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ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY,-XI.

When any part is disordered, a general feeling of depression

cannot be shaken off. The sense of touch is allied to this THE ORGAN OF TOUCH.

general consciousness, but it differs from it in that its impresTHE sense and organ of touch have been placed last in the list, sions are distinctly referred to the parts from which they probecause we have been all along proceeding from the more special ceed—the mind is able to localise them with precision. With to the more general sensations. The retina of the eye is specially regard to the locality of the impressions which proceed from the modified and set apart to receive and interpret the light. Light viscera, we know but little except by reason. Hence ignorant has neither meaning nor effect when applied to other parts of people will refer maladies very wrongly. Thus we hear of the body; and the retina is out of the reach of other kinds of heartburn and stitch in the side. Nervous people will attribute contact, and is quite insensible even to great heat, as Professor rheumatic muscular pain to the lungs, stomach complaints to Tyndal has shown experimentally. The ear appreciates the the heart, and lumbago to the kidneys. This wrong reference is aërial waves which are otherwise unknown. The nose and made even when the pain or inconvenience is occasioned by a

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I. SECTION OF THE HAIRLESS SKIN (MUCH MAGNIFIED). II. SECTION OF THE HAIRY SKIN (MUCH YAGNIFIED). III. TIP OF THE FOREFINGER, Ref. to Nos. in Figs. I., II.-1, epidermis or scarf skin; (a), superficial layers; (b), rete mucosum. 2, cutis or vascular skin. 3, sub

cutaneous layer, composed of fibres, enclosing-4, sweat glands; and 5, fat cells. 6, papillæ. 7, hair bulbs and their papillæ. 8, 9, nutrient arteries. 10, oil glands. 11, hairs.

mouth, though they are less exclusively devoted to smell and mechanical cause, as by distension or pressure; but directly the taste, and not so specially modified to receive these impressions cause of these obnoxious sensations reaches the skin, we can at as are the foregoing organs, yet their special sensations are once fix on the locality. Thus we learn that the sense of touch peculiar. The sense of touch is more akin to what may be called is distributed over the surface of the skin, and to those extencommon sensation, or general consciousness, and the organ issions of it which proceed from it to line the interior of the pasmore widely extended and more intimately connected with other sages leading from the exterior of the body. The organ and functions than the organs of the other sensations. If the eyes sense of touch does not go far as we proceed into the interior of were closed, and no objects presented to the senses of hearing, the body by these passages. Thus the throat is only sensitive taste, or smell; and if, further, the body could be floated in a to touch at its top part. The sensation of heat and cold proLiqnid of such temperature and consistence as to present to the ceeds further down towards the stomach, and below this all mind no sensation of contact, there would still doubtless be a localised tactile sensation ceases. general consciousness of the existence of the body, not only as | In describing the organ of touch, we must therefore explain the an intellectual deduction but as a sensation. This sensation nature of the integument and its appendages, although in so doing forms an indissoluble link between mind and body. When all we are aware that this integument has many other functions, and goes well there is a feeling of pleasurable existence, which may is intimately blended with other structures which have nothing to be called general and massive, rather than special or intense. do with the sense, but which we are compelled to notice. . VOL. I.

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The skin consists of two layers. The outer one is called the The cutis, or blood vascular skin, is tough and elastic, and cuticle or scarf-skin, and the deeper layer the cutis. The cuticle consists in its deeper layers of interlaced fibres which hold in has neither blood vessels nor nerves, but consists of cells which their interspaces little masses of fat, sweat-glands, oil-glands, and are formed at its inner surface (where it lies on the cutis or true hair-bulbs, with hairs proceeding from these last to rise above the skin), and are pushed outward as fresh strata are successively surface. It is also permeated with nerves, arteries, and veins. formed below them. When first formed, these cells are filled This, therefore, is a structure having all the endowments of life, with fluid; they are oval, and longer in the direction perpen and with the faculty of self-sustenance and sensitiveness. The dicular to the surface than in the other. As they are thrust true seat of the sense of touch is, however, its external portion, outward, they become flattened in the contrary direction, so that that which lies immediately under the cuticle. Towards the at the surface they form dry, transparent layers, which are surface the fibres become closer and denser, and the various capable of being shredded off and stripped away in scaly or glands and fatty masses cease, while the blood vessels and scurfy fragments by the ordinary wear and tear to which the nerves are more numerous. In order to increase the touching outer surface is subjected.

surface, and to bring the nerve-threads closer to the exterior, the The office of this part of the skin is simply protective; and in outer surface of the true skin is, as we have seen, raised at inrelation to this office of clothing and defending the blood-bearing tervals into papillæ. Each of these is well supplied with vessels skin, it is found thickest where there is the greatest friction, and nerves. Under the ridged surface of the palmar side of and thinnest where there is least. It is, however, thin every- the hand, these papillæ run in lines corresponding to the ridges, where, varying from b of an inch in the palm of the hand to there being two rows to each ridge, and sometimes smaller ones

of an inch in less exposed parts. As, however, this scarf. | between. In other parts they are scattered irregularly, and are skin is in continual process of being rubbed away, it is not only much fewer in number. That these papillæ are the true seats thicker in much-used parts, but is much more rapidly formed on of the sense of touch, appears not only from the fact that nerves those parts. Moreover, if any peculiar employments make the are traced into them, but because there is a strict relation wear and tear excessive, unwearied nature still supplies the between their number in a given space and the delicacy of the demand, and an excessive manufacture of fresh cells is stimu- sense of touch in those parts. Thus in the space of one square lated from below. Thus, in the polishing of japanned articles it line (4 of a square inch) there are 108 on the tip of the finger, is found that no other fabric but the human cuticle is sufficiently 40 on the second joint, and only 15 on the last; and this de delicate to produce the shining surface. The finest wash-leather crease in number is in direct proportion to the sensitiveness of would scratch; and hence women are employed to scour trays, the surface to touch. Where the sense of touch is most acute etc., all day long; and yet they never wear down to the true skin and discriminating, little oval-shaped bodies have been found, so as to make the fingers sore, except during the first few weeks. one lying in the centre of each papilla, and these have been The provision for the repair of this closely-fitting vestment is called the “ little bodies of touch.” It must not be supposed, even carried beyond this, for if the whole cuticle be stripped off, however, that each of these papillæ is capable of transmitting & so as to leave the cutis naked and sore, there is an immediate separate impression to the brain, or that their office is simply outpouring of fluid from the blood, which forms at once into a tactile. Nerves do not enter all of them, and they are concerned scarf-skin.

in secreting the substance to form the cuticle. It would seem As this scarf-skin has no blood vessels running into its sub- as though each nerve which conveys a single distinct impression stance, it has no means of self-repair; so that in proceeding to the mind, had a certain definite space of surface of skin, over from the deeper layers to the surface, the cells go through all which its final branches spread themselves; so that if two the processes of birth, death, decay, and dissolution, though the objects touch the skin at two different points within this area, membrane is so thin. Since, also, this skin has no nerves they feel like one. In order to be felt as two separate contacts, entering it, it has no sensation, and the sensation of touch must they must be placed one on one special nerve-surface, and one be felt through it in the same way—though in a much more per on another. The size of the special spaces allotted to each fect manner-as we feel anything which touches us through our nerve-unit is very different in different parts of the body. The clothing. It will be seen, then, that it must fit very accurately determination of the size of these areas, and, by consequence, and closely to the sensitive skin beneath, or the sense would be the accuracy of the sense of touch in various parts of the body, dull and imperfect. The skin below has an immense number of was effected by Weber. His method was at once so ingenious small hillocks, and each one of these is closely surrounded by, and so simple, that it is curious it should not have been adopted and inclosed in, the inner layer of the cuticle which is moulded before. He took a pair of compasses, and having placed upon upon them. When the cuticle is stripped off after being long their points very small globules of sealing-wax, opened them soaked in water, it shows an infinite number of small pits, out to a small distance, and applied them to the surface of the body of which the hillocks or papillæ have been dragged. If the where the sense of touch was to be tested. The impression whole be torn away before maceration, i.e., from the living skin, produced was as of a single point. He then opened them it usually tears away the papillæ with it, leaving a bleeding more and more until two distinct impressions were felt; and surface.

then measured the distance on a scale of inches and lines. He In providing at once for the protection of the cutis, and also thus arrived at very definite and very interesting results. Among for the preservation of the acuteness of the sensation of touch, many other measurements of the least distances at which two there is this difficulty: those parts which are most used to points could be distinctly felt, we quote the following: gain information by touch, are necessarily those which are most

in. lines

in, lines subject to friction. In such situations, then, the cuticle must Tip of the tongue . . 4.0 0 Back of the hand. ...12 be thick ; yet a solid thick sheet would be liable to make us Tip of the forefinger ..0 1 Scalp of the head , ...1 3 confound impressions made by two points near together which Second joint of forefinger 0 2 Breast .......... were in contact with the skin. There is a beautiful arrange- Back of the fingers ...0 3 Middle of thigh, arm, ment to obviate this difficulty, which is found in the cuticle of Palms of the hands, ..0 5 and back ....... 6 the tips of the fingers, palm of the hand, etc. Here the surface

End of the great toe ..0 5 of the skin is seen to be thrown into small ridges and furrows, The reader may verify these estimates for himself, but it B which run in curved lines parallel to one another, so that an im- better to try them on some other person, becanse the impressions pression made on the surface, or tops of the ridges, is only con | produced upon the eye and the mind by the sight and knowledge veyed down to the papillæ immediately beneath it, and does not of the open compasses, have a tendency to bias the information press sideways on those of the other ridges. A more minute received from the sense alone. The legs of the compasses must examination of the tip of the finger with a lens, will show that be applied both at the same instant, and not moved before the these wavy ridges are subdivided into square-shaped masses by estimate is given. If they are moved, very different results will cross furrows, which occur at regular intervals, so as to leave be given. From these statistics it will be seen that the tip of the thickened part between of the same width as the ridge. the tongne is the most discriminating part of the whole body. Each one of the square-shaped masses has in its centre a little An easy verification of this will occur to every one when they repit, which is the opening of a sweat-gland. No guch definite member how small a flaw in the teeth the tongue can detect arrangement of ridge and furrow occurs in other parts of the flaw which is quite unnoticed by the tip of the finger, if that be body, where the sense of touch is comparatively obtuse, or applied to it. At first thought, it may seem strange that such rather, not nicely distinguishing.

acuteness of touch should be bestowed on an organ which is rarely used to gain tactile information, and so placed as to be the skin which overlies those muscles. These nerves, too, are difficult of application to external objects; but when we con- | quite capable of conveying definite information to the brain, sider how needful it is that the tongue should be able to feel without the assistance of the nerves of touch. The naked arm every particle of food, so that we may know whether it is hard or in the dark) may be passed through the air where it touches soft, large or small, and be able to place it accurately between nothing, and yet the range of its sweep, the position to which it the teeth if it be not soft enough or too small, we cease to think is brought, and the amount of effort required to do all this, is the arrangement strange. The tongue, too, works in the dark known to the mind. In some rare instances this sense is lost with very little assistance from other senses, and so must be without any of the others being impaired, and a case is on record always on the alert.

of a mother who could hold her child while she looked at it, but Next to the tongue come the tips of the fingers and thumb, directly she looked away she let it fall, because the muscular These are the salient points of that wonderful piece of mechan- sense (not the muscular power) was gone. ism, the hand. The hand of man is pre-eminently the tactile Having indicated the distinction between the muscular and organ, and the free sweep of the arm, which enables it to turn in tactile senses, we must leave the reader to follow out for himself every direction, and to be applied to every part of the person, is the complicated applications of these combined senses to gain a an admirable accessory to its acute sense of touch. The lips knowledge of outward objects. How, for instance, both are are but little inferior to the fingers in acuteness of touch. A necessary to distinguish india-rubber from clay or from marble ; story is told of a blind girl, whose employment caused a thicken- and how the ideas of length, extent, and solidity are gained by ing of the cuticle of her fingers to such an extent as to create a passing the hand in one, two, or many directions over the outside difficulty in reading her New Testament in raised letters for the of bodies. Let him also notice the wonderful adaptation of the blind. She at first tried the unfortunate expedient of paring the human hand to obtain all this information. If he will take the skin of her fingers, which made them more acute for a short period, trouble to do this, he will be struck with the marvellous combut in the end, of course, duller, so that she could no longer read plexity of the ideas which come trooping into the mind when the loved volume. With a sentiment of grief and despair she so simple an action is performed as the grasping an object with stooped to give the sacred text a farewell kiss, and so discovered the hand. a new mode of studying it. Though, doubtless, this has become quite a platform story, it has in it so much physiological truth that there need be no hesitation in repeating it. Referring

LESSONS IN FRENCH.—XXIII. again to the probable theory that there is a separate area

SECTION XXXIX.-REFLECTIVE VERBS CONJUGATED to each nerve-unit, it will be seen that that area occupies a

WITH EN. space of six or seven square inches on the middle of the back or thigh, and only one square line on the tip of the finger. The

1. The verb aller [1, ir. ; see § 62), conjugated reflectively, former measurement is approximately 1,000 times as large as

and preceded by the word en, i.e., s'en aller, corresponds to the the latter. It is curious how nicely the discriminating sense of

English expressions to go away, to leave. tonch is adjusted to those parts where it is most likely to be of 2. INDICATIVE PRESENT OF THE VERB S’EN ALLER, TO GO service. Thus, since the angles of the body are more likely to

AWAY. come in contact with other bodies than its depressions or the Je m'en vais, I go away.

Nous nous en allons, We go croay. middle parts of its segments, we find the skin over the junction Tu t'en vas, Thou art going Vous vous en allez, You are going of two long bones more able to discriminate than that over their

away,

away. middle portion. The convexities of the joints are usually more Il s'en va, He goes away. | Ils s'en vont. They go away. discriminating than the concavities; the shoulder more than the

3. THE SAME TENSE CONJUGATED INTERROGATIVELY. arm-pit, and the elbow than the inside of its joint. Yet when

Est-ce que je Do I go away? | Nous en allons- Do tre go away? we arrive at the hand the reverse is the case, for the palmar

m'en vais ?

nous ? surface is more discriminating than the back part. This is for

T'en vas-tu ? Art thou going | Vous en allez. Do you go away? the obvious reason that we usually avoid knocking our knuckles

arcay?

vous ? against anything, while to grasp is so natural to the hand that S'en va-t-il ? Is he going away? | S'en vont-ils ? Are they going it is quite an instinctive action, as every infant manifests.

away? A multitude of other points of interest might be dwelt upon 14. Se fâcher, to be or become angry, requires the preposition did space permit. Thus, sensitiveness to tickling, and the im- I contre or de before the noun or pronoun following it. proved appreciation of objects by moving the skin over them,

Se fâche-t-il contre votre frère ? Does he become angry with your Fould lead us into considerations quite different from those con

brother 7 Lected with simple touch.

Il se fâche contre lui,

He is angry with him, The sense of heat and cold is different from that of simple Vous vous fâchez d'un rien, You get angry at nothing. touch; and sensitiveness to these has no relation to the cog- 5. Se réjouir, to rejoice, is followed by the preposition de. nisance of tactile sensations. If with a cold finger you touch your Je me reiouis de votre bonheur. I rejoice at your happiness. brow, though the finger will feel any roughness on the brow far sooner than the converse, yet the brow feels the finger cold far 6. Se plaire [4, ir. ; see § 62], to take pleasure, to delight in more distinctly than the finger feels it to be warm.

anything, to like to be in a place, takes à before its object. We pass on to notice briefly some yet more important appli. Je me plais à la campagne,

I like to be in the country. cations of the sense of touch; and in order to do this it must be Je me plais à étudier, à lire, I take pleasure in studying, in roading. explained that the means by which we distinguish between hard 7. Se dépêcher, se hâter, to make haste, take de before their and soft, rough and smooth, elastic and non-elastic, sticky and object. slippery bodies, by which also we gain our ideas of the form,

Dépêchez-vous de finir vos leçons, Make haste to finish your lessons. size, distance, and situation of bodies, involves other sensations | Pourquoi ne vous dépêchez-vousWhy do you not make haste ? than those of simple touch. These ideas lie at the foundation pas ? of all mathematical science which treats of time and space.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. They are derived from the joint senses of touch, and of what has

Le marchand s’en va-t-il aujour. Does the merchant go away to-day? been called the “muscular sense." Simple pressure produces a | Chai sensation, as when a body is placed on the palm of the hand Nous nous en allons demain. We are going anray to-morrow. while its back rests on a table, but if we remove the table, or Je m'en vais quand je suis fatigué. I go away when I am tired. the hand, from it, a further sense of weight is conveyed to the Pourquoi vous fâchez-vous contre Why do you get angry with him! mind. This idea of weight is derived from the knowledge the lui ? mind has that the muscles which hold the hand up are being

Il se plait à jouer, il n'étudie ja. He takes pleasure in playing, he exerted. So if the tip of the finger be passed along the edge of

mais.

never studies.

Vous plaisez-vous chez vos parents? Do you like to be at your relations! the table, it creates not only a consciousness of a number of

De quoi vous réjouissez-vous ? At what do you rejoice ? fuccessive contacts, but also a consciousness that the muscles of

Nous nous réjouissons de votre We rejoice at your success. the arm and hand are exerted, and their position and condition

succès. is being continually altered. Now the nerves which run from the Nous nous en réjouissons,

We rejoice at it. muscles to the brain are quite distinct from those which run from Pourquoi vous dépêchez-vous ? Why do you make haste. 1

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Nous nous dépêchons d'écrire. We make haste to write.

i 4. In this tense, and in other compound tenses, the adverb is Nous nous plaisons en Angleterre. We like to be in England.

generally placed between the auxiliary verb and the participle Nous ne nous plaisons pas à Paris. We do not like to bo in Paris.

[$ 136 (3)]. Nous ne nous y plaisons pas. We do not like to be there. Vous plaisez-vous à New-York ? Do you like to be in New York ?

Vous nous avez souvent parlé, You hare often spoken to us.
Nous nous y plaisons.
We like to be there.
Je ne l'ai pas encore va,

I have not yet seen him.
VOCABULARY.

5. The adverbs aujourd'hui, to-day; demain, to-morrow ; hier,

yesterday; polysyllabic adverbs of manner ending in ment, and Ambassadeur, m., am- | Jamais, never. | Parceque, because.

long adverbs generally, do not come between the auxiliary verb bassador.

Jou-er, 1, to play. Prochain, -e, next. and the participle, but follow Rule 1, Sect. XXXIII. [See § 136
Arrivée, f., arrival. Malheur, m., misfortune. Retourn-er,1, to return,
Autrui, m., others. Midi, m., noon.

Semaine, f., week.
Avec, with.
Mieux, better.
Tante, f., aunt.

Vous avez la dernièrement, You read lately.
Cour-ir, 2, ir., to run. | Ouvrage, m., work. Turc, turque, Turkish.

6. The unipersonal verb y avoir [Sect. XXXII. 3, 4), placed EXERCISE 73.

before a word expressing time, corresponds with the English 1. Vous en allez-vous bientôt ? 2. Je m'en vais la semaine

word ago. prochaine. 3. Pourquoi vous en allez-vous ? 4. Parceque jo

J'ai reçu une lettre il y a huit jonrs, I received a letter a week ago. ne me plais pas ici. 5. Vous plaisez-vous mieux chez votre tante

Vous avez acheté une maison il y You bought a house a year ago.

& un an, qu'ici ? 6. Je m'y plais mieux. 7. N'avez-vous pas tort de

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. vous en aller si tôt ? 8. J'ai raison de m'en aller. 9. Ne vous réjouissez-vous pas des malheurs d'autrui ? 10. Nous ne nous vos neveux nous ont parlé. Your nephew spoke to us. en réjouissons point. 11. Cet homme se fâche-t-il contre le Nous avons parlé à votre père. We spoke to your father. jardinier? 12. Il se fâche contre lui parce qu'il ne veut pas se

Le tailleur a-t-il fait mon habit ? Has the tailor made my coat ! dépêcher. 13. Se fâche-t-il bien souvent ? 14. Il se fâche à

Le boulanger a mis son chapeau, The baker has put on his hat.

Le cordonnier a ôté ses souliers. The shoemaker has taken his shows off. tout moment, il se fâche d'un rien. 15. Ne vous dépêchez-vous

Votre frère a dit quelque chose. jamais ? 16. Je me dépêche toujours quand j'ai quelque chose

Your brother said something. Votre scur qu'a-t-elle dit?

What did your sister say! à faire. 17. Ne vous plaisez-vous pas à courir et à jouer? 18.

N'avez-vous rien dit à mon cousin ? Have you told my cousin nothing? Je me plais à jouer et mon frère se plait à lire. 19. Vous Je ne lui ai rien dit.

I have told him nothing. réjouissez-vous de l'arrivée de l'ambassadeur turc ? 20. Jo Je ne l'ai jamais rencontré.

I have never met him. m'en réjouis. 21. Ne vous plaisez-vous pas en Amérique ? 22. Je ne leur ai jamais parlé.

I never spoke to them. Je m'y plais beaucoup mieux qu'en France. 23. Votre écolier Qu'avez-vous fait aujourd'hui ? What have you done to-day? ne se plait-il pas chez vous ? 24. Il se plait chez moi, mais il

Hier nous n'avons pas travaillé. We did not work yesterday. désire retourner chez son père. 25. Dépêchez-vous, il est déjà

Leur en avez-vous souvent parlé ? Have you often spoken to them about midi.

Je leur en ai souvent parlé,

I have often spoken to them about it. EXERCISE 74.

Je ne le leur ai pas encore dit. I have not yet said anything to then 1. At what hour does your friend go away? 2. He goes

about it.

N'avez-vous pas assez écrit ? away every morning at nine o'clock. 3. Do you go away with

Have you not written enough!

Il m'a écrit, il y a longtemps. He wrote to me a long time ago. him? 4. I go away with him when I have time. 5. Will you n nous a répondu il y a un mois. He replied to us a month ago. make haste to finish your letter ? 6. I make haste to finish it. 7. Does the gardener get angry with his brother? 8. He gets

VOCABULARY. angry with (contre) him when he does not make haste. 9. Make Avocat, m., barrister. Garçon, m., boy.

Mis, from mettre, putok. haste, my friend, it is ten o'clock. 10. Why do you not make Cela, ceci, that, this. Hier, yesterday. Plant-er, 1, to plant. haste ? 11. I like to play, but I do not like to study. 12. Do Dit, from dire, said. Journée, f., day. Poirier, m., pear-trei. you like to stay at my house ? 13. I like to stay there. 14. / Etudi-er, 1, to study. Lu, from lire, read. Soulier, m., shoe. Are you pleased at the arrival of your mother ? 15. I rejoice Gant, m., glove. Ministre, m., minister. Vu, from voir, seeul. at it. 16. Is not your brother wrong to go away so soon ? 17.

EXERCISE 75. He is right to go away, he has much to do at home. 18. Do you rejoice at other people's misfortunes ? 19. I do not rejoico |

1. Qui vous a dit cela ? 2. L'avocat me l'a dit. 3. Loi at them. 20. I rejoice at your success. 21. Does not your avez-vous parlé de cette affaire ? 4. Je ne lui en ai pas encore brother draw near the fire P 22. He goes from the fire. he is parlé. 5. L'avez-vous vu dernièrement ? 6. Je l'ai vu il y a too warm. 23. Does that young lady get angry with you? 24. quelques jours. 7. N'avez-vous pas écrit hier ? 8. Nous avons She gets angry at trifles (de rien). 25. Do you like to be in lu et écrit toute la journée. [Sect. XXV. 9.] 9. N'avez-vous Paris ? 26. I like to be there. 27. Can yon do without me pas êté vos gants et vos souliers ? 10. Je n'ai pas ôté més to-day? 28. We cannot do without you; make haste to finish

gants, mais j'ai ôté mon chapeau. 11. Le tailleur n'a-t-il pas your work. 29. Do you want your penknife ? 30. I want to mis son chapeau ? 12. Oui, Monsieur, il a mis son chapeaz. use it. 31. Make haste to rise, it is six o'clock. 32. Is it fine

13. Qu'avez-vous fait à ce petit garçon ? 14. Je ne lui ai rien weather ? 33. No, Sir, it rains. 34. Is your father well this

fait. 15. Ne lui avez-vous point dit que je suis ici ? 16. Je morning ? 35. Yes, Sir, he is very well.

ne le lui ai pas encore dit. 17. Qu'avez-vous étudié ce matin ?

18. Nous avons étudié nos leçons et nous avons la nos livres. SECTION XL.-THE PAST INDEFINITE [$ 121).

L8 121.

19. Le jardinier du ministre a-t-il planté le poirier ? 20. Il l's 1. The past indefinite is composed of the present of the in- planté il y a plus de huit jours. 21. Avez-vous acheté un habit dicative of one of the auxiliary verbs, avoir and être r$ 45 (8) de drap noir ? 22. J'en ai acheté un. 23. L'avez-vous porte and the participle past of a verb. See the different paradigms aujourd'hui ? 24. Je ne l'ai pas encore porté. 25. Nous avons of verbs, $ 47, and following sections.

mis nos souliers et nos bas ce matin. J'ai parlé; je suis arrivé, I have spoken; I have arrived.

EXERCISE 76. 2. The past indefinite is used to express an action entirely 1. Have you studied to-day? 2. We have no time to study, completed, but performed at a time of which a part is not yet we have read a page. 3. Have you not written to my brother? elapsed, or at a time entirely past, but not specified [$ 121 (1) | 4. I have not yet written to him. 5. Has not the German (2)].

written to my mother ? 6. He has not yet written to her. 7. J'ai vu votre père ce matin, I have seen your father this morning.

Have you told (à) my mother that I have taken (pris) this Je ne vous ai pas encore parlé, I have not yet spoken to you.

book ? 8. I have not yet seen your mother. 9. What hste

you done this morning? 10. We have done nothing. 11. Havo 3. The past indefinite may also be used when the time is

you taken off your coat? 12. I have not taken off my coat, it specified (S 121 (3)].

is too cold. 13. Has the bookseller written to your brother? Je lui ai écrit la semaine dernière, I wrote to him last week.

14. He wrote to him a long time ago. 15. Did he write to him Je lui ai envoyé une lettre le mois I sent him a letter last month. a month ago P 16. He wrote to him more than a year ago. 17. dernier,

Have you planted a pear-tree ? 18. We have planted several.

19. Is it too cold to (pour) plant trees? 20. It is too warm. the matter with him? 26. Nothing is the matter with him, 21. What has the gardener done to your little boy ? 22. He 27. Has your father put on his black hat? 28. No, Sir, he has has done nothing to him. 23. Has any one done anything to not put on his black hat. 29. What has your brother said ? him? 24. No one has done anything to him. 25. Is anything 30. He has said nothing.

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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP_XXI. more rounded in the manner exhibited in Copy-slip No. 88.

Roundness on the one hand, and angularity on the other, will The copy-slips that accompany this lesson contain two examples be found to be the most essential marks of difference in the of a kind of writing that we have not yet brought under the writing of men and that of women; the former being also disnotice of our readers. Hitherto the turns of the letters in our tinguished by the neatness and compactness of the letters and copy-slips, both at top and bottom, have been curved; but in the shortness of their loops and tails, while the latter is usually Copy-slips Nos. 89 and 90 it will be noticed that the turns of larger and spreads over much space, while the tails and loops the letters are angular or pointed. For this reason this elegant of the letters are long and straggling. It must be remembered style of writing is called “ Angular Hand." It is also called that in pointing out these as the chief points of difference in ** Ladies' Hand," because this pointed kind of writing is com- the handwriting of men and women, we are only speaking monly adopted by ladies, and taught in ladies' schools ; while generally and directing attention to the more striking characin the handwriting of men, for the most part, the letters are teristics of the different styles of writing usually adopted by

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