they then dared to attempt the grand; and, at last, reached the study of these will be duly appreciated by the historian, the sublime.

philosopher, the archæologist, and the artist, who, each with his The origin of architecture cannot be assigned to any particular own particular view, knows how to find a great lesson in these country. Every nation produced its own art, or style, by silent witnesses of past civilisation, as well as in those existing employing the various materials within its reach, and by giving in full vigour around us. to them such forms as their wants required. Proceeding at first Architecture is founded upon three great principles, which from the high table-lands of Asis, in order to people the earth, ought to be immutable : 1, the useful, without which states and the early fathers of our race could have but little idea of archi- | private individuals would be led into superfluous and ruinous ture, or of a well-established system of construction. As wan. expenses ; 2, the true, because it ought to express in all its dering and pastoral tribes, like the Hottentots of the present varied forms the great principles of construction upon which it day, they lived in tents or wretched huts, which had no preten- rests ; 3, the beautiful, which is the end of all the arts depend. sions to architecture. It was not until they became more ing upon design, and no less of architecture the most useful settled that they sought the means of rendering their buildings On these principles, every style of architecture has the same more durable, by employing in their construction wood or value; and an artist should not curb his genius by confining stone, and bricks baked in the sun.

himself to the study of one particular style. It is only the From the differences in the materials, and from the variety of man of talent, to whom the construction of an edifice is entrusted, tastes and feelings, arise the varied appearances which the who can combine the different arrangements and forms, har. monuments of different nations present, and which constitute monise the various parts, and particularly express by plans, their peculiar style of

skilfully worked out, architecture. Thus

the disposition of the the Egyptian, born

whole or of every part in the hot climate of

of the building. Upon Africa, in a country

these arrangements destitute of wood fit

and plans rests the for building, and near

reputation of an arthe mountains of the

chitect, and science valley of the Nile, con

demands of him a taining large blocks of

well-grounded assurfreestone and granite,

ance of the good concreated for himself

struction and duraa vigorous style of

bility of his work. buildings, which com

Architecture is not pletely sheltered him

an imitative art, like from the burning rays

her sister arts, sculpof the sun. These

ture and painting. buildings were formed

We see nothing in of colossal masses,

nature like our build which were easily

ings as a whole; or transported along the

rather nothing which waters of that famous

could serve to guide river. The Greek, in.

us in its applications, habiting a milder cli

or in the harmony of mate, surrounded by

its lines. In this art, forests and quarries,

man has done everygave a lighter form

thing himself. He to his edifices, and em

has employed matter; ployed wood in their

he has invented forms construction, which

and proportions to harmonised well with

produce in the minds the marble-a mate

of his fellow-creatures rial of which the fine. THE HUT OF THE HOTTENTOT : AN EXAMPLE OF THE PRIMITIVE ATTEMPTS ideas correlative of ness admitted of a OF MAN TO CONSTRUCT A DWELLING.

order, harmony, grangreater delicacy of

deur, richness, and structure and arrangement. The Chinese, surrounded by rivers | durability. He has been enabled, by the force of art, to give, bordered with bamboo, had only a meagro and tortuous species as it were, thought to matter, without being indebted for his of architecture, as ephemeral in its duration as it was fragile in ideas to any of the external forms of nature. Like the poet its origin and construction. The very different character exhi. and the musician, the architect can transport the spectator bited in local architecture enable us to judge of a country by | into an ideal world, by creating forms and effects formerly its monuments, inasmuch as the buildings themselves are the unknown ; but, very different from them in results, he renders expression of the various wants of the people who constructed his creations palpable, and gives them durability. Moreover, them. It is easy to understand how their different arrange the useful, the true, and the beautiful, must be ever present ments and structures are but the reflection of the religion or the to his view; and, however fruitful his imagination may be, manners of the people. The general style of the monuments of he cannot emancipate it from science, the eternal basis of all a country is a durable image of the different phases of its the productions of his art. civilisation. In these, we see it in its primitive, refined, or de- The architect shonld therefore spend his youth in the study graded state, as civilisation arose, approached to perfection, or of his art, and of the splendid examples left on the face of decayed.

the old world by ancient civilisation. In conjunction with Nations naturally established great divisions in their architec. these studies he should make himself master of the exact ture. They first built their private dwellings, then their public sciences, in order that he may execute his plans with precision, buildings, and these, in their numerous subdivisions, constituted and study the nature of their construction. He should also civil architecture. Religion caused them to build temples and become familiar with the physical sciences, in order that bo other edifices, attaching to them ideas of duty and moral obliga- may understand the nature of the materials which he must tion: thus arose sacred architecture. The fortification of their some day employ, and be able to calculate their effects. In frontiers, their towns, and their conquered countries, gave birth short, he should devote himself to practical experience, and to military architecture. In this basty sketch, we see how to the working part of architecture, in order to render himself extensive is the series of buildings which cover the face of the capable of executing public or private buildings, and to globe, some of which belong to the first ages of its history, and make himself responsible for the stability of edifices entrusted others

being re-discovered in our own day. The to him.



and which is of a more animal character, is enjoyed in a greater

degree in the brute than in man; while the true gustatory sense, THE ORGAN OF TASTE (concluded).

being more connected with the exercise of the mental powers în treating of the objects which excite the sense of taste, we of comparing and distinguishing, is certainly weaker in the must draw attentior to the distinction between taste proper, lower animals. and the alimentary sensation of relish. That these sensations Brutes may be roughly divided into two great divisions, the are different, will appear from the consideration that many carnivora, or flesh-eaters, and the herbivora, or vegetable-eaters. things which are very appetising, and in the eating of which The type of the first class is the tiger, or, to give a more famithere is great pleasure, have but little distinctive taste. Butter liar example, the cat; while the other is represented by the and animal flesh are good instances of this. The tip of the ox. In each of these, the whole body seems to have been contongue applied to these would give but little indication of the structed in relation to the food. The tiger has jagged back presence of sapid bodies; but the succeeding parts of the organ teeth, and pointed side fangs which lock deeply into one anand the mouth declare them very good. On the other hand, other, but have no grinding surface. The jaws that wield sweet and bitter principles are detected at once by the tip of these are short, strong, and can play only to and from one the tongue, though they be entirely indifferent to the sense another. It can therefore grip and hold, but cannot chew. of relish. Alum is thus sweet to the sense of taste, but dis The stomach is small and intestines short, because flesh is very gusting to the senso which we have called alimentary. The nutritious, and needs but little digestion. The fore limbs can sense of taste proper, or the appreciation of what is sweet, move freely in all directions, and are furnished with claws to bitter, sour, etc., is more connected with the intellect than the strike and seize. The ox has long jaws, rough but flat hind sense of whatis

teeth, and a savoury; and

closo - fitting hence it is less

row of front dependent on

ones in the the state of the

front of the body, and it

lower jaw, leaves behind

playing on a it a multitude

pad in the of distinct

upper, and the ideas which

lower jaw can can be held in

swing sidethe memory.

ways and 80 Thus a person

grind the food. when suffering

He can therefrom sea-sick

fore clip and ness can well

chew, but candiscriminate

not grip. between sagar

This compaand quinine;

rison might be but he would

carried into be & very in

almost every different judge

detail of struc of the flavour

ture. We can. of a beef-steak

not, then, in at such a time.

speaking of The multitude

the sense of of flavours

taste in aniwhich can be

mals, speak of distinguished

the class as a is truly re

whole, because markable ; for

the objects of not only does

the sense are the apricot,


the two divi. and apple each IV. TONGUE OF AN OSTRICH. V. TONGUE OF A CHAMELEON.

sions of the have a charac

class. It must teristic taste,

not be supthough they all belong to the same order of plants, but a posed that this division of brutes is sharply drawn; for hundred varieties of apples all challenge recognition from | between the two types of tiger and ox, animals of every this sense. The grape produces a thousand wines, each with grade of intermediate structure are found. Moreover, the a bouquet of its own, even though alcohol and water are the division is not a good one for the purposes of zoological main constituents of them all, and that which causes the classification; for though both the tiger and the Tasmanian difference is so small in quantity, that the chemist cannot devil eat flesh, and the kangaroo eats grass like the ox, yet separate it. Some sensations described as tastes, are but little even the tiger is more like the ox, and the Tasmanian devil Temoved from those of touch ; thus, the taste of nutgalls, called more like the kangaroo, than are those animals when crossan astringent taste, and the fiery taste of alcohol, are probably coupled, as in the first sentence. Further, some brutes made caused by mechanical action on the outer skin. In the first on the flesh-eating type, eat all kinds of vegetables, as the case, the forcible contraction of the parts occasions a roughness; bear does; and others built on the plan of herb-eaters, will and spirit will produce a burning sensation on any delicate part eat flesh, as the pig will. In fact, the division is a false one of the body.

when we are treating of the classification and structure of We have now to apply our experimental knowledge of the animals, but is nevertheless a useful one when we are writing Sensation derived through the tongue and mouth to the inquiry- of their powers and functions. In other words, it is a good How far do brutes participate in these sensations? In order to physiological but a bad anatomical division. We have onanswer this question we must observe the gestures and exhibi- tered so far into the question, not only because it bears on our tions of animation of animals while feeding on those substances special subject, but also because it explains the term “physiowhose tastes we are ourselves acquainted with. Observation logy," with which these lessons are headed. seems to lead to the conclusion which we should naturally have Of carnivorous animals, it may be stated that the alimentary arrived at from reasoning on the question. The conclusion is this, sense, which is associated not only with the tongue, but wi" that the sensation which we have called the alimentary feeling, the throat and palate, is keen and pleasurable in the extre VOL. I.



while the other branch of the sense of taste is feeble. That! The tongue of a ruminant is very long and flexible. It is which we call ravenous hunger in a dog or lion, is not the un. often twisted round the herbage to tear it up, or break it off; easy feeling of privation, which we associate with excessive and the qualities which fit it for this use are manifested in the hunger, but is an all-engrossing desire to gratify the sense of highest degree in the tongue of the camelopard. This animal taste, and this is altogether distinct from a dainty apprecia can extend by the length of this member its already great tion of flavour.

powers of reaching high, and thus hook down the branches of These animals can endure privation from food for considerable the palm. Well might this animal suggest to Lamarck that its periods without manifesting any signs of starvation; but the whole organism had been modified by a constant endeavour to smell, sight, and, most of all, the partial taste of flesh, excite reach higher and higher. them to eager, and even ferocious craving. Hence the popular The position of the large walled-round papillæ is very various notion of the dangerous nature of wild beasts which have once in different animals. The reader will have observed their positasted blood is a true one. On the other hand, when the food tion in the chimpanzee, in one long line of about twelve in is once obtained, it is torn to pieces, flung to the back of the number down the middle of the tongue, with a few scattered mouth, and swallowed with a rapidity which altogether forbids ones on each side. In the pig, otter, and seal they have the the idea that these animals possess to any extent the faculty of V-shaped arrangement which they have in man, but are fewer in discrimination in their tastes. .

number. In the sheep they form a thick, raised ridge on each This view of the question is also borne out by an inspection side at the back of the tongue. of the tongue. In the illustration, the reader will find a repre- One of the most singular uses to which the tongue is pat in sentation of a cat's tongue. This tongue is long, and has but this class is manifested by the ant-eaters, whose long slimy few round papillæ ; but it is covered with a dense pile of long, tongues are used to thrust into ants' nests, so that when they thin, pointed, overlapping projections (filiform papillæ), which are retracted into their long tubular mouths the ants are carried are directed backwards, and towards the mid line. The cir- with them, adhering to the mucus. cumvallate papillæ, again, are but four in number, two on each If this article had been headed “The Tongue," instead of side. It is this pile of pointed papillæ which makes the cat's “The Organ of Taste," we should have a long task before us to tongue feel rough when she licks. The covering of these describe the various shapes of the organ in toads and reptiles, papillæ is so dense, hard, and thick, when compared with that and also in snails and insects. The organ to which the word of our own, that we are justified in thinking them mechanical tongue has been applied has a wonderful diversity of form, and only in function; and yet they cover the whole tongue almost many interesting peculiarities; but in most cases its main office to the exclusion of the other kinds.

is to seize or to masticate the food, and the function of taste is In the larger members of the cat family, these pointed papillæ subordinate to this. are quite like hard thorns or spines; and with them the lion, In birds the tongue is almost as diversified in form as the tiger, and leopard can rasp away the last adhering fragments of beak ; but it is usually cased in horn at its fore part, and there flesh and ligament from the bones. A patch of these papillæ are only a few papillæ above the air-hole. In parrots it is from the leopard's tongue are represented in the engraving. fleshy ; and these birds seem to have more of the sense of taste They are two-lobed and rounded, and have from their back part than most birds, for they will turn a lump of sugar or a nnt a single sharp spine running directly backward, and they are set about in their beaks for some time to test its qualities before in a very regular pattern, alternating in each row. On the eating it. It is certainly singular that birds, whose proper food summit of the leopard's tongue a number of papillæ were found is fruit, should be so little endowed with a sense to appreciate without spines, as though worn off, or perhaps not developed, its delightful and delicate flavour; nevertheless, it seems as lest the palate should be injured by them.

though the tongue were only applied to test the softness, and In illustration of these remarks we may give an incident. A therefore the ripeness of the fruit. The tongue drawn to reprogentleman had reared a tame leopard from a cub, and having sent that of the fieldfare, may be taken as the typical tongue of always fed it on bread, etc., the animal was very docile, and a bird. The small triangular tongue of the ostrich, supported showed no sign of savageness. It was often caressed by its on its slender arch of bone, is given because of its singular master, and returned the blandishments after its manner. shape and shortness. The length of the tongue has but little While thus engaged, it one day took its master's hand into its relation to the length of the beak. Thus both the pelican and mouth, and began to lick it gently, but owing to the roughness | the toucan have enormous beaks; but the former has a tougue of the tongue it caused some blood to flow. The gentleman, no as short as that of the ostrich, while that of the latter is very doubt feeling some pain, tried to withdraw his hand, but, to his long. The tongue of the woodpecker is a living harpoon. surprise, the beast for the first time in its life began to growl. In some reptiles there is evidence of a sense of taste, but it is With great presence of mind the gentleman relented from his doubtless inferior to that of higher animals. The tongue of the effort to release his hand, rang the bell, asked his servant for chameleon, given in the engraving, is of curious shape; and the his loaded pistol, and then shot his now dangerous favourite mechanism by which it can be darted upon a luckless fly is elabothrough the head.

rate and interesting; but its description would be out of place In herbivorous animals, while the sense is far less keen, so far here. In the toad and frog the tongue grows as the tail drops as the alimentary sensation is concerned, we have no reason to off. It sprouts from the inside of the lower jaw, and grows suppose that the distinguishing gustatory sense is in any degree backward, so that its bi-lobed end lies free in the mouth, and stronger.

can be filliped forward out of that cavity. This is also rather The main mass of the food of the ruminants is insipid. an organ of prehension than of taste. The forked tongue of the Freshness is the strongest term that can be used to express its snake is familiar to every one. Its reiterated protrusion and desirability. A large bulk is required for but a little nutriment. vibration has led the valgar to consider this action as a threat, Thus we find the ox occupies a considerable number of its and to believe that it is the sting of the animal. It, however, wakeful hours in grazing and chewing, and it feeds along the has no such function. It may have some power of tasting, but pasture, tearing up the grass with but little discrimination. It it is more probable that it is an organ of touch; for this creature, is true that a cow will avoid noxious or disagreeable plants limbless and covered with hard scales, is greatly in need of when they grow in clumps ; for a field, otherwise closely cropped, means of feeling outward objects. still presents long stalks of the common buttercup. It would Fishes' tongues have seldom any soft parts, and cannot there seem, however, that this avoidance is rather due to instinct than to fore be organs of taste. They are not unfrequently furnished disgust. Many plants have very powerful, bitter, sour, and astrin. with teeth. In some fish a cushion of soft substance, well gent principles, and they are intimately mingled with the grass ; supplied with blood vessels, is found on the roof of the mouth. yet, as we seldom see a cow eject the food from its mouth, we All the higher orders of mollusca have an organ to which the cannot suppose it to have any very delicate sense of taste. name of tongue has been given, and some authors have proposed From the fact that oxen ruminate, we might suppose that they to group together the head-walkers, belly-walkers, and wing. enjoy the sense of taste while chewing the cud. So doubtless footed classes under one sub-division, calling them odontophoro, they do in a minor degree ; but the act by which the food is or animals which have a tooth-bearing tongue. This organ in returned to the mouth is probably quite involuntary; and the snails (gasteropods) bears transverse rows of teeth arranged in lazy, dreamy way in which an ox ruminates contrasts strongly complicated and beautiful patterns, and is sometimes so long as with the avidity with which a carnivorous animal feeds.

to be called the lingual ribbon. As it is often used to file away

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