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further into this very interesting inquiry, but refrain, from a lake or inland sea ; quercus, f., an oak; specus, m., a cave or desire not to present too many difficulties at present. Fig. 80 is grotto; tribus, f., a tribe; pecu, n., cattle ; veru, n., a spit. an example of the rule set forth by Fig. 79. It will be observed As u belongs to the stem, ubus is the regular form in the that the dotted lines representing the sun's inclination, deter. dative and ablative plural; but the u has been set aside by the mine the extent of the cast shadow of the buildings on the connecting vowel i, as in fruct-i-bus. ground ; and according to the heights of the buildings, so is the EXAMPLE.-Fructus, m., fruit; cornu, n., a horn. extent of their shadows: the shadow of the chimney is on the roof, which being above the eye cannot be seen. Let us again

Cases. Singular. Plural.

Singular. Plural.

N. fructus, fruit. fructus, fruits. cornű, a horn. remind the pupil that the tone of the cast shadow on the ground G. fructus, of fruit, fructüüm, of fruits cornūs, of a horn. cornuấm, of horns

cornůă, homs. is darker than the broad shadow on the walls. Observe when | D, fructăi, to fruit, fructibus, to fruits, cornū, to a horn. cornibus, to horns the shadow of a perpendicular object is cast horizontally on the Ac.fructam, fruit. fructus, fruits, cornù, a horn. cornda, horns. ground, and is found to be equal in length to the height of that v. fructůs, O fruit ! fructus, O fruits! cornū, O horn! cornúš, horas ! object, then the inclination of the sun's rays is at an angle of 45°. Ab.fructü, by fruit, fructibus, by fruits cornū, by a horn. cornibús, by horns Therefore, to determine the extent of a shadow caused by the sun's inclination at 45°, we have simply to make the object and

Domus, f., a house, partakes of the second as well as the fourth its shadow of the same length ; should the sun's rays be at any

declension: thus, from the second, it has the ablative singular other angle, the method, as shown in the problem Fig. 79, of

in o, as domo, and one form of the genitive plural in orum, as first constructing the angle, must be adopted. The dotted hori.

domorum; from the fourth declension, it has most of its other

cases. It is declined thus :zontal retiring lines from the shadows in Fig. 77 and Fig. 78, meet on the I L, or line of sight, at the vanishing point of the

Domus, ūs, f., a house. sun's direction ; whilst the inclined dotted lines from the top

Cases, Singular,

Plural. of the post to the extremity of the shadow, are drawn from

domus.

domūs. the vanishing point of the sun's elevation, in one case above, in

domūs.

domuum or domorum. the other below, the line of sight. We merely mention this,

domui.

domibus. and purposely decline giving any further rules at present for

domum.

Ac. domos (rarely domūs). the construction of shadows, asking the pupil patiently to wait

domus.

domus. until he is a little more advanced, for fuller and more direct

Ab.

domibus.

domo. information, with a promise on our part that he shall not be Domus has also domi, genitive singular; but domi is not used left without proof and further instruction upon these interesting except in the sense of at home; with domi, you may connect points. In the case of Fig. 81, the sun is behind us to the left, other words, as, domi tuæ, at thy house; domi alienæ, at and therefore in front of the picture; cast shadows are thrown another's house. upon the projecting walls and on the ground: this hint will re

VOCABULARY. mind the pupil of their difference of tone. In working a shadow cast on the ground,' we recommend the practice of drawing the

Amicus, -a, -um, bitter. | Lusus, -ūs, m., play. Sagitta, -ūs, f., an arro. lines of the shadow (that is, the shading) horizontally, so that the

Bestia, -æ, f., a beast. | Paro, 1, I make ready, Sapiens, sapientis, as
Evito, 1, I avoid.

I procure,

an adjective, vise ; retiring shadows will then appear horizontal on a like surface: if

Frango, 3, I break, I Præditus, -a, -um, en as a noun, a sage. . the lines of the work were drawn in the direction of the vanish- overcome.

dowed with.

Suaviter, stoectly. ing point to which the shadow retires, the shadow would then Genus, -ěris, n., a race. Puerilis, -e, boyish, Succumbo, 3, I lie appear to be inclined to the horizon, similar to the roof of a Gratus, -a, -um, plea! childlike.

under, I yield to honse, or to a board placed upon an edge and leaning against a sant, thankful. Quam, how.

(with the dative). wall. Cast shadows on perpendicular planes, such as upright

Indulgeo, 2, I indulge Quantus, -a, -um, how Vehementer, greatly. walls, should be worked perpendicularly. As a general rule,

in (with the dative). great.

Vis, f., strength, power. we may decide that the working of a shadow should always be

Libenter, adv, willingly. Sensus, -üs, m., feeling | Voluptas, -ātis, t., pleawith especial reference to the position or inclination of the

Luctus, -üs, m., grief. '

sure,

or a sense.. object upon which it is cast, whether it be perpendicular, hori.

EXERCISE 35.- ENGLISH-LATIN. zontal, or inclined, so that the lines of the shading, though representing the shadow, should also represent the character of

1. Lusus gratus est pueris. 2. Varia sunt genera lusûs. 3. Pueri the ground, object, or plane upon which the shadow is cast.

libenter indulgent lusui. 4. Nonne pueris gratus est lusus ? 5. Lusus est mihi gratus. 6. Tibi est lusus vehementer gratus. 7. Viri graves evitant lusus pueriles. 8. O lusus, quam suaviter animos puerorum

delectas! 9. Reges non delectantur lusu puerili. 10. Sensus sunt LESSONS IN LATIN.—XI.

acres. 11. Acres mihi sunt sensus. 12. Vis sensuum est magna. 13.

Estne senguum vis magna. 14. Vir fortis non succumbit sensibus SUBSTANTIVES of the fourth declension have in the nominative doloris. 15. Acres sensus habent bestiw. 16. O sensus, quantas two case-endings, one in us, the other in u. The nouns which voluptates hominibus paratis! 17. Animalia prædita sunt sensibus. end in us are for the most part masculine; those which end in

EXERCISE 36.-ENGLISH-LATIN. u are neuter. The u belongs to the stem. With this u are blended the case-endings of the genitive and ablative singular, 1. The feeling of pain is bitter. 2. Is not the feeling of pain bitter and the nominative and accusative plural; thus u and is become to thee? 3. The feeling of pain is bitter to all men and to all animals. üs in the genitive singular ; u and e become ů in the ablative 4. The power of grief is great. 5. The sage is not overcome by the singular ; u and es become is in the nominative and accusative

power of the senses. 6. A brave (fortis) man yields not to grief. 7. plural. The fourth conjugation, then, is only a contracted form

Do brave men yield to the power of the senses? 8. O grief, how dost of the third ; contracted, I say, that is shortened, as when u

thou overcome the minds of men! 9. Boys willingly yield to play.

10. (There) are many kinds of play. 11. Plays (games) of all kinds are and s are melted together to form ūs, the case-ending of the

pleasant to boys and girls. 12. Boyish plays delight not men. 13. genitive singular.

Men are not delighted by boyish playg. 14. Boys and men yield to FOURTH DECLENSION.

pleasure. 15. How greatly is grief avoided by children, 16. Boys Sign us in the Genitive Singular.

delight in bows and arrows. 17. Girls delight in needles. CASE-ENDINGS.

There are no adjectives which follow the fourth declension, Singular.

Plural.

as there are none which follow the fifth declension. Adjectives Cases, w, and . Cases, M. and F.

follow exclusively the first, the second, and the third declen

sions. Yet nouns of the fourth and of the fifth declensions are นัini dům

sometimes united with adjectives. In declining nouns and di or a

Ybūs
Ibūs

adjectives so united, you must take care to preserve the proper om

us

forms of both, and not allow the one to influence the other. ús Ab.

To aid you in making the necessary distinctions, I supply
Ibug
Ibús

instances for practice.
The following words have in the dative and ablative plural
ūbus instead of ibus; namely, ăcus, f., a needle; arcus, m., a bow;

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES OF VARIOUS DECLENSIONS. artus, m., a limb; partus, m., a birth or offspring ; lacus, m., al EXAMPLE.—Maturus fructus, m., ripe fruit; frequens cotas,

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m., a full assembly; matura ficus, f., a ripe fig; debile genu, n., recesses of philosophy; reliqua Ægyptus, the rest of Egypt. a weak knee.

Decline each of these instances according to their proper Cascs. Singular.

models; thus:N maturus fructus.

frequens cætus.
Cases.

Singular.
maturi fructus.
frequentis cotūs.
N. summus mons. media æstas.

reliquum opus. D. maturo fructui. frequenti cætui.

summi montis.

mediæ æstatis, reliqui opěris. Ac, maturum fructum. frequentem cætum.

summo monti,

mediæ æstati, reliquo operi. mature fructus. frequens cetus.

Ac. summum montem. mediam æstatem, reliquum opus. Ab. maturo fructu,

frequente cætus.

V. summe mons.

media æstas. Plural. Cases,

reliquum opus. Ab. summo monte,

media estate, reliquo opere. maturi fructus.

frequentes ccetus.
maturorum fructuum.
frequentum cætuum.
Cases.

Plural.
maturis fructibus.
frequentibus coetibus.

N. summi montes. mediæ æstates. reliqua opera.
maturos fructus.
frequentes coetus.

G. summorum montium. mediarum æstatum, reliquorum operum. maturi fructus. frequentes cotus.

. summis montibus. mediis æstatibus, reliquis operibus. Ab maturis fructibus.

frequentibus cætibus,

Ac. summos montes. inedias æstates. reliqua opera. Singular.

V. summi montes.

media æstates. reliqua opera. matura ficus. debile genu.

Ab. summis montibus. mediis æstatibus. reliquis operibus. maturn ficûs.

debilis genů, D. matura ficui.

debili genu.

So in English, instead of “the middle of summer,” we say, Aca maturam ficum. debile genu.

after the Latin manner, mid-summer, that is, middle summer ; matura ficus, debile genu.

also, mid-day ; mid-night; mid-way, etc. Ab. maturà ficu.

debili genu.

The student is required to find out English words derived Plural.

from the Latin words just used; and the Latin words that are maturæ ficus. debilia genua.

the sources of derivation of the English words which follow:maturaram ficuum.

debilium genuum, D. maturis ficis,

debilibus genibus,

Acute.
Generic.

Sensual,
Ac. maturas ficus.

debilia genua.

Alienate.
Grateful.

Sweet,
V. maturæ ficus,

debilia genua.

Antecedent.
Nature.

Vacillation.
maturis ficis.
debilibus genibus.

Archery.
Parturition.

Variously.
Domestic
Peculiar,

Voluptuary.
Here observe, that the regular form of the dative and ablative Fructify.

Puerile. plural would be ficibus or ficubus, but only ficis is found in good Latin authors, which shows that ficns, like domus, is a noun

With these English words other English words are connected, which partakes of the second as well as the fourth declension.

so that when you know the import of these, you easily learn

the import of the connected or related terms. Thus from the VOCABULARY.

adjective acute comes the adverb acutely and the noun acuteness ; Antecedo, 3, I go before. Indico, 1, I point out. Supplex,supplicis, as an with the verb alienate is connected the noun alien; voluptuary Extimesoo, 3, I fear, Multus, -a, -um, much adjective, entreating ; has corresponding forms in voluptuous and voluptuousness; Flecto, 3, 1 bend.

or many.

L asa noun, a suppliant. | grateful also has gratitude and gratefully. Fremitus, -as, m., a Permóveo, 2, I move Terribilis, -e, terrible. Find the Latin terms which occur in the instructions in the Toaring. greatly.

Tonitru (indeclinable third declension, from which are derived these English words, Fulmen, -Inis, 1., light. Procumbo, 3, I fall in sing. num.), n., namely:ning. down.

or Tonitrus, -ūs, m., Genu (indeclinable in Resono, 1, I resound, I thunder.

Acrid.
Guttural,

Sweet.
sing. num.), 11., a echo.
Vacillo, 1, I move to | Audacious,

Hostile.

Terrify (the fy reprobree, Robur, -ris, n., and fro, I vacillate. Aviary.

Legal.

sents the Latin facio, Horribilis, -e, frightful, strength; also an Validus, -a, -um, strong. Cardinal.

Luminous.

I do or cause). horrible. oak. Vigor, -āris, m., vigour. Civic.

Marine.

To err.
Corpulent.
Maternal.

To judge.
EXERCISE 37.--LATIN-ENGLISH.

Decorous.
Military.

To reign. 1. Tonitru terribile animos hominum permovet. 2. Nonne tonitrûs Floral.

Mortal.

Virtue. sonus est terribilis? 3. Tonitrûs fremitus horribilis est. 4. Horribile | Gregarious.

Nominal. est tonitru. 5. Fulmen antecedit tonitru. 6. Multi homines extime. scunt tonitru.

Commit to memory these lices, which comprise the feminine 7. Tonitru extimescitur a multis hominibus. 8. O tonitru, quam horribilis est fremitus tuus! 9. Domus resonat nouns of the fourth declension :tonitru. 10. Genua virorum sunt valida. 11., Vigor genuum indicat

Feminine : these nouns in us : tribus, acus, porticus. robur corpëris. 12. Magna vis est genibus. 13. Supplices procumbunt

Domus, nurus, socrus, anus: idus, quercus, ficus, manus. in (on) genna. 14, O genua, quam valde vacillatis! 15. In genibus est magna vis. EXERCISE 38.--ENGLISH-LATIN.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-X. 1. The man's knee is strong. 2. Strong knees have vigour. 3. Are

EXERCISE 33.-LATIN-ENGLISH. thy knees strong ? 4. The woods resound with the horrible sound of thunder. 5. The sound of thunder greatly moves the animals. 6. 1. A soldier ought to fight with a bravo mind. 2. Men have mortal Thunder is feared by strong beasts. 7. I have weak knees. 8. Has bodies, immortal minds. 3. Have not men mortal bodies ? 4. I am your father weak knees? 9. No, my father has strong knees. 10. I delighted with the sweet voice of birds. 5. Art thou delighted with am greatly moved by much lightning. 11. The roaring of thunder tho sweet voice of birds? 6. Boys should apply to learning with an greatly moves the suppliants. 12. The suppliant points out the eager mind. 7. Why, O boys, do you not apply to knowledge with an beautifal house,

earnest mind ? 8. The praise of scholars consists in good characters

and severe industry. 9. With earnest industry my father applies to Summus, highest; medius, middle; imus, lowest ; reliquus, literature. 10. Piety is the basis of all the virtues. 11. Thy virtues. Tenaining; ultimus, extremus, last, etc. These adjectives agree O mother, delight me. 12. Brave men are not overcome by severe in number, case, and gender with their nouns, though in English pains. 13. We do not yield to daring enemies. 14. Every voice they appear to have the force of nouns, and consequently to (sound) is well heard by thy mother. 15. Thy voices (words), O require the construction of nouns. Thus, the Latins say, sister, are sweet to me. summus mons, that is, the highest mountain ; meaning, the top

EXERCISE 34.--ENGLISH-LATIN. of the mountain, the highest part of the mountain, the mountain, that is, where it is highest. I subjoin some instances, with

1. Fortes viri hostibus non cedunt. 2. Audax agmen non facile forms for practice.

vincitur. 3. Alacri animo in literas incumbit meus filius. 4. Sorores

tuw amantne literas ? 5. Avium vocibus delectantur. 6. Aves Instances -Ima quercus, the bottom of the oak; reliquum

hostium suaves habent voces. 7. Bene in literas incumbunt discipuli opus, the remainder of the work; primum limen, the edge of the

mei. 8. A Julio Cesare vincitur audax agmen. 9. Hominum corpor threshold; extremum bellum, the end of the war ; ineuns ver,

mortalia sunt, immortales animi. 10. Matris pietas filium deler the beginning of spring ; media æstas, the middle of summer; 11. Filia patris virtute delectatur. 12. Industriâ et bonis m summa aqua, the surface of the water; intima philosophia, the puerorum constat virtus. 13. Matris meæ epistola ab omnibus

ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-III. duals. Whatever material gains may be secured by frand and

falsehood, the dishonour which is an inseparable part of the har. TRUTH.

vest is more than a counterbalance for all the success. Falsehood THE love of truth is one of the main elements in all honourable | brings with it in many ways its own punishment. It has been characters. To preserve a keen and delicate edge of feeling in

in well said that “Liars should have good memories"—80 sure are the moral sense in this respect is to conserve the happiness as

they in after days to speak accidentally the truth, and thus not well as the excellency of character. Where there is little self. | only to reveal the real fact, but also to uncover themselves to respect there can be little real blessedness, and the consciousness

the shame and derision of mankind. of habitual untruthfulness cannot co-exist with any moral satis

Fidelity to truth is one of those virtues which cannot suddenly faction in ourselves. To be true, as it ranks' us amongst the be either learned or practised. Savage and uncivilised people. noblest, so it ranks us with the happiest of men. To be false is who have been habituated to falsehood, take many long years of not only to be despised, but to despise ourselves.

moral education before they lose the lying habits of their nature. Scarcely any psychologists will doubt the existence in all men | It must therefore commend itself to us as one of the first duties of that moral sense which is able to discern the true when pre- of life to inculcate the love and admiration of truth upon the sented to it, nor will their investigations have been carried on | young, that they may be early drilled in its exercise, and accus. without the discerning of another faculty closely connected with tomed to its yoke. In the end it is easy, but in the beginning it it, and that is a sensation of pleasure in the perception of it.

is hard enough to fulfil the injunction, “ Lie not at all." Truth is meant to meet not only the eye which perceives, but ! All pretences and shams are actual untruths ; but it is imposthe instinct which admires and approves. In other words, truth sible in this article to follow into fullest details all the ramificameets not only a mental perceptivity in us, but has a moral | tions of falsehood. Enough has been said to show that there are affinity with us.

many forms of falsehood, and not one of them even allowable or In all human relationships we see how valuable is the posses

excusable. sion of a love of truth, and how difficult it is to preserve at all

| Truth is as beautiful as it is powerful, and constitutes one of times a strict adherence to its behests.

the richest adornments, as it is indeed one of the strongest bul. Unquestionably it is our duty always to be obedient to the warks of character. truth without dread of consequences. Inasmuch as likes and dislikes may meet us in the way, we shall often have to conquer

LESSONS IN FRENCH.—XXI. ourselves. Passion and prejudice may stand on one side, and truth on the other, and the solicitations of the former may be so

SECTION XXXV.-REFLECTIVE VERBS [$ 43 (6), § 56). strong as to make it very hard work to comply with the com 1. A VERB is called reflective or pronominal, when it is conju. mands of the latter. Moreover, to act according to truth brings gated with two pronouns of the same person, i.e., the usual with it sometimes disadvantage-loss, for instance, of pecuniary nominative pronoun and the pronouns me, te, se, etc. [$ 56). profit, or of flattering reputation; but in the end these gains In these verbs the subject is represented as acting upon itself. if secured would be counterbalanced by the after-loss of our be counterbalanced by the after-loss of our | Je m'applique à l'étude,

I apply (myself) to study. character, and we should have risked and ruined that upon Je me propose de voyager,

I propose (to myself) to travel, i.e., which our ultimate success as well as our ultimate happiness

it is my intention to travel. alike depend.

In these verbs, the second pronoun is, in fact, only the objecLying is of many kinds and degrees, but all lies are hateful tive pronoun direct or indirect, which, according to Sect. XXVI., and injurious. There is the suppressio veri, or the hiding of lī. 2. is placed before the verb. truth, the keeping back that which, if the jury knew it, or if our

2. The reflective form of the verb, which is much more neighbour knew it, would altogether alter the value of the

frequently used in French than in English, often answers to the bargain and the complexion of the whole matter; consequently,

passive form so common in the latter language. though in such cases we remain silent, we may yet all the time be denying the truth by the reservation which keeps back that

That is seen every day-literally, Cela se voit tous les jours,

That sees itself every day. which is essential to its claims. There is also the speaking

Cette marchandise se vend facile. That merchandise is casily sold, falsely for the sake of supposed good ends, a doctrine which

ment,

That merchandise sells itself casily. has been of old defended by some casuists, but which has not

That is done thus, one word to be said in its favour, inasmuch as it leaves open to

Cela se fait ainsi,

That does itself so. every man's judgment the decision of what in the end will be 3. The verb se porter, literally, to carry one's self, is used

decision which, apart from all other considerations, is | idiomatically for to do or to be, in speaking of health. only too likely to fall in with his own selfish desires and inclina

Comment vous portez-vous ? How do you do? tions. There is no more immoral doctrine than this, as it cuts | Je me porte très-bien,

I am very well. at the very, root of an immutable morality. There is also one 4. S'asseoir 14, ir. ; see $ 62], to sit down, is also a reflective more form of falsehood which demands exposure, and that is the

| verb. acted untruth, where the lips indeed are silent, but where the

Votre frère s'assied,

Your brother sits down. look and the manner give assent to the falsehood. We must ever

5. Se promener means to walk, to ride, etc., for pleasure or remember that there is a speech of the glance and the gesture

health. as well as of the lips and the voice, and that it is as baso to deceive with the one as with the other.

Je me promène tous les jours, I take a walk every day. It is proper, however, to draw a distinction which does seem

Je me promène à cheval,

I take a ride. to exist between the two English words truth and veracity.

6. Marcher, aller à cheval, aller en voiture, signify to walk Truth is always truth, whether we know it to be so or not;

or to ride, when we wish to express simply the manner of prowhereas veracity seems to relate to the connection between what

gressing. a man says and what he honestly believes to be true. Thus a

Marchez-vous beaucoup tous les Do you walk much every day! veracious man may sometimes err from the truth. He may |

jours ? have been misinformed or mistaken; he is veracious in respect

Je vais à cheval et en voiture, I ride on horseback and in a carriage. to his own consciousness of what was done, whilst in regard to 7. CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE the actual truth of things he is wrong. It is not true that the

OF THE REFLECTIVE VERBS. sun moves round the earth; but astronomers of the Ptolemaic SE PORT-ER, 1, to be SE PROMEN-ER, 1, to, S'ASSE-OIR, 3, ir., to sit school, who declared it did, were still veracious men. They

or do.
wall or ride.

doren, spoke that which they believed to be true.

Sing. Fidelity to truth has much to do with the stability and pros. Je me porte, I am or Je me promène, I take Je m'assieds, I sit down

The just payment of bonds, the righteous perity of

do.

or am sitting doren.

a walk or ride.

Tu te portes, -nd the earnest adhesion to a course of con

Tu te promènes ($ 49]. Tu t'assieds. adingt

Il se porte.
Il se promène.

Il s'assied.
at rectitude, constitute one of the surest

Plur,
Plur.

Plur.
Empires suffer most severely from all

Nous nous portons, Nous nous promenons. Nous nous asseyons. ust towards others in the great commu- Vous vous portez, Vous vous promenez. Vous vous asseyez. hich is true of peoples is true of indivi. Ils se portent.

Ils se promènent. Ils s'asseient.

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Jard?

bree

8. The reflective pronouns in the imperative of reflective verbs he intend to go to France ? 26. He intends to go to France in follow Rule 4 of Sect. XXVI., and Rules 3, 4 of Sect. XXVII., one month. 27. Is your sister to leave tomorrow morning ? and also $ 100 (2) (3).

28. She is to leave to-day if (s'il) it is fine weather. 29.

What do people say of this ?
Let us sit down ; sit down.
Asseyons-nous; asseyez-vous,

30. Nothing is said about it Ne nous asseyons pas, Let us not sit down.

[Sect. XXXIV.]. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

SECTION XXXVI.-REFLECTIVE PRONOUNS.

1. The reflective pronoun is often used to express possession, À quoi vous appliquez-vous ? To what do you apply yourself? Je m'occupe de mes affaires. I occupy myself with my afairs,

instead of the possessive adjective. In such cases the article Je m'adresse à mes amis. I apply to my friends.

| takes the place of this adjective before the noun ($ 77 (9)]. Vous adressez-vous à votre père ? Do you apply to your father ? Vous chauffez-vous les pieds ? Do you warm your feet? Je m'adresse à lui 100 (4)]. I apply to him.

Je me chauffe les mains et les pieds, I warm my hands and feet. Comment se porte Monsieur votre How is your father ? père ?

2. Se souvenir [2, ir ; see § 62], se rappeler [$ 49 (4)], corIl se porte passablement bien. He is tolerably well.

respond to the English verb to remember. Se rappeler takes a Pourquoi ne vous asseyez-vous pas ? Why do you not sit down ?

direct object, that is, no preposition intervenes between the verb Je m'assieds quand je suis fatigué. I sit down when I am tired.

and its object, if the same be a noun or a pronoun. Je n'ai pas le temps de m'asseoir. I have no time to sit down.

Vous rappelez-vous ces demoiselles? Do you remember those young ladies ? Tous promenez-vous tous les jours ? Do you take a walk every day? Je me promène en voiture an. I take a ride to-day (in a carriage).

Je ne me les rappelle pas,

I do not remember them. jourd'hui,

3. Custom seems, however, to sanction the use of tho preposiVosamis se promènent-ils à cheval? Do your friends take a ride to-day? tion de between the verb se rappeler and an infinitive. N'aimez-vous pas à marcher? Do you not like walking ! J'aime beaucour aller à cheval. I like riding much.

Nous ne nous rappelons pas d'on Wo do not romombor having been Aimez-vous à vous promener ? Do you like walking (for pleasure) ?

avoir été privés (CONDILLAC), deprivod of it. Asseyons-nous, s'il vous plait. Let us sit down, if you please.

4. Se souvenir takes tho preposition de before a noun or proNe nous asseyons-nous pas ? Do we not sit down ?

noun, as well as beforo an infinitive. Ne nous asseyons pas, il est trop Let us not sit down, it is too late. tard.

Vous souvenez-vous de cette affaire ? Do you romember that afair ? Combien ce drap se vend-il le* How much is that cloth sold a yard ? Je ne m'en souviens pas,

I do not remomber it.

Je me souviens de lui avoir écrit, I remember having written to him. Il se rend vingt-cinq francs le It is sold at twenty-five francs the

5. Se coucher corresponds to the English verbs to retire, to go mètre. metre.

to bed. Comment cela s'appelle-t-il ? How is that called ? What is the

name of that ?

Je me couche de bonne heure, I retire early. Comment vous appelez- [$ 49 (4)] What is your name? How do you 6. Se lever ($ 49 (6)] means to rise, to get up. Tous ?

call yourself?

Je me lève au point du jour, I rise at the break of day.
VOCABULARY.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Banquier, m., banker. | Magnifique, magnificent. Pied, m., foot.
Cheval, m., horse. Matin, m., morning. Port-er, to carry, wear.

Vous coupez-vous les ongles ? Do you cut your nails ?
Comment, how. Mieux, better.

Quelquefois, sometimes,

| Je me coupe les ongles et les I cut my nails and hair.

cheveux, Drap, m., cloth. Obligé, -e, obliged. Quitt-er, 1, to leave. Fatigué, -e, weary, tirod. | Part-ir, 2, to set out. Voiture, f., carriage.

Vous coupez-vous les doigts? Do you cut your fingers ?

Je me coupe souvent les doigts, I often cut my fingers, when I mend EXERCISE 65.

quand je taille ma plume. 1. Comment ce Monsieur s'appelle-t-il? 2. Je ne sais com. | Vous rappelez- [8 49 (4)] vous les Do you remember the misfortunes of ment il s'appelle. 3. Cette dame ne s'appelle-t-elle pas L. ?

malheurs du frère de votre ami? your friend's brother ? 4. Non, Madame, elle s'appelle M. 5. Monsieur votre père se

Je me rappelle ses malheurs. I remember his misfortunes.

Je me les rappelle distinctement. I recollect them distinctly. porte-t-il bien ce matin? 6. Il se porte beaucoup mieux. 7.

Je me rappelle de l'avoir vu. I remember having soen him. Fait-il beau temps anjourd'hui ? 8. Il fait un temps mag

Vous souvenez-vous de cela ? Do you remember that? nifique, n'allez-vous pas vous promener? 9. Nous n'avons ni Je ne m'en souviens pas du tout. I do not remember it all. cheval ni voiture. 10. Ne pouvez-vous marcher ? 11. Je suis À quelle heure vous couchez-vous? At what hour do you retire ? trop fatigué pour marcher. 12. N'allez-vous pas à cheval tous Nous nous couchons tous les jours We go to bed every day at sunset. les matins ? 13. Je me promène tous les matins. 14. Com au coucher du soleil. ment vous promenez-vous ? 15. Quelquefois à pied et quelque

Nous nous levons de meilleure heure Wo rise earlier than you-at sunrise. fois en voiture. 16. A qui vous adressez-vous quand vous

que vous-au lever du soleil.

Il se lève à cinq heures du matin, He rises at five o'clock in the morn. avez besoin d'argent ? 17. Je m'adresse à mon banquier? 18.

et il se couche à dix heures et ing, and goes to bed at half after Ne voulez-vous pas vous asseoir ? 19. Nous vous sommes bien

demie du soir.

ten in the evening. obligés. 20. Ce drap se vend-il fort bien ? 21. Il se vend fort

VOCABULARY cher. 22. Ne devez-vous pas aller à la campagne, s'il fait beau temps ? 23. Votre frère doit-il quitter la ville aujourd'hui ?

Associé, m., partner. De meilleure heure, Perruquier, m., hair.

earlier. Bois, m., wood.

dresser. 24. Il doit partir demain matin.

Boucher, m., butcher. Doigt, m., finger, Poêle, m., stove.
EXERCISE 66.
Se brûl-er, 1, ref., to Fer, m., iron.

Pouce, m., thumb. 1. Does your sister walk every day? 2. She takes a walk

burn one's self. Feu, m., fire.

Promesse, f., promise.

Se souvenir, to rememEvery morning.

Charpentier, m., car- | Main, f., hand. 3. She likes riding on horseback and in a

penter.

S'occuper, 1, to occupy ber (see Venir, $ 62). carriage. 4. What is that little girl called ? 5. She is called

Se chauff-er, 1, ref., to one's self.

Travaill-er, 1, to work. L. 6. Is not that gentleman called L.? 7. No, Sir, he is

warm ono's selj. Parfaitement, perfectly. called G., and his cousin is called H. 8. How is your brother ?

EXERCISE 67. 9. My brother is very well, but my sister is not well. 10. How are your two daughters ? 11. They are tolerably well to-day.

1. Le perruquier se coupe-t-il le pouce ? 2. Non, Monsieur, 12. Will you not sit down, gentlemen ? 13. We are much il se coupe les cheveux. 3. Le charpentier ne se coupe-t-il pas obliged to you, Madam, we have not time. 14. Does that book la main ? 4. Il ne se coupe pas la main, il coupe le bois. 5. kell well ? 15. It sells very well. 16. How is that silk sola Ne vous rappelez-vous pas cette dame? 6. Je me rappelle cetto an ell (l'aune) ? 17. It is sold at six francs an ell. 18. Is it fine

| dame et ces messieurs. 7. De quoi vous occupez-vous ? 8. Weather to-day ? 19. It is very fine weather, will you not take Nous nous occupons de nos affaires. 9. Vous souvenez-vous des a walk? 20. I have no time to walk. 21. To whom does your fusils qu'a votre père ?

fusils qu'a votre père ? 10. Je ne m'en souviens point du tout. brother apply? 22. He applies to his brother. 23. Is his 11. Cette petite fille ne se brûle-t-elle pas ? 12. Elle ne se brother at home? 24. No, Sir, he is at Paris. 25. When does

brûle pas, il n'y a pas de feu dans le poêle. 13. Pourquoi le

boucher ne se chauffe-t-il pas ? 14. Parcequ'il n'a pas froid. The English a or an before a measure is rendered into French by

15. Ces enfants se lèvent-ils de meilleure heure que moi? 16. the article le or la, etc.

Ils se couchent de bonne heure, et ils se lèvent tous les matins

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abandhava

ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.—III. duals. Whatever material gains may be secured by fraud and

falsehood, the dishonour which is an inseparable part of the har. TRUTH.

vest is more than a counterbalance for all the success. Falsehood THE love of truth is one of the main elements in all honourable brings with it in many ways its own punishment. It has been characters. To preserve a keen and delicate edge of feeling in well said that "Liars should have good memories”—so sure are the moral sense in this respect is to conserve the happiness as

they in after days to speak accidentally the truth, and thus not well as the excellency of character. Where there is little self. | only to reveal the real fact, but also to uncover themselves to respect there can be little real blessedness, and the consciousness

| the shame and derision of mankind. of habitual untruthfulness cannot co-exist with any moral satis

| Fidelity to truth is one of those virtues which cannot suddenly faction in ourselves. To be true, as it ranks us amongst the

be either learned or practised. Savage and uncivilised people, noblest, so it ranks us with the happiest of men. To be false is

who have been habituated to falsehood, take many long years of not only to be despised, but to despise ourselves.

moral education before they lose the lying habits of their nature. Scarcely any psychologists will doubt the existence in all men It must therefore commend itself to us as one of the first duties of that moral sense which is able to discern the true when pre

of life to inculcate the love and admiration of truth opon the sented to it, nor will their investigations have been carried on | young, that they may be early drilled in its exercise, and accuswithout the discerning of another faculty closely connected with tomed to its yoke. In the end it is easy, but in the beginning it it, and that is a sensation of pleasure in the perception of it.

is hard enough to fulfil the injunction, “ Lie not at all.” Truth is meant to meet not only the eye which perceives, but | All pretences and shams are actual untruths; but it is imposthe instinct which admires and approves. In other words, truth sible in this article to follow into fullest details all the ramificameets not only a mental perceptivity in us, but has a moral

noral tions of falsehood. Enough has been said to show that there are affinity with us.

many forms of falsehood, and not one of them even allowable or In all human relationships we see how valuable is the posses

excusable. sion of a love of truth, and how difficult it is to preserve at all

1 Truth is as beautiful as it is powerful, and constitutes one of times a strict adherence to its behests.

the richest adornments, as it is indeed one of the strongest bul. Unquestionably it is our duty always to be obedient to the warks of character. truth without dread of consequences. Inasmuch as likes and dislikes may meet us in the way, we shall often have to conquer

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XXI. ourselves. Passion and prejudice may stand on one side, and truth on the other, and the solicitations of the former may be so

SECTION XXXV.-REFLECTIVE VERBS ($ 43 (6), $ 56). strong as to make it very hard work to comply with the com. 1. A VERB is called reflective or pronominal, when it is conjumands of the latter. Moreover, to act according to truth brings gated with two pronouns of the same person, i.e., the usual with it sometimes disadvantageloss, for instance, of pecuniary nominative pronoun and the pronouns me, te, se, etc. [$ 56). profit, or of flattering reputation; but in the end these gains In these verbs the subject is represented as acting upon itself. if secured would be counterbalanced by the after-loss of our Je m'applique à l'étude,

I apply (myself) to study. character, and we should have risked and ruined that upon Je me propose de voyager,

I propose (to myself) to travel, i.e., which our ultimate success as well as our ultimate happiness

it is my intention to travel. alike depend. Lying is of many kinds and degrees, but all lies are hateful

In these verbs, the second pronoun is, in fact, only the objec.

tive pronoun direct or indirect, which, according to Sect. XXVI., and injurious. There is the suppressio veri, or the hiding of 1. 2. is placed before the verb. truth, the keeping back that which, if the jury knew it, or if our

| 2. The reflective form of the verb, which is much more neighbour knew it, would altogether alter the value of the

frequently used in French than in English, often answers to the bargain and the complexion of the whole matter; consequently,

passive form so common in the latter language. though in such cases we remain silent, we may yet all the time be denying the truth by the reservation which keeps back that

That is seen every day literally, Cela se voit tous les jours,

That sees itself every day. which is essential to its claims. There is also the speaking

Cette marchandise se vend facile. That merchandise is easily sold. falsely for the sake of supposed good ends, a doctrine which

ment,

That merchandise sells itself easily. has been of old defended by some casuists, but which has not

That is done thus. one word to be said in its favour, inasmuch as it leaves open to

Cela se fait ainsi,

That does itself so. every man's judgment the decision of what in the end will be 3. The verb se porter, literally, to carry one's self, is used 'best; a decision which, apart from all other considerations, is | idiomatically for to do or to be, in speaking of health. only too likely to fall in with his own selfish desires and inclina

Comment vous portez-vous ? How do you do? tions. There is no more immoral doctrine than this, as it cuts

Je me porte très-bien,

I am very well. at the very root of an immutable morality. There is also one

4. S'asseoir [4, ir. ; see § 62), to sit down, is also a reflectire more form of falsehood which demands exposure, and that is the

verb. acted untruth, where the lips indeed are silent, but where the

Votre frère s'assied,

Your brother sits down. look and the manner give assent to the falsehood. We must ever

5. Se promener means to walk, to ride, etc., for pleasure or remember that there is a speech of the glance and the gesture

health. as well as of the lips and the voice, and that it is as base to deceive with the one as with the other.

Je me promène tous les jours, I take a walk every day.

I take a ride. It is proper, however, to draw a distinction which does seem

Je me promène à cheval, to exist between the two English words truth and veracity.

6. Marcher, aller à cheval, aller en voiture, signify to walk Truth is always truth, whether we know it to be so or not;

or to ride, when we wish to express simply the manner of prowhereas veracity seems to relate to the connection between what

gressing. a man says and what he honestly believes to be true. Thus a

| Marchez-vous beaucoup tous les Do you walk much every day! veracious man may sometimes err from the truth. He may |_ Jours? have been misinformed or mistaken; he is veracious in respect

Je vais à cheval et en voiture, I ride on horseback and in a carriage. to his own consciousness of what was done, whilst in regard to 7. CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE the actual truth of things he is wrong. It is not true that the

OF THE REFLECTIVE VERBS. sun moves round the earth; but astronomers of the Ptolemaic SE PORT-ER, 1, to be SE PROMEN-BR, 1, to, S'ASSE-OIR, 3, ir., to sit school, who declared it did, were still veracious men. They

or do.
wall: or ride.

doirn. spoke that which they believed to be true.

Sing.
Sing.

Sing. Fidelity to truth has much to do with the stability and pros- | Je me porte, I am or Je me promene, I take Je m'assieds. I sit does

do. perity of nations. The just payment of bonds, the righteous

or an sitting dors,

a walk or ride. adjustment of claims, and the earnest adhesion to a course of con

Tu te portes,

Tu te promenes [$ 49). Ta t'issiads.
Il se porte.
Il se promene.

Il s'assied. duct marked by persistent rectitude, constitute one of the surest

Plur,

Plur. guarantees of progress. Empires suffer most severely from all

Nous nous portons. Nous nous promenons. Nous nous asseyans fraudulent breaches of trust towards others in the great commu- / Vous vous portez, Vous vous promenez. Vous vous seres. nity of nations. That which is true of peoples is true of indivi. Ils se portent.

Ils se promenent. Ils s'asseient.

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