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intelligent, but ferocious race of savages that are found in brought downwards in a slanting direction towards the left. Southern Africa, and who, at times, have given considerable on reaching the line bb, it is turned once more in a loop over trouble to our settlers and British troops in Cape Colony. The the fine down-stroke, and again carried along in a serpentine Ford“ Kafir" is also spelt “ Kaffir" and “Caffre.” Copy-slip form from left to right. In the second form the letter is comNo. 77 will also be found useful by the self-teacher, in showing menced in the same manner, but the down-stroke on reaching
COPY-SLIP NO. 80.—THE WORD zebra.
him how the letter f is connected with letters that precede and the line 66 is turned in a larger loop towards the right, and follow it when it stands in the middle of a word.
brought downwards towards and as far as the line h h, the The letter z is formed in two ways, as shown in Copy-slip letter being finished with a loop, resembling, in a great measure, No. 78. The first form consists chiefly of hair-strokes in the the loop of the letter j. In Copy-slips Nos. 79 and 80, examples shape of the italic printed letter %. It is commenced with a are given of the letter z in combination with other letters. hair-line a little below the line a a, which is carried along in a We will now say a few words in recapitulation of the instrucserpentine form from left to right. The pen is then turned to tion in the art of writing, and the directions for forming the small the left in a loop over the first part of the stroke, and the line is letters of the writing alphabet that have been given in this and
the preceding lessons on Penmanship. In our first lesson, we enters into the composition of nine letters, namely, a, b, d, i. endeavoured to explain to students who are seeking to teach 1, q, t, u, and w. Of these i and u are formed of the bottom. themselves how to write, or trying to improve their handwriting, turn, without any modification; while t and I consist of the the proper position of the body, the hand, and the pen ; and in bottom-turn slightly modified. subsequent lessons we showed how each letter was formed of 2. The “top-turn,” which enters into the formation of three one or more simple elementary strokes and their modifications, letters of the alphabet, namely, m, n, and r. This elementary the proportions of each letter being regulated by horizontal stroke, unlike the bottom-turn, does not form a complete letter lines placed at certain distances from each other; thus creating without some other elementary stroke being joined to it. a system which has never before been attempted in teaching 3. The “top-and-bottom-turn," which enters into the comwriting, and which possesses the merit of enabling the self-position of six letters of the alphabet, namely, h, m, n, p, teacher to test by actual measurement how much he knows ofv, and y. the regular proportions of the letters in relation to each other, 4. The “straight-stroke,” which enters into the formation of when he casts aside his leading-strings—as the lines within and three letters of the alphabet, namely, h, k, and p. on which copies are written may be appropriately termed-and 5. The letter o, which is a complete letter in itself without endeavours to write on a blank sheet of paper, with no other any addition, and which, as an elementary stroke, enters into the guide to the form, connection, and proportion of the letters than composition of four letters of the alphabet, namely, a, g, d, q; that which is furnished by memory, of the copies he has written and in a modified form into the formation of four additional in lines for practice, and the instructions which have been given | letters, namely, c, 9, 8, and x. in our lessons.
6. The elementary looped form turned at the bottom, which The early copy-slips, numbered from
enters into the composition of three letters, namely, g, j, and 1 to 6, were traversed by fine diagonal
y; and in a modified form into the composition of z. lines running from right to left, in
7. The elementary stroke, that completes the formation of a downward direction. These lines
three letters, namely, b, y, and w, in combination with the served to show the proper slope or
bottom-turn or top-and-bottom-turn. inclination of the letters for writing.
8. The elementary stroke that is added to the top-turn to They are inclined to the horizontal
form the letter r. lines crossing the paper from side
9. The elementary looped form turned at the top, which to side, at an angle of 60 degrees.
enters into the composition of the letter f, which is finished This inclination is shown in the
below the line bb, with the straight-stroke. In small-hand annexed diagram by the diagonal
writing, this form is used instead of the straight down-stroke line running upwards from the
for those portions of the letters b, b, and 1, which extend above point b, in the left-hand column of
the line a a. letters, from left to right, and cross
10. The elementary stroke, that may be called a modification ing the perpendicular line on the u.
of the top-and-bottom-turn, added to the “ straight-stroke," to right at a point between a and d, in
form the letter k. the right-hand column of letters.
The following table shows at a glance the formation of all The horizontal lines that cross
the letters of the alphabet in reference to the numbers attached the copy-slips from side to side, and which are shown at one to the recapitulation of elementary forms that has just been view in the accompanying diagram, are designed, as it has been given :said, to fix the proper proportions of the letters in height and
a. . . 5.1 h.. . 4.3/0.. 51 v... 3.7 depth. Starting from the centre line cc, the line a a above it, b. . , 1.
4.3 w. . .1.1.7 and the line b b below it, show the common level of the letters c...
5.1 * , . . 5.5 that are written within these lines, and do not extend beyond d.
5.1 k. . . 4.10 p . . . 2.8 y . . 3.6 them either above or below. The letters that are contained . . 5 1 . . . 1 s . . . 5 %. .. 6 within the lines a a, b b, are a, c, e, i, m, n, o, r, s, U, V, W, f.
1 .. . . . 9.4 m. . . 2.2.3 t. . X, or exactly half the alphabet. Of the remaining thirteen, lo
• 5.6 ' n. . ,
u. . 1.1 six-namely, b, d, h, k, l, -extend above the upper common level a a; five--namely, g, j, q, y, z-extend below the lower common level bb, while the remaining two, p, f, extend both LESSONS IN ENGLISH-XI. above a a and below bb. Of the last-named thirteen letters, t
DERIVATION : PREFIXES (continued), is included between the lines d d, bb; b, d, h, k, l, between the lines e e, bb; q, between the lines a a, gg; g, j, y, z, | Meter, metro, with the signification of "mother," of Greek between the lines a o, hh; f, between the lines kk, 99; and p, origin (untop, pronounced meet-ear, a mother), enters as the between the lines ff, gg. The student is advised to rule a piece first two syllables into the word metropolis (molis, pronounced of paper in this manner, and write the alphabet upon it. He pol'.is, a city), a mother city, the capital of a country, the chief will then have all the letters together at one view, in their city of a province. relative proportions. The distances of the lines from the cen. “By consent of all churches, the precedency in each province was tral line cc, on either side of it, are shown by the numbers assigned to the bishop of the metropolis, who was called the first bishop, annexed to the diagram. Those on the left-hand side represent the metropolitan.”-Barrow. the distances in sixteenths of an inch; those on the right-hand Micro, of Greek origin (Murpos, pronounced mi-kros, little), 18 side, in fractional parts of an inch. These are the proper pro- seen in microcosm (Greek, Koguos, pronounced kos-mos, the portions for large-hand writing ; but in small-hand, the space world), that is, a little world. between the lines a a, b b is considerably reduced, while the loops and tails of the letters that extend above a a, and below
" Because in the little frame of man's body there is a representation
of the universal, and (by allusion) a kind of participation of all the bb, are greatly extended in proportion, as will be seen from our
parts there, therefore was man called microcosmos, or the little world." future copy-slips in small-hand.
-Raleigh, "History of the World." The width of the letters contained within the lines a a, b b, and indeed the width of all letters used in large text, except
Micro appears also in microscope (Greek, TKOTEW, pronounced i, m, and w, should be exactly one-half of that part of the skop -0-0, I look at, see). diagonal line that is intercepted between them. In the annexed “The works of art do not bear a nice microscopical inspection: bat diagram, the proper width of a letter in large-hand is shown by the more helps are used, and the more nicely you pry into natural the line intercepted between a in the left-hand column of letters, productions, the more do you discover of the fine mechanism of 13and o, the point in which the line a a is crossed by the diagonal. / ture." ---Berkeley, “ Siris." It measures exactly seven-twenty-fourths of an inch in width. 1 Mid, of Saxon origin (compare middle), halfway, makes a part
The elementary forms of which the small letters of the writing of several English words, as midland, midnight, midday, midalphabet are composed, in large-hand writing, are ten in number, / ship, midsummer; the meaning of which is very plain. Midri pamely:
| (rif, rib, Saxon, division) is the diaphragm, the skin or membrane 1. The "bottom-turn," which in its simple or modified form which separates the heart and lungs from the lower belly.
Nid, though belonging to the Saxon, is an Indo-Germanic mortgager may re-enter on the estate granted in pledge.” — Blackstono, Ford. It appears in the Greek, in pedos (mes-os), middle; meta“ Commentaries." (met-ta), in the midst of, among; in the Latin, in medius, Mortmain (Latin, mortua manu, in a dead hand) is explained middle; medium, the middle, the half, the means, or medium; / thus :in the German mitte, mit, with; in the Sanscrit, madhya
| “All purchases made by corporate bodies were said to be purchases The term midwife is given, by Richardson, as “med-wife, a in mortmain; for this reason, those purchases were usually made by woman hired for meed or reward.” But how does the meed dis- ecclesiastical bodies, the members of which being professed (in orders), tinguish the midwife? Are not all servants hired for meed or were reckoned dead persons in law; land, therefore, holden by them reward? And do not all professions receive a meed or reward ? might, with great propriety, be said to be held in mortuå manu.
The proper meaning of mid-wife is evidently, from our pre Blackstone, " Commentaries.” ceding remarks, medium-wife, a woman who, from having been Multi, of Latin origin (multus, much), appears in multifarious, married herself, which the word wife denotes, becomes useful as of many sorts; multiform, of many shapes; multiply (Latin, a medium or means of assisting other married women at child- plica, a fold), to take many folds, etc. birth.
“The beauteous lake
The pines wide-branching, falls of water clear,
The multifarious glow on Flora's lap
Lose all attraction."
Glover, “ Leonidas." nium and its derivations. Millennium (Latin, annus, a year)
Neo, of Greek origin (veos, pronounced ne'-os, new), doubtless properly signifies a period of a thousand years.
the same as our new, which thus appears to be Indo-Germanic. “When at your second coming you appear,
Neo forms the first syllable in neology, or new-science, new-doc(For I foretell the millenary year)
trine-terms that might be used as fittingly as the Greek word The sharpened share shall vex the soil no more,
neology Neo is found also in neophyte (Greek, Putos, pronounced But Earth unbidden shall produce her store."
fu'-tos, born), a new-born person, a recent convert. Dryden, “Palæmon and Arcite."
Non, of Latin origin, not, stands before words of historical im. Mis, of Saxon origin, found in the verb to miss, and in the portance, as, non-conformist, non-juror. adverb amiss, denoting something wrong, forms a prefix to many "By that Act (the Five Mile Act), passed in the Parliament held at words, as misallied, misapply, misbecome, misconceive, misjudge, Oxford, October 9, 1665, and entitled, • An Act for restraining Nonmislike, misrepresent. Mischief (French, achever, to accomplish) conformists (to the Established Church) from inhabiting Corporations,' is a bad or wicked deed ; the second syllable has nothing to do the non-conforming ministers were prohibited, upon a penalty of forty with our word chief, that is, head. What we now call mis'- pounds for every offence, to come, unless only in passing upon the chie-vous, was formerly pronounced according to the vulgar error
road, within five miles of any city, corporation, etc."-Locke. mis-chie'-vous.
Non-juror is a term usually applied to those persons who refused " And every one threw forth reproaches rife,
to take the oaths of allegiance to William III. at the Revolution. Of his mischievous deedes, and sayd that hee
“ The nonjuring prelates were Sancroft, Turner, Lake, Ken, White, Was the disturber of all civill life,
Lloyd, Thomas, and Frampton."-Sn-lett, “ History of England." The enemy of peace, and author of all strife."
Spenser, “ Faerie Queene." Ob, of Latin origin (as a preposition, on account of), has the Misgive is used in the derivative sense of yielding, weakly general meaning of towards, and henco at, near, and varies with yielding, and as yielding weakly, so improperly, the notion of
of the word with which it is connected, the meaning of which it impropriety lying in the mis.
sometimes merely strengthens. In object' (Latin, jacio, I throw),
to throw before or against, it conveys the idea of obstruction, “Great joy he promised to his thoughts, and new
an idea which it expresses more fully in obstruction (Latin, Solace in her return, so long delayed ;
struo, I build), which, according to its constituents, signifies a Yet oft his heart, divine of something ill, Misgave him.”
Milton, " Paradiso Lost."
building or blocking up. In obliterate (Latin, litura, an erasure),
to blot out, it has an augmentive force. Passing into the first Mod, of Latin origin (modus, manner, limit), appears in letter of its principal, ob becomes oc, as in occasion (Latin, cado, modify (Latin, facio, I make), to state with some restriction or I fall), a suitable fall, a fall before you so as to suit your purpose, qualification ; to alter slightly; also in modest, moderate, com- something seasonable and convenient, by which you may profit. modious, commodity, etc.
Ob passes also into of, as in offer (Latin, fero, I bear). This of Molli, of Latin origin (mollis, soft), appears in mollify, to must not be confounded with of or off signifying from, and found make soft; to appease, render gentle; mollifier, mollification, in off-scouring and offspring. mollifiable, etc.
“Our prayer hath
No power to pass; and thou hast made us fall,
As refuse and off-scouring to them all.”—Donne.
" Whence it follows that these were nations not descending from Mono, mon, of Greek origin (uovos, pronounced mon'-os, alone), in, but born with us; not our off-spring, but our brethren."-South. gives rise to monachos, a monk, one who lives alone ; monachism,
Octo, also octa, of Latin origin (octo, eight), appears in octagon, the society of monks; monas, a monad, a single object, a unit; monarch (Greek, apxn, pronounced ar-ke, government), one who
eight-angled; octosyllable, of eight syllables; octoteuch (Greek, rules alone; monogamy (Greek, yapos, pronounced gam'-os, mar- |
TEUXn, pronounced tu'-ke, a fold or volume), the first eight books riage); monopolise (Greek, twreas pronounced po'-le-o, I sell), to
of the Old Testament. hare the sole power of selling; monotheism (Greek, Deos, pronounced the'-os, God), the belief in one God; monosyllable, a
LESSONS IN DRAWING.—XI. Word of one syllable.
No one, we presume, will question our statement when we say, “ Conjunction, preposition, adverb join
that in giving these instructions in drawing, there are two great To stamp new vigour on the nervous line;
and important considerations to fulfil, both of which are indis. In monosyllables his thunders roll,
pensable and cannot be treated independently of each other : the He, she, it, and we, ye, they, fright the soul."
one is to lay down data or rules for practical use, the other is to Churchill, "Rosciad.”
direct the pupil in what way he may ascertain for himself the Mort, of Latin origin (mors, death, genitive mortis), forms the principles upon which rules are founded, as well as to guide him basis of mortal and immortal. Mortgage is a dead gage or in his method of observation. The root of all knowledge of any pledge; that is to say, something so pledged, as what are called real value, is found in the capability of giving a satisfactory deeds or writings, so that it cannot be used for raising money, answer to the simple questions, why and wherefore. One man, " Mortuum tadium, a dead pledge, mortgage, is when a man borrows
who takes for granted all facts as they are given to him, may of another a specific sum,-e.g., £200, and grants him an estate in fee,
gain a great deal of information upon many subjects; another, on condition that if he, the mortgager, shall repay the mortgagee the who stops to inquire into the truth or foundation of those facts said sum of £200 on a certain day mentioned in the deed, then the —that is, to satisfy himself thoroughly respecting the why and
the wherefore will be the better educated man of the two, and Figs. 76, 77, and 78 are intended to show the position of the his information, though not so extensive as the other, will be shadow of an object in three cases. In Fig. 76, the sun found in every way to be more serviceable to himself and to i is parallel with our position, or with the picture plane, and those who employ him. The latter can boast of possessing a is on our right hand, casting the shadow of the post at ab, few coins of the true metal; the larger stock of the former is which is parallel with the horizontal line and picture plane. merely e.ectro-plate. After the above remarks, we hope our In Fig. 77, when the sun is in front of the picture, or behind papils will be anxious to accompany us into a little inquiry re- us, the shadow is cast in a retiring position. In Fig. 78, specting the laws which regulate the disposition of shadows as when the sun is behind the picture or before us, the shadow is they occur under various circumstances. The extent of the cast in advance of the object, or, in other words, approaches shadow is ruled by the position of the source of light. On any us. We intend to give only a single geometrical example,
day at noon, when the sun is high in the heavens, the shadows and that a very simple one, of the first of these positions, of our own figures are shorter than in the morning or evening, and leave the pupil at present to take for granted much that when the sun is lower: this, then, suggests the consideration, might be said, not only on this, but on the others also, as they how are we to regulate or decide upon the extent of the shadow belong more especially to geometrical perspective. The position of an object in a picture according to the sun's inclination. we have chosen is the parallel position, when the sun's rays are This may be said to be the statement of the question relating to in the picture. Let A, B (Fig. 79) represent two walls, forming a all shadows under whatever conditions they may be found. We right angle, one of which, A, is parallel to the picture plane, propose now to take it up with reference to a few cases only, as and the other, B, at a right angle, or perpendicular with the it will be more thoroughly answered in the lessons on Geometri. picture plane; there is also a doorway in the wall B. Let the cal Perspective. Sometimes the position of the sun may be sun's rays be supposed to have an inclination of 45o. The
behind us, at other times before us, and again it may be, as it is angle a b c (459) may be made anywhere on the ground line, technically termed, "in the picture;" that is, the sun is either as it is only so placed for the purpose of drawing the dotted on our right hand or on our left, meaning by that neither lines, d e f g, etc., parallel to a b, to ensure the given inclination before us, nor behind us: consequently the rays are parallel of the sun's rays, by which the extent of the shadows are deter with the picture. Sometimes the source of light is a lamp or mined. Our purpose then in introducing this problem is to candle, and although the rules for constructing the shadows prove that the edges of the shadows of objects in a horizontal under this light are very much the same as those we employ for position have the same vanishing point as the lines of the object
ing from the effects of sunlight, yet there is this itself have when in parallel perspective. It will be seen that
rence: the sun's rays are always considered the shadow, g h, of the upper edge of the wall, B, as well as ccount of its remote distance from the earth, the wall itself, are directed towards the point of sight, also the
om a lamp or candle radiates above, below, shadow of the top of the doorway, and e i, of the end of the and consequently the rays are not parallel. wall A, are subject to the same rule. We should like to go