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fi mar einmal ein Weifer, welcher There was once a sage who learned men that are owned by the three kingdoms. They call bebaup'tete, taß es fein besseres maintained that there was themselves Templars, they worship in common in the Temple Gut gebe, als eine gesun'de Ber: no better possession than a Church, and they preserve the devices and traditions of an order kunft in einem gesun'den Körper. sound understanding in a of knights whose name they bear, and in whose seats they sit. sound body.

How is this? Was it always so ? Certainly not. The lines Gi'nige bebaup'ten, daß es Ein's Some maintain that there are of Edmund Spenser, quoted above, testify as much, and their wobuer im Monde gebe. (Sect. inhabitants in the moon. witness, as we shall see in the course of this sketch, is exactly XLII.)

| even with the truth. Let us inquire somewhat into the history Es ist tein Menso un'glüdlicher, als There is no mortal more unfor- of these colleges of law, and see how they came to be colleges ta, melder nie Wi'terwärtigkeiten tunate than he (that one) at all; let us glean something out of the historic memories erkul'tete.

who never endured reverses which cling around them, and follow the path pointed out by of fortune.

the finger of Time till it leads us to the epoch when the lawyers Gi giebt wenig Gelden, die ihren There are few heroes who main-dwelt not in the Temple, but armed Christianity stalled her

Charac'ter bis in ihr Alter ben tain their character till (in) | horse and sharpened her sword there.
baup'ten.
their old age.

There was a cry in Christendom that the heathen had entered Greit nichts loʻbenswerther, als There is nothing more praise- into the inheritance of God, and had defiled His holy places.

andere das jenige zu lehren, was worthy than to teach what Stories the most pitiable were told of what the infidels had man weis. one knows to others.

done to those who went up to Jerusalem to worship ; how that EXERCISE 68.

once more the wicked had given the dead bodies of God's ser

vants to be meat for the fowls of the air, and the flesh of His 1. Es giebt dieses Jahr sehr viel Obst. 2. Es ist heute sehr schönes saints to the beasts of the land. A thrill of horror went through Better. 3. Es giebt mehr arme, als reiche Leute. 4. Es ist ein wahres men as they listened to the accounts, most likely exaggerated, Pergnügen, diesen Morgen spazieren zu geben. 5. Giebt es in Deutschland

which were repeated from mouth to mouth, " and the sensation nud reißende Thiere? 6. Es giebt noch viele Wölfe in ten Gebirgen. vibrated to the heart of Europe." Swiftly there followed upon 7. Die feindlid Armee ift auf ihrem Rüdzuge. 8. Giebt es etwas this a determination to be up and doing, a stern sentiment Spineres, ale ten Aufgang der Sonne? 9. Es hat den ganzen Tag | founded on religion and soldierly anger, prompting men to exact ridncit. 10. Geben Sie diesen Nachmittag mit mir auf's Eis? 11. satisfaction at the risk of their lives for the blood of Christ's Nein, ei thaut schon, und das Gis fann leicht brechen. 12. Wenn es children which had been shed. This was in the year 1090. tajt, werde ich Sie zu einem Spaziergang abholen. 13. Es schneit heute The Saracens (a people often confounded with Turks, from ten ganzen Tag. 14. Regnet es schon ? 15. Nein, aber es wird bald whom they were altogether dissimilar), from Arabia, had conanjangen zu regnen. 16. Wie lange hat es geregnet? 17. Es hat bisquered Palestine in the year of our Lord 637, driving out the sicr Ihr geregnet. 18. Donnert es? 19. Ja, es connert und blißt, und

authority of the declining Greek emperors, and establishing the fürchte, daß es auch hageln wird. 20. Wo waren Sie, während es religion and the state system of Mahomet. The Caliphs, or oneite? 21. Ich suchte in der Capelle tes St. Georg Zuflucht, tenn es chiefs of the Saracens, had so far respected the religion and idneite nicht nur, sondern es stürmte und hagelte auch. 22. Ich sage social habits of the conquered Christians, that they had allowed 3hnen nur das, was (Sect. XXI. 1) ich gehört habe.

them to retain about one-fourth of the city of Jerusalem, besides EXERCISE 69.

numerous places in the provinces. Among other things which

they were permitted to keep was the Church of the Holy Sepul1. It seemed this morning as if it (als ob es] would rain, but I chre, which the Empress Helena, mother of the first Christian Dow the weather begins to be fine. 2. It happened (es ereignete | Emperor. Constantine, had built over the spot where the Saviour fit that it rained just as the battle commenced, and it thun-tas supposed to have been buried. The Christians experienced dered and hailed throughout the whole day. 3. It has rained, I at the hands of the Saracens the greatest moderation, though bailed, snowed, and frozen this winter. 4. As long as it rains the character and principles of the two religions were essentially I cannot depart. 5. It appears that there are many strangers | different, and in some particulars diametrically opposed. Pilin this hotel. 6. There are (exist) many things which we cannot grims flocked in hundreds and thousands from all parts of explain. 7. As soon as it becomes day, I shall call upon you to

Europe, to see the places which had been honoured by the real go and see the rising of the sun. 8. Exists there anything more

presence of their Lord, to utter their prayers in the very places noble than to forgive an enemy? 9. Do you intend to go to where He had prayed, to abase themselves on the very scene of morrow with me upon the ice? 10. No, I fear that it thaws |

His sufferings, and to adore Him in Jerusalem, “the place already, and it would be dangerous to venture it [gefährlich sein, es

where God ought to be worshipped." Though their numbers ju tagen). 11. As soon as the wind abates it will rain. 12. In

must have proved inconvenient, one would think, to the Mussul. Every community there exist more blockheads than villains, and

man authorities, and though their enthusiasm was not unlikely more ignorant men than learned.

to have produced breaches of the peace, we do not hear of their having been interfered with. Occasionally, perhaps, there was

a disturbance, but that in all probability was due rather to the HISTORIC SKETCHES.-X.

imprudence of the Christians than to the tyranny of the Caliph; THE KNIGHTS TEMPLARS, OR RED CROSS KNIGHTS. so the pilgrimages went on, and were accounted by the reli

gious system of the day for righteousness in those who perOs the borders of the debateable land where the jurisdictions

land where the jurisdictions formed them. of the Queen and of the Lord Mayor of London conflict and con- ! But a change came. In the year 1065, the year before the join, is a stately monument (not Temple Bar), rich in historic conquest of England by the Normans, Palestine was wrested interest, and in memories of bygone men. Hidden away under from the Saracens by the Turcoman troops, whom they had the block of buildings which form the south side of Fleet Street, hired, in the decline of their own vigour, to defend them. The one does not notice, without seeking for them, the colleges of power of the Arabian Caliphs was over ; that of the Turkish the Inner and Middle Temple, which constitute the monument Sultans or Emirs had taken its place. A very different sort allnded to. It is from the river, from Waterloo or Blackfriars

of power the Christians found it. Though professing the same Bridge, or better still from the Surrey shore, that one sees

creed as the Saracens, the Turks had none of their moderation. “ Those brieky towers,

Brutality coupled with fanaticism—these were the principles The which on Thames' broad, aged back do ride,

on which the new rulers proceeded to govern. Forthwith Where now the studious lawyers have their bowers.

came a wail of misery from the Holy Land ; pilgrims were There whilome wont the Templar knights to bide,

ill-treated, insulted, and put to death. Women (it was cusTill they decayed through pride."

tomary even for women to go) were outraged ; taxes the most Within those “ bricky towers” do now study and work the offensive were exacted from those pilgrims who had money, and apprentices, barristers, and serjeants of the law who are mem- those who had none were driven back with the sword, whilst great bers of the two societies of the Temple; there are collected some numbers perished through the instrumentality of the Turks. of the brightest minds which the Universities of the kingdom A golden fee was required of every one before he could be adhave trained, some of the wittiest heads that ever Nature looked mitted to the Holy Sepulchre. The Patriarch of Jerusalem was upon and smiled, some of the most intellectual, polished, and dragged across his church by the hair of his head, and flung into

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LESSONS IN FRENCH.—XX.

cinquante-cinq. 14. Fait-il trop froid pour vous dans cette

chambre? 15. Il n'y fait ni trop froid ni trop chaud. 16. Y SECTION XXXII.-UNIPERSONAL VERBS.

a-t-il beaucoup de foin dans votre écurie ? 17. Il y en a assez 1. By unipersonal verbs is simply meant those verbs which are pour mon cheval. 18. Restez-vous à la maison quand il pleut ? used only in the third person singular. Having, properly speak- 19. Quand il pleut je reste à la maison, mais quand il fait beau ing, no personal subject, they are sometimes called impersonal; temps je vais chez mon cousin. 20. Y a-t-il de la viande au for the third person singular, used in English, is neuter, and in marché ? 21. Il y en a beaucoup, il y a aussi du gibier. 22. Il French, though il be used, it is understood and translated as y a du veau, du mouton et de la volaille. 23. N'y a-t-il pas neuter by the word it. These verbs express chiefly an abstract aussi des légumes et des fruits ? 24. Il n'y en a pas. 25. Il y opinion or sentiment; most frequently they denote the state or en a aussi.

EXERCISE 60. change of the weather; and they generally precede or announce the occurrence of an event, as, it happened.

1. Are you cold this morning ? 2. I am not cold, it is warm this 2. The unipersonal verb is conjugated only in the third person

morning. 3. Is it foggy or windy? 4. It is neither foggy nor singular of a tense. Its nominative pronoun il, it, is used abso.

windy, it rains in torrents (à verse). 5. Is it going to rain or lutely, i.e., it represents no noun previously expressed.

to snow? 6. It is going to freeze, it is very cold. 7. It is Il pleut aujourd'hui,

It rains to-day.

windy and foggy. 8. Is there anybody at your brother's to-day ?

9. My brother is at home, and my sister is at church. 10. Is 3. The unipersonal verb assumes the termination of the class

there any meat in the market ? 11. There is meat and poultry. or conjugation to which it belongs. Some verbs are always

12. Is it too warm or too cold for your sister in this room ? 13. unipersonal, and will be found in § 62. Others are only occa

It is not so warm in this room as in your brother's library. 14. sionally so, and if irregular, will be found in the personal form

Are there good English books in your sister's library? 15. There in the same § 62.

are some good ones. 16. Are there peaches and plums in your 4. PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE OF THE UNIPERSONAL garden? 17. There are many. 18. Do you remain at your VERBS.

brother's when it snows? 19. When it snows we remain at Y AVOIR, to be there. PLEUVOIR, to rain. 1 NEIGER, to snow.

home. 20. Are there ladies at your mother's ? 21. Your two Il y a, there is, there Il pleut, it rains, it is | Il neige, it snows, it is sisters are there to-day. 22. Have you time to go and fetch raining,

snowing.

them? 23. I have no time this morning. 24. Is your horse in GRÊLER, to hail

GELER, to freeze. DÉGELER, to thaw. the stable? 25. It is not there, it is at my brother's. 26. Does Il grêle ($ 49), it hails,, Il gèle ($ 49), it freezes, Il dégèle ($ 49), it it hail this morning ? 27. It does not hail, it freezes. 28. it's hailing, it is freezing.

thaws, it is thawing. What weather is it this morning ? 29. It is very fine weather.

30. Is it too warm? 31. It is neither too warm nor too cold. 5. Il y a means there is, or there are, and may be followed by

32. Is it going to freeze ? 33. It is going to snow. 34. Does a singular or plural noun [$ 61 (2)].

it snow every day ? 35. It does not snow every day, but it Il y a du gibier au marché, There is game in the market.

snows very often. Il y a des pommes dans votre There are apples in your garden, jardin,

SECTION XXXIII.-PLACE OF THE ADVERB [S 136]. 6. In relation to the weather, the verb faire is used uniper 1. In simple tenses, the adverb generally follows the verb, and sonally in the same manner as the English verb to be.

is placed as near it as possible. Il fait beau temps aujourd'hui, It is fine weather to-day.

Votre commis écrit très-bien, Your clerk writes very well.
Il fait chaud, il fait froid,
It is warm, it is cold.

Cette demoiselle lit très-mal, That young lady reads very badly.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

2. When a verb is in the infinitive, the two negatives ne and Pleut-il ce matin ? Does it rain this morning

pas, ne and rien, should be placed before it. Il ne pleut pas, il neige. It does not rain, it snows.

Not to speak, not to read.

Ne pas parler, ne pas lire,
Il va pleuvoir ce matin.

It is going to rain this morning.
Ne gele-t-il pas ce matin?
Does it not freeze this morning?

3. The adverb assez, enough, tolerably, precedes generally the
Il ne gèle pas, il fait du brouillard. It does not freeze, it is foggy. other adverbs. It precedes also adjectives and nouns.
Y a-t-il du sucre chez vous ? Is there any sugar at your house?
Il y en a beaucoup chez mon frère. There is a great deal at my brother's.

rother's. Vous écrivez assez correctement, You write pretty correctly. Y a-t-il plusieurs personnes chez Are there several persons at my

Vous avez assez de livres,

You have books enough. moi ? house?

Cet enfant est assez attentif, That child is attentive enough. Il y a plus de cent personnes. There are more than one hundred

4. Voici means here is; voilà, there is. persons. N'y a-t-il personne à l'église ? Is there nobody at church?

Voici le livre que vous aimez Here is the book which you liko. Il n'y a encore personne. There is as yet no one there.

Voilà le monsieur dont vous There is the gentleman of whom you Est-il trop tôt ? Is it too soon?

parlez, Au contraire, il est trop tard. Om the contrary, it is too late. Fait-il froid ou chaud aujourd'hui?

5. Dans is used for in or into, when the noun which follows it Is it cold or warm to-day? n fait chaud et humide. It is warm and damp.

is preceded by an article, or by a possessive, demonstrative, or Fait-il-du vent ou du brouillard ? Is it windy or foggy ?

numeral adjective [$ 142 (2)]. Il fait un temps bien désagréable. It is very disagreeable weather. Le crayon est dans le pupitre, The pencil is in the desk. VOCABULARY.

Mettez cette lettre dans votre Put this letter into your trunk.

malle, Azxemblée, f., assem- | Couvert, -e, cloudy. | Manuscrit, m., manu.

6. En, after the verbs to be, to go, to reside, followed by the Ecurie, f., stable.

script. Bibliothèque, f.,library. Epais, -se, thick. Souvent, oflen.

name of a part of the earth, a country, or province, gives the Brouillard, m., fog. Foin, m., hay. Veau, m., veal.

preposition to the force of in or into. Chambre, f., room. Gibier, m., game.

Vent, m., wind. Cinquante, fifty.

Notre ami est en France,

Our friend is in Franco.
Humide, damp.
Volaille, f., poultry.
Vous allez en Italie,

You go to Italy.
EXERCISE 59.

7. The preposition à is used for the words at or to, in or into, 1. Quel temps fait-il aujourd'hui ? 2. Il fait un temps before the name of a town, city, or village, preceded by the superbe. 3. Fait-il très-beau temps aujourd'hui ? 4. Il fait verbs mentioned above. un temps couvert et humide. 5. Pleut-il beaucoup ce matin ? n vs Paris le mois prochain. He is going to Paris next month. 6. Il ne pleut pas encore, mais il va pleuvoir. 7. Fait-il du Fent ou du brouillard ? 8. Il ne fait pas de vent. 9. Le 8. The same preposition is used in the expressions à la cambrouillard est très-épais. 10. Combien de personnes y a-t-il à pagne, à la ville, à la chasse, à la pêche, etc. l'assemblée ? 11. Il y a plus de deux cents (Sect. XIX. 7) per-Nous allons à la campagne, We go into the country. sonnes. 12. N'y a-t-il pas beaucoup de manuscrits dans votre | Vous n'allez pas à la ville,

You do not go to the city. Dibliothèque ? 13. Il n'y en a pas beaucoup, il n'y en a que Je vais à la chasse et à la pêche, I go hunting and fishing.

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9. INDICATIVE PRESENT OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS. | as well as her sister ? 28. She reads better than her sister, but

her sister reads better than I. 29. Is there any one at your CONDUI-RE, 4,to conduct. ECRI-RE, 4, to write. | LI-RE, 4, to road.

house ? 30. My father is at home. 31. Is your brother-in-law Je conduis, I conduct, J'écris, I write, do Je lis, I read, do read. do conduct, or am write, or am writing. or am reading.

absent ? 32. My brother-in-law is at your house. 33. There is conducting.

no one at home to-day.
Tu conduis.
Tu écris.
Tu lis.

SECTION XXXIV.-THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN ON, ETC.
Il conduit.
Il écrit.

Il lit. Nous conduisons. Nous écrivons.

Nous lisons.

1. The indefinite pronoun on has no exact equivalent in Vous conduisez, Vous écrivez. Vous lisez.

English. It may be rendered by one, we, they, people, etc., Ils conduisent. Ils écrivent. Ils lisent,

according to the context. On has, of course, no antecedent, and Résumé OF EXAMPLES.

seldom refers to a particular person [$ 41 (4).(5), S 113]. Votre parent écrit-il bien ?

On doit honorer la vertu, We should honour virtue.
Does your relation writo well ?
Il écrit assez bien et assez vite. He writes well enough and rapidly

On nous apporte de l'argent, Money is brought to us.
enough.

2. As may be seen in the last example, on is often the nomiNous avons assez de livres. We have books enough,

native of an active verb, which is best rendered in English by Nous sommes assez attentifs à nos We aro attentive enough to our les- | the passive (8 113 (1)]. leçons.

sons. Voilà la demoiselle dont vous There is the young lady of whom you

On dit que votre épouse est ici, They say that your wife is here, parlez.

speak.

On raconte des histoires singulières, Singular histories are related. Votre cheval n'est-il pas dans le Is not your horse in the field ? On récolte beaucoup de blé en Much wheat is harvested (grown) in champ?

France,

France. Il n'y est pas, il est dans le jardin. It is not there, it is in the garden. 3. Avoir lieu answers to the English expression to take place. Allez-vous en France cette année ? Do you go to France this year ? Nous allons à Paris et à Lyon. We go to Paris and to Lyons.

Cela a lieu tous les jours,

That takes place every day. Où conduisez-vous ce jeune homme? Where do you take this young man ? 4. Au lieu de answers to the English instead of. The verb Je le conduis en Allemagne. I take him to Germany.

which follows it must, according to Sect. XX. 2, be put in the Demeurez-vous à la ville ? Do you live in the town?

infinitive. Nous demeurons à la campagne. We live in the country. Allez-vous souvent à la chasse ? Do you go often hunting?

Au lieu d'étudier, il joue,

Instead of studying he plays. Nous allons quelquefois à la pêche. We sometimes go fishing.

5. Devoir, to owe, is used before an infinitive, like the English VOCABULARY.

verb to be, to express obligation. Associé, m., partner. | Italie, f., Italy. | Suisse, f., Switzerland. Je dois lui écrire demain,

I am to write to him to-morroi. Campagne, f., country. Pêche, f., fishing. Terre, f., farm, estate. Nous devons y aller demain, We are to go there to-morrow. Canif, m., penknife. Prusse, f., Prussia. Ville, f., town, city.

6. Recevoir des nouvelles means to hear from. Chasse, f., hunting. Rapidement, rapidly. Vite, quickly. Commis, m., clerk. Rend-re, 4, to return. Voyage, m., journey.

Devez-vous recevoir des nouvelles Are you to hear from your sister ? Fort, very. Si, if.

de votre seur? EXERCISE 61.

7. Entendre parler answers to the English phrase to hear of or

about, 1. Écrivez-vous encore la même leçon ? 2. Je n'écris plus la même, j'en écris une autre. 3. Votre commis écrit-il rapide.

Entendez-vous souvent parler de Do you ofton hear of your friends ?

vos amis? ment? 4. Il écrit fort bien, mais il n'écrit pas vite. 5. N'avez

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. vous pas assez d'argent pour acheter cette terre ? 6. J'ai assez d'argent, mais j'ai l'intention de faire un voyage en France. 7. Que dit-on de nous dans la ville ? What do they say of us in the city? Voilà votre livre, en avez-vous besoin ? 8. Je n'en ai pas besoin,

On ne parle pas de vous.

People do not speak of you. j'en ai un autre. 9. Avez-vous encore besoin de mon canif

Ne mange-t-on pas tous les jours ? Do not people eat every day!

On mange quand on a faim, People eat when they are hungry. 10. Je n'en ai plus besoin, je vais vous le rendre. 11. Notre

On trouve beaucoup d'or en Cali- Much gold is found in California. cousin demeure-t-il à la ville ? 12. Il ne demeure plus à la fornie. ville, il demeure à la campagne. 13. Aime-t-il aller à la Dit-on quelque chose de nouveau? Do they (people) say anything ner ! chasse ? 14. Il n'aime pas aller à la chasse. 15. Il va tous On ne dit rien de nouveau.

Nothing new is said, les jours à la pêche. 16. Notre associé est-il à Paris ou à A-t-on reçu des nouvelles de Has anything been heard from Rouen ? 17. Il est à Marseille. 18. Où avez-vous l'intention George ?

George? de conduire votre fils ? 19. Je vais le conduire en Italie. 20. On n'a point entendu parler de lui. Nothing has been heard of him. Demeurez-vous à Milan ou à Florence ? 21. Je ne demeure ni à

On n'a point reçu de ses nouvelles. They have not heard from him.

Devez-vous écrire à notre ami ? Are you to write to our friend! Milan ni à Florence, je demeure à Turin. 22. Votre ami

Je dois lui écrire demain.

I am to write to him to-morrow, demeure-t-il en Suisse ? 23. Il ne demeure plus en Suisse, il

Le concert doit-il avoir lui ce Is the concert to take place this demeure en Prusse. 24. Votre domestique est-il à l'église ? soir ?

evening ? 25. Non, Monsieur, il est à l'école.

Il doit avoir lieu ce matin.

It is to take place this morning.

Je viens au lieu de mon frère, I come instead of my brother. EXERCISE 62.

Il danse au lieu de marcher.

He dances instead of walking. 1. Does your clerk write as well as your son ? 2. He writes

VOCABULARY. tolerably well, but not so well as my son. 3. Have you books enough in your library ? 4. I have not books enough, but I

Afrique, f., Africa. Habits, m. pl., clothes. Part-ir, 2, to depart, to intend to buy some more. 5. Here is your sister's letter, will

Alger, Algiers.

Heure, f., hour, time.' set out, to leave.

Malade, sick.

Apport-er, 1, to bring. you read it ?

| Prochain, e, nest. 6. I intend to read it. 7. Does your son like to

Demain, to-morrow. Mois, m., month.

Sav-oir, 3, ir., to knor. go fishing ? 8. He likes to go fishing and hunting. 9. When Diamant, m., diamond. Or, m., gold.

Vente, f., sale. does he like to go fishing ? 10. When I am in the country. Fourn-ir, 2, to furnish. Os., m., bone, | Voyage, m., journey. 11. What do you do when you are in the city? 12. When I am in the city, I read and learn my lessons.

EXERCISE 63.

13. Do you intend to go to France this year? 14. I intend to go to Ger 1 1. Vous apporte-t-on de l'argent tous les jours ? 2. On Re many. 15. Will you go to the city if it rains ? 16. When it | m'en apporte pas tous les jours. 3. Vous fournit-on des habits rains I always remain at home [R. 1]. 17. How many friends quand vous en avez besoin ? [Sect. XXI.] 4. On m'en fournit have you in the city ? 18. I have many friends there. 19. Are toutes les fois (every time) que j'en ai besoin. 5. A-t-on beso there many English in France ? 20. There are many English in l d'argent quand on est malade ? 6. Quand on est malade, on eu Trance and in Italy. 21. Are there more English in Germany / a grand besoin. 7. Avez-vous reçu des nouvelles de mon fils - in Italy? 22. There are more English in Italy than in 8. Je n'ai point reçu de ses nouvelles. 9. Ne dit-on pas qu."

'y. 23. Is it fine weather in Italy P 24. It is very fine est en Afrique ? 10. On dit qu'il doit partir pour Alger. ..:

there? 25. Does it often freeze there? 26. It freezes Quand doit-il commencer son voyage ? 12. On dit qu'il doit es there, but not often. 27. Does that young lady read le commencer le mois prochain. 13. Ce mariage a-t-il beo

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