hair-stroke carried below the level and terminated in a loop to

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The letter A is very like the printed A, with a loop or hair- , to the left and brought over the lower part of the down-stroke stroke drawn across the middle; the hair-stroke generally begins in a curved line towards the right. with a full point, and the black-stroke tapering from the top The letter M is like two A's joined together; but the middle torminates with a hair-stroke like a bottom-turn, or with a down-stroke is generally made to taper gently to a sharp point scroll; bat it often terminates in a straight stroke, as it does at the bottom. in some printed forms (A).

The letter N is anomalous; the middle is a black-stroke, The letter B consists of the letter I without its head, and a tapering at both ends; it is joined at top by a hair-stroke like curred black-stroke to the right with a loop in the middle to the the hair-stroke of the letter A, and at bottom by a hair-stroke left; this curved black-stroke commences with a curved hair- running up into a curve. stroke on the left of the middle stroke, and terminates with the The letter O is like the small o, only it is left open at the same on the right of it, close to the bottom of the middle stroke. top, and generally turned round in a loop at the end of the

The letter C is composed of a tapering black-stroke, beginning hair-stroke. with a loop in hair-stroke, and ending with a scroll.

The letter P is like the letter B, wanting the latter part of The letter D is composed of the letter I without its head, the curved black-stroke from the loop downwards. with the hair-stroke ending in a loop to the left at bottom, but The letter Q is a curved tapering black-stroke, commencing carried round the top and made to terminate in a scroll.

at the top with a scroll, and ending in a loop to the left, of The letter E commences with a scroll, which merges into a which the hair-stroke is carried across the black-stroke at the thick down-stroke after being carried to the left. The stroke bottom in a waving curve. which has been gradually narrowed to a hair-line is now carried! The letter R is like the letter B, with this difference, the

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towards the right and looped, after which it is carried to the latter part of the curved and looped black-stroke is turned to the left again, deepened into a thick-stroke, and finally turned, as right with a scroll. the letter was commenced, in a scroll.

The letter S is the body of the letter I, with a hair-stroke The letter F is composed of the letter I with its head formed loop to the right, at the top. in a scroll and loop to the right at the top; it is also marked The letter T is like the letter I with a larger head, made with a hair-stroke across the middle of the black-stroke, and exactly like the head of the letter F. terminating also in a small loop.

The letter U is a tapering black-stroke, commencing with a The letter G consists of a tapering black-stroke curved to the scroll, and ending in a hair-stroke, to which is attached the body left, beginning in a loop at top, and ending in a hair-stroke, to of the letter C, with or without the head. which is attached a black-stroke like the letter j among the The letter V is like the first part of the letter U, but the small letters.

hair-stroke terminates in a small loop at the top. The letter H is composed of the letters I and C joined to The letter W is like the letter M inverted; or rather, it gether by a hair-stroke in the middle.

consists of two tapering black-strokes, joined by a hair-stroke, The letters I and J have been described. The letter K is and commencing and ending with peculiarly curved hair-strokes. like the letter E, with this difference, that the black-stroke of Originally the letter W was just like two V's put together, the C part has a small loop in the middle to the left; the first and frequently this letter is still made like the latter half of o I part is sometimes a mere black-stroke, tapering from top the letter W. to bottom.

The letter X is formed very like the small x, only that it The letter L is commenced with a loop in hair-stroke. The begins and ends with a scroll. fine line with which the letter is commenced is turned to the The letter Y is like the letter U, with the second blackright, and brought downwards in a thick down-stroke. This stroke drawn below the line and terminated in a hair-stroke loop. down-stroke is again narrowed to a hair-stroke, which is looped The letter Z is like the same letter in the small alphabet, but

it begins and ends with a scroll; sometimes the lower scroll is

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. formed into a loop below the line.

Das Schreiben und lesen ziche ich I prefer writing and reading to The above description of the method of making the capital

allen antern Beschäftigungen vor. all other employments. letters will prove of considerable assistance to the self-teacher

| Anstatt des Weines trinkt er Wasser. Instead of wine, he drinks in tracing out their varied forms, although we might reasonably

water. suppose that he could not err in beginning each letter and

Anstatt zu schreiben, liest er.

Instead of writing, he reads. ending it in the right place, after the experience that he has

as | Gr spricht, ohne zu tenken.

He speaks withont thinking. gathered in following carefully and sedulously the instructions

Zwischen Sagen und Thun ist ein Between saying and doing there given in our lessons on the formation of the small letters of the

großer Un'terschieb.

is a great difference. writing alphabet. The mode of shaping out each letter is the 3wifdien rem Hin'aeben und Wie'. Between departing and return. chief thing that each learner should aim at learning, and this terfommen perflob' eine Stunde. ing an hour elapsed. he can do only by repeated practice. Our Copy-slips are Während seiner Kranfbeit babe id During his sickness I took the arranged alphabetically, so as to give the student a sample of

tie Stelle eines Wächters vertre's place of a watcher. each letter in the alphabet.

ten. Seine Weise zu handeln gefällt mir His mode of dealing does not nicht.


Sdweigen ist vernünfftiger, als un'. To be silent is more reasonable vernünftig reten.

than unreasonable speaking SECTION XLI.-PECULIAR IDIOMS-(continued).

(to speak unreasonably). SOMETIMES, as in English, a clause or sentence is made to

EXERCISE 78. supply the place of an adjective, as :-Die nie zu vergessende Schlacht bei Leipzig, the never-to-be-forgotten battle by (at) Leipsic. Der 1. Anstatt mit einem Stocke vertbeitigte er sich mit einem Regensdirme. immer zu bewundernde Muth Luther's, the ever-to-be-admired courage 2. Anstatt mit Freunden zu gehen, war er immer in Gesellschaft fremter of Luther ($ 150).

Leute. 3. In der Stube hatte man, anstatt des Betted, eine große Kiste. 4. 1. Anstatt, like the corresponding English word " instead,” is In Deutschland ist man gegen Fremde sehr höflich. 5. Die Wurzeln des compounded of a preposition and a noun, which components may Waltes waren seine einzige Nahrung. 6. Das Wasser hat bei dieser Geleger. be separated, as :--Anstatt seines Vaters, instead of his father; beit die Stelle des Weines vertreten. 7. Gin Schüler hat rie Stelle te or, an seines Vaters Statt, in his father's stead.

Lehrers vertreten. 8. Anstatt der Fetern benüßt man Bleistifte. 9. Das 2. The infinitive preceded by anstatt is, in German, used where Reisen macht mir sehr viel Vergnügen. 10. Meine Kinder haben tas we use the present participle preceded by “instead of,” as : Schreiben und Lesen von mir gelernt. 11. Wir wollen geben ; diet lange Gr spielt, anstatt zu arbeiten, he plays " instead of” working. When Warten ist mir unangenehm 12. Man zieht gewöhnlich das Sißen tem preceded by the preposition obne, it is to be rendered by a par- Steben vor. 13. Er hat das Arbeiten in seiner Jugend gelernt. 14. W ticiple governed by the corresponding preposition “ without," haben zusammen das Sdyreiben gelernt. 15. Jo hasje bas Sdreiben, tage: as:- Er ist franf, ohne es zu wissen, he is sick, without knowing it. gen liebe ich desto mehr des Malen. 16. Er versteht das Zeichnen besser, als Gr ist bier gewesen, ohne uns zu besuchen, he has been here with das Malen. 17. Wir hörten tar Stürmen der Gloden und das Donnen out visiting us. The infinitive is also often used where we em der Kanonen. 18. Das Heulen des Sturmes und das wilde Toben tet ploy the present participle preceded by from, as :--Er verhindert Wellen erhöhte noch ben Muth tes tapfern Kapitäns und seiner Mannschaft, mich, zu schlafen, he prevents me from sleeping.

anstatt ihn zu beugen. 19. Vott mebr gütig als gerecht denken, ist eben 10 3. The infinitive is also used substantively (without zu: $ 146. viel, als Gott entehren (Gellert). 20. Dies nicht zu entschultigente Betrs. (1) a], as :- Befehlen ist leicht, Gehorchen schwer, to command is easy; / gen des Schülers fränkte den Lehrer. to obey, difficult. It is often preceded by the article, as :- Ich

EXERCISE 79. liebe das Schreiben, aber nicht das Zeichnen, I like writing, but not drawing.

1. The never-to-be-penetrated almightiness of God. 2. I am 4. After gehen, bleiben [$ 146. (1) e), etc., the infinitive often here instead of my brother. 3. The opposition of the Poles was answers to our present participle, as :-Gr blieb itten, he re- |full of despair; terrific was the singing of their war-song: "Not mained sitting (literally, he continued to sit). Gr bleibt fteben, yet is Poland lost." 4. The reading of instructive books enhe remains standing. Er ist fischen gegangen, he has gone a fish. | larges the understanding. 5. To assist the poor is a Christian ing. In a sentence which is employed as the subject of a verb, duty. 6. The changing of times and seasons and the removing the infinitive frequently rejects the preposition zu ($ 146.), as :- and setting up of kings belong to Providence alone. 7. He deDen Feind vertheidigen ist edel, or, ten Feind zu vertbeitigen ist erel, fends this man without knowing him. 8. The danger heightened to defend an (the) enemy is noble. Zu is generally omitted the courage of the soldiers, instead of depressing it. 9. The before such verbs as lehren, to teach ; lernen [$ 146. (1) c), to student learns drawing and painting from his brother. 10. This learn, etc., as :- Ich lehre ihn schreiben, I teach him to write. Er mode of life does not agree with me. lernt sprechen, he learns to speak. 5. The past participle in German is sometimes used where we

SECTION XLII.-SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. use the present, às :-Dort fommt ein Mann in voller Hast gelaufen The subjunctive mood is employed both in indirect assertions [$ 149. (3)], yonder comes a man running at full speed (in full and in indirect questions after verbs of speaking, thinking, wishhaste).

ing, hoping, etc., i.e., after all verbs of mental action, when the VOCABULARY.

actual words of him who spoke, thought, etc., are not quoted, Anstatt', instead of. Gütig, kind, good. 1 Stelle, f. place.

as :-Er sagte sein Freund fei frant, he said his friend was ill (be Benüp'en, to use, make | Hassen, to hate.

actually said, my friend is ill). Er fragte mich, wer ich sei, he asked Un'angenehm dis

me who I was (he asked, who are you?). Man sagt, daß er ein Heulen, to howl. use of.

agreeable. Bett, n. bed.

großes Vermögen habe, it is said that he has a great fortune. For Höflich. polite, cour Verthei'tigen, to de. Beugen, to depress.

further information on the subjunctive, see $ 143; and for conteous.

Vertreten, to take the

jugation of haben and sein in the subjunctive, see 72. 1. 2. Brav, brave, gallant. Kano'ne, f. cannon. Dage-gen, on the con- Kiste, f. chest.

The subjunctive in German is often translated by the English

place of. trary. Malen, to paint.

indicative, as in the following examples :

Verloʻren, lost.
Denfen, to think. Mannschaft, f. crew, Verzweiflungôvoll, full | Man sagt, er sei reich.

They say he is very rich. Desto. (Sect. XXX. forces.

of despair. Er meint, es sei besser, hier zu He thinks it is better to stay Nahrung, f. nourish Vorʻziehen, to prefer. bleiben.

here. ment, food. Welle, f. wave. Sie sagten mir, er wäre mein You told me he was my friend. Polen, n. Poland. Witerste hen, to resist, Freund. Schlachtlieb, n. war withstand.

Ich meinte, es wäre ein Spaß. I thought it was a jest. sa song.

Wild, wild.

Man glaubte, er wäre auf dem It was thought he was on the Schrecklich, frightful, Wurzel, f. root.


mountain. terrific.

Zeichnen, to draw. Er sagt, der Kaiser habe ihn be. He says the emperor has pam | Singen, to sing. | Zusamémen, together. gnadigt.

doned him.

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