observation of the habits of animals will soon lead us to suspect the porpoise the brain has no olfactory lobe, and there are no our error. The sense seems to be the keenest in the carnivora, olfactory nerves; and therefore the nasal passages are made and man is so sensible of his inferiority to these in the sense of subservient to the supply of the lungs with air. A reference to smell, that he supplements his deficiency by their acuteness. the engraving will show how the canal from the slit-like opening The little terrier will inform his master, the rat-catcher, if the at the top of the head passes down past a valve, which closes it rat is at home, by his impatient scratching at the mouth of the against the water when the animal is submerged, and then hole. The huntsman sees a fox cross an alley in a wood; onward to the head of the windpipe, which here does not open Reynard has gone he knows not whither, and has left no trace on the floor of the esophagus (or focd-throat), but is continued which is available to his dull sense. But a hound comes in sight, up, and thrust into, the nasal canal, while the muscles of the and when motioned to the place he sniffs the ground in uncer. soft palate and food-throat grasp it firmly. If the animal tainty but for a moment, and then flings up his nose towards chooses, however, he can force the water from his month past the sky, and with one long, melancholy howl calls his comrades this perforated plug, and make it issue in a stream from the of the pack, and, in almost less time than it takes to write it, blow-hole. Though the function of smelling seems to be thus they are all in full cry on the trail, making the echoes ring with entirely sacrificed to other uses, in the nose of the whale and their confident music. Who has not observed the pointer, as porpoise, it will be seen from the engraving that an orifice lead. he stops in the midst of his swift, business-like beat, motion- ing from the part of the canal external to the valve passes less, as if Medusa's head had turned him to stone? Yet, it into a chamber, upon whose folded sides a membrane is spread you mark him well, his whole frame is instinct with tremulous which has branches of the fifth pair of nerves distributed to it. emotion; his eyes glisten, and seem starting from his head; Through this organ, no doubt, the porpoise can test the purity his nostrils twitch, and his limbs quake with excitement. The of the water in which it is immersed. game lies hidden in deep cover; it is impossible for him to see it; The hog uses his disc-shaped snout to turn up the earth, and but as you look at him you feel certain that he is as vividly the tapir curls his flexible nose round the grass to tear it up; conscious of its presence, as if his eye saw, or his foot were but these slight differences from the usual development of the upon it.

organ sink into insignificance beside the enormously elongated We have seen, in writing of the other senses, that while beasts trunk of the elephant. In this beast, the two narrow tubes seem to have these in greater efficiency than men, this is into which the nasal chambers are continued forward, run to the because their attention is not abstracted from their indications, very end of the organ, where there is, on the upper side, a finger, and not because the organ is any more perfect or elaborate which seems to be as serviceable as any of our own. Strong in its structure ; but in the case of the smell, a corresponding bundles of muscles run along the trunk on all sides, and development and complication of structure accompanies a keener radiating ones pass between these, so that the beast can move sense. The great difference between the skull of man and that his trunk in any direction he pleases, of the beast consists in the fact, that in the latter the brain and In birds the sense of smell is by no means so efficient as in the brain-case—which it accurately fits-are much smaller; the mammals. This we may pronounce with certainty, because not jaws—and therefore the hollow of the mouth-are much larger only is the organ, and its accessory apparatus, less developed, and longer. Now, the nasal cavity which lies between these but the habits of birds indicate that they are but little guided partakes, in the beast, of the elongation of the jaws, and not of by the sense of smell. Raptorial birds, like flesh-eating animals, the curtailment of the brain. The nose is almost always at the have better-developed olfactory organs than grain-feeding fowls. end of the muzzle, and the long chambers of the nose only pass The main nerve of smell of the vulture is five times the thickunder the brain at the posterior part of their course, where they ness of that of the turkey, although the carrion-feeding bird also begin to descend to enter the throat. Hence, instead of (first-named) does not exceed the other in weight; but it would comparing the face to a three-storeyed house, as we did in seem that this sense in the vulture and condor is only useful to speaking of the man, it should be compared to a two-storeyed them in selecting while at their meal, and does not guide them shed, with a lean-to behind for the accommodation of the brain. to the meal itself. A number of confined condors had some The turbinated bones are, therefore, not so much one above as one steaks of flesh, wrapped in paper, placed before them, but they behind the other, the front or inferior one being very much enlarged gave no sign of being aware of their presence; when, however, and contorted, or folded, so as to fill up the large chamber. This the paper was removed, they were seen tumbling over one bone is very differently shaped in the different animals. In the another in their eagerness to snatch the food. sheep it arises by a broad plate, which runs inward from the The general peculiarities of the organ of smell of birds are outer wall of the nose, and then divides into two plates, both of the following:- The nerve leaves the skull by one hole, and not which assume the form of scrolls, one curling upwards and the through many, as in beasts; the membrane to which the nerve other downwards; and the number of turns of these scrolls is so of smell goes is confined to the base of the beak, and the outer great, that if a transverse section of the nose be made, the edge nostrils are not at the end, but at its sides or base; and though of the bone looks like the capital of an Ionic column. In the these nostrils are sometimes protected by a scale (as in the hare and rabbit the bone has a different form, and consists of a pheasant), or a sheath (as in the stormy petrel), or a bunch of number of plates one above the other, which subdivide into stiff feathers (as in the raven), there are never any flexible other smaller horizontal plates or ridges, all of which are, so to cartilages moved by muscles. That singular wingless bird, speak, gathered' ogether into one stem at each end. The seal thence called the apteryx, affords the only exception to the has a bone of we same structure, but much more subdivided above statements, for its nostrils are at the end of its bill, the and complicated; and the extraordinary development of the upper turbinated bones are of very large size, and many nerves organ in these swimming carnivora, would lead us to suppose pierce the skull, as in the mammalia. These peculiarities indithat they hunt by scent. It will be seen that the design of all cate greater acuteness in the sense of smell; and this is these structures, however different their form may be, is to thought to be associated with its habit of probing among loose increase the surface over which the pituitary membrane, as it is earth, to hunt for worms, by scenting them. called, can be spread. Now, in man, the membrane of the lower In the pelican there are no external nostrils whatever; and scroll-bone is not so specially the seat of the organ of smell as this is, no doubt, reasonably accounted for by the fact that this of a refined and acute sense of touch; for the nerve which bird fishes under water with its long bill, and detains its prey supplies it is not from the olfactory bulb, but from the fifth pair for inspection in its capacious pouch. While in this position, of nerves. It is this nerve which is excited by the application to contents of the bill send off effluvia to the nose by the back of snuff: so that the snuff does not act as an odour, but as an way of the palate, and since the nostrils of the bird, if it had irritant, and the pleasure may be compared, by those who do no' any, would be above the water, and its prey below it, they could appreciate it, to the pleasure of scratching in other parts of be of no service. the body. In beasts, however, the nasal branch from the fifth In the higher reptiles, the internal organ is very like that of pair of nerves would seem to be a nerve of special sense; and, birds ; but in some the nostrils are wide apart, and in others, 25 besides this, since the turbinated bones are not one above, but in all the crocodiles, they are united into one, which in the true one behind the other, the air passes successively over them all, crocodile of the Nile is shaped like a half-moon, and closed instead of below the ethmo, or upper turbinated bones, as in man. by a valve from behind ; and in the gavial, or slender-snonted

Perhaps it is not out of place here to remark upon some crocodile of the Ganges, the skin round the nostril can be raised functions discharged by the nose, which are not olfactory. In so as to allow it to be just lifted above the surface, while the rest of the animal is concealed. In both cases the nostril is

VOCABULARY. placed at the tip of the snout, for reasons which those who have | Fahren, to drive, to Holz'bauer, m. wood. | Reiten, to ride on read the lessons on the ear will understand. Space fails to ride (in a vehicle). I cutter.

horseback). write of the organ in the serpent, the frog, and the siren; but, / Frantfurt, n. Frank- Kalt, cold.

Reitpfert, n. saddlein passing on to describe it as it occurs in the fish, it should fort.

Leben, to live.

horse. be remarked, that in all the foregoing animals there is a com- | Früb, early.

Mäßig, temperate, Schlachten, to butcher, munication between this organ and the air-passage to the lungs. Sesunt', healthy. temperately. I kill, or slay.

The position of these hind nostrils, as they are called, are, as Holz, n. wood, timber Metger, m. butcher. Suchen, to seek. we have seen, very various. In some cases, they open just of any kind. Ortentlid, orderly. / Zeit, f., time. behind the teeth, as in the toad; and in others, far back in the

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. alimentary canal. They are sometimes double, and sometimes single; but they are always present: and consequently these Da blühet eine Rose, und hier fällt There a rose blossoms, and here animals all breathe naturally through the nose: and for this eine ab.

one falls off. reason it has been difficult to discuss the function of smell Hier steht der Jüngling, und ta ter Here stands the youth, and without trenching on the function of respiration. In fish, on Greis

there the aged man. the contrary, there are no lungs; and therefore the hind outlet Morgen verläßt tas neue Dampfboot To-morrow the new steamboat of the nose is not present, and the organ is solely an organ ben Hafen.

leaves the harbour. of smell.

Zu lange schon hast du gesäumt', die Too long already hast thou Its usual form is that of a roundish sac, opening on the side verlor'ne Zeit einózuholen.

delayed to redeem the lost of the muzzle by one or two external holes. The sac is either

time. round, in which case a column of cartilage rises in the centre, and Jest muß ich meinen Brief schließen. I must now close my letter. radiating folds run from this to the circumference; or elongated, Beute fann er nicht froh sein, und To-day he cannot be joyful, and when a bar of cartilage runs across it; and on each side of this morgen nicht lachen. Sprichwort to-morrow not laugh. Adage. plates pass off to the sides; and these secondary plates at their middle portion are elongated into flaps, which float freely in the

EXERCISE 50. water of the sac. An example of the first form is seen in the 1. Will der alte Soldat heute in den Wald gehen? 2. Er will hins sturgeon, and of the last in the ray and dog-fish. In the gehen, aber heute fann er nicht, denn er hat viel zu thun. 3. Der Sausa drawing of the dog-fish, one sac is represented with a fore-and knecht ist auf den Markt gegangen, um Fleisch zu holen. 4. Um gesund zu aft flap to the nostril, the fore-flap being pulled forward by bleiben, muß man ortentlich und mäßig leben. 5. Der Holzbauer ist in den two threads, so as to disclose the interior; while, on the other Wald gegangen, um Holz zu bauen. 6. Der Mesger geht von einem side, these flaps have been wholly removed, to expose the organ. Dorse zum antern, um Ochsen zu faufen. 7. Gr geht aus einem Dorfe in These cartilaginous flaps are moved by proper muscles, so das andere, fann aber feine Ochsen finden. 8. Was will er mit den that the water in the sacs can be rapidly changed by their Ochsen? 9. Er will sie schlachten; wir müssen ja Fleisch haben. 10. action; hence these fish have been said not only to smell, but to Der Bauer hat zwei Pferde, welche der Brauer kaufen will. 11. Ich gebe, scent their prey. In the lamprey, or nine-eyed eel, the nasal in die Statt, um einen Hut oder eine Müße zu kaufen. 12. Er hat Bücher sac is single, and in the middle line above the head.

zu lesen" und eine Aufgabe zu schreiben. 13. Wo will der Freund Ihres In the nautilus, Professor Owen has detected an organ Bruters hingehen? 14. Er will nirgends hingehen, cr will bei seinem of smell; and the pretty little organs which are thrust up Ohcin bleiben. 15. Wollen sie auf den hohen Berg gehen? 16. Ich from the back of the naked sea-slug are considered to be will dahin gehen, aber nicht heute. 17. Können Sie morgen auf tas Land of the same nature. We have already pointed out the organ geben? 18. Ich fann dahin gehen, aber ich will nid)t. 19. Wann will in the lobster; but where the sense resides in insects is yet 3hr Vater seine Pferte wieder haben? 20. Gr muß sie morgen früh unknown.

haben, weil er morgen Abend nach Frankfurt fahren will. 21. Warum Notwithstanding these difficulties and uncertainties, it is will er nicht tahin reiten? 22. Weil er fein gutes Reitpferd hat, und das hoped that it has been shown that there is sufficient evidence of Wetter sehr falt ist. contrivance in the nasal organ in the animal kingdom, to make

EXERCISE 51. os exclaim with David, “How wonderful are thy thoughts!

1. It is too cold for him to-day to go over to Frankfort. 2. how great is the sum of them!”

There runs the hare over the hill. 3. There drives your brother. 4. The confectioner is gone to the bakehouse in order to bake

bread. 5. The butcher goes to market in order to buy sheep. LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XVI.

6. Your coachman has driven me rapidly here. 7. Do you see SECTION XXIX.–POSITION OF THE VERB, ETC. that man upon that horse which we saw yesterday? 8. The sol

diers ride on beautiful horses. 9. They say one rides in those WHEN for the sake of emphasis a word (which is not the

carriages comfortably. 10. We have ridden in your coach to subject) is placed at the beginning of a principal sentence, or if a subordinate sentence precedes the principal sentence, the

pay our visits. 11. Tread not beyond the law! 12. The new

steamboat passes down the river to-day for the first time. subject is placed after the finite verb (a present or imperfect), as :-Da geht Ihr Freund, there goes your friend. hier steht sein SECTION XXX.-COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. Bruter, here stands his brother. Zu lange schon hast Du gesch

German adjectives are compared by suffixing to the simple lummert, too long already hast thou slumbered. Jegt muß ich

form of the positive, er for the comparative, and est for the super.

to gehen, now I must go. Als ich gestern nach Hause fam, regnete es

lative ; thus, positive mild (mild), comparative milt er (milder),

e febr starb, when I returned home yesterday, it was raining very

superlative mild-est (mildest). (See $$ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.) hard. Heute fann er nicht lesen, und morgen will er nicht, he cannot

1. When the positive ends in el, en, or er, the è of this termi. read to-day, and to-morrow he will not.

nation is, in the comparative, omitted, as :-- edel (noble), etler* 1. Fahren is both transitive and intransitive; when transitive, it is conjugated with haben (§ 71. 1), and signifies to convey in a

: (nobler). It may be here remarked, that adjectives of this class
add for the superlative st only; thus, eocl, coler, coelst.

Adjecvehicle, to drive, as :—Der Kutscher hat mich schnell gefahren, the

tives, when compared, are commonly contracted when euphony coachman has driven me rapidly. Der Schiffer hat mich schnell

uue admits. gefahren, the boatman has rowed me rapidly. When intransitive,

| Adjectives in the comparative and superlative are subject to it is conjugated with sein ($ 71. 1), and signifies to ride in a

in a | the same rules of inflection as when in the positive degree. vehicle, as : Ich bin gefahren, I have ridden in a carriage, boat, 15 37 or other vehicle).

(§ 37. 1.) 2. Reiten is also used transitively and intransitively, and signifies to ride, as on horseback, as:- Der Araber reitet das

* The disposition to contract two concurrent syllables finds a parallel Biert und bas Kameel, the Arabian rides the horse and the camel.

in almost every language. Thus, in English, we have entrance for

enterance; rondrous for wonderous, etc. So hoped, prayed, etc., words 3. habe ein schnelles Pferd geritten, I have ridden a fleet horse.

containing each two syllables, are pronounced as though consisting of When used intransitively ($ 71. 1), it is conjugated with sein, but one. This is a serious difficulty in the way of foreigners learn 28 :-Grift sehr sdnell geritten, he has ridden (on horseback) very our language, but one which in the German, by a conformity of pe rapidly.

graphy to pronunciation, is entirely avoided.

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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.XVII. 'graved copy-slips, there must still be many of our readers who

do, and for their benefit examples for practice are given in Any intelligent self-teacher, who has carefully followed our Copy-slips Nos. 58, 59, and 60. After furnishing examples of instructions from the beginning, and has been able to find time the seven letters of the writing alphabet that yet remain to to write for at least an hour daily, will now find that he has be mentioned, we shall procecd to give a series of copy-slips acquired the proper position of the hand in writing, and the in the various kinds of writing generally taught in schools, right mode of holding the pen, while he has also gained sufficient from which the learner will be able to make himself acquainted control over the muscles of his hand and wrist to be able to with the forms of the capital letters. The instructions already make the movements necessary to form the letters that have given for tracing out the shapes of the small letters have, of already been brought under his notice, without the temporary necessity, been copious and ample, and to those of our readers inconvenience which a beginner invariably experiences from an who may be able to write, the explanations of the methods used undue tension of the ball of the thumb and the muscles on the in forming each letter of the writing alphabet, may have apopposite side of the palm of the hand, caused by holding the peared minute and tedious. It must be remembered, however, pen too stiffily, and not permitting the fore-finger and thumb to that these elementary lessons in Penmanship are intended rather






play freely on the joints by which, so to speak, they are hinged for learners who are trying to teach themselves to write, and together and connected with the wrist and arm. On the con- for those who are endeavouring to improve a faulty style of trary, through having gained sufficient confidence in his skill handwriting, than for those who have had the benefit of being and powers by daily practice, he begins to move the pen freely shown how to shape their letters by a writing master; and it is and rapidly over the paper, while the down-strokes of his letters, for the guidance of self-teachers, who have no one to show them which were at first crooked and unevenly formed, are now how each letter should be formed by writing it before them, regularly sloped and sharply and clearly defined at the edges. that our instructions have been made as elaborate and precise He begins to find, too, that he no longer requires so many exam. as they are. ples for practice in words composed solely of the small letters But even to those who know how to write, these minute direcof the writing alphabet to be placed before him by means of tions may be of the greatest importance. Many of our readers, engraved copy-slips, inasmuch as he can select words enough for we trust, are engaged in the good work of teaching adults in himself, in writing which he finds a useful exercise in testing his evening schools. To such as these our lessons will afford assistknowledge of the forms of the letters with which he is already ance in conveying in suitable terms the instructions they are acquainted, the way in which each is connected with letters by giving, and accompanying that instruction by accurately-formed which they are preceded or followed, and the relative propor- diagrams on the black-board, which will serve as examples to tion of the parts which extend above and below the lines all the members of a large class, and save the labour and loss of that contain the body or main part of the letters. But although time involved in writing separate copies for each individual of the majority of our self-taught students may not require en- which the class is composed.


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With and without the termination s.

For the most part feminines. (continued).

Singular. 2.— With the termination s.

N. avis, a bird. febris, a fever. pavis, a ship.

febris, of a fever.

avis, of a bird. Consonantal stems with the sounds k (c), t, p.

navis, of a ship.

avi, to a bird, febri, to a fever. navi, to a ship. MASCULINES AND FEMININES.

Ac. avem, a bird. febrem (im), a fever. navem (im), a ship. Cases. Singular.

V. avis, o bird! febris, O fever ! navis, O ship! N. judex, a judge. comes, a companion. princeps, a chief or prince.

Ab. ave or avi, by a bird, febri (e), by a fever. navi or nave, by a ship. G. judicis, of a judge. comitis, of a companion. principis, of a princo. D. judici, to a judge. comiti, to a companion, principi, to a prince.


Plural. Ac. judicem, a judge. comitem, a companion. principem, a prince.

N. aves, birds. febres, fovers.

naves, ships. V. judex, 0) judge!. comes, 0 companion ! princeps, O prince !

G. avium, of birds. febrium, of fevers. navium, of ships.

D. Ab.judice, by a judge. comite, by a companion. principe, by a prince.

a vibus, to birds, febribus, to fevers. navibus, to ships. Ac. aves, birds.

febres, fevers.

naves, ships. Cases. Plural.

V. aves, o birds! febres, O fevers ! paves, O ships ! N. judices, judges. comites, companions. principes, chiefs or princes. Ab. avibus, by birds. febribus, by fevers. navibus, by ships. G. judicum, of judges. comitum, of companions. principum, of princes.

Cases. D. judicibus, to judges. comitibus, to companions principibus, to princos.

Singular. Ac. judices, judges. comites, companions. principes, chiefs or princos

N. nubes, a cloud. mare (neuter), the sea. rete (peuter), a nets, V. judices, O judges ! comites, 0 companions! principes, 0 princes !

nubis, of a cloud. maris, of the sea. retis, of a net. Ab. judicibus, by judges. comitibus, by companions principibus, by princes.

D. nubi, to a cloud, mari, to the sea. reti, to a net.
nubem, a cloud. mare, the sea.

rete, a net.
V. nubes, 0 cloud! mare, O sea !

rete, O net! N. rex, a king. lapis, a stone.

urbs (f), a city.

nube, by a cloud. mari, by the sea. reti, by a nets. G. regis, of a ling. lapidis, of a stone. urbis, of a city, D. regi, to a king. lapidi, to a stone. urbi, to a city.


Ac. regem, a king. lapidem, a stone.

urbem, a city.
nubes, clouds. maria, seas.

retia, net. V. rex, O king! lapis, O stone!

urbs, 0 city!

G. nubium, of clouds. marium, of seas. retium, of nets. Ab. rege, by a king. lapide, by a stone. urbe, by a city.

nubibus, to clouds. maribus, to seas. retibus, to nets. Ac. nubes, clouds. maria, seas.

retia, nets. Cases. Plural.

V. nubes, 0 clouds ! maria, O seas ! retia, O nets! N. regos, kings. lapides, stones.

urbes, cities.

nubibus, by clouds. maribus, by soas. retibus, by nets. G. regum, of kings. lapidum, of stones. urbium, of cities. D. regibus, to leings. lapidibus, to stones. urbibus, to cities.

VOCABULARY. Ac. reges, kings. lapides, stones.

urbes, cities.

Altāre, altāris, n., an | Ignis, ignis, m., fire. Rupes, rupis, f., a V. reges, O kings ! lapides, O stones! urbes, 0 cities!


Navis, navis, f., a ship. rock. Ab. regibus, by kings. lapidibus, by stones. urbibus, by cities. Civis, civis, m., a Orbis, orbis, m., a Secūris, securis, f., an A few words of explanation may here be desirable. The Latin citizen.

globe, the world.

Clades, cladis, Ovile, ovilis, D., a Sedes, sedis, f., a c represents the Greek g (gamma), and for the most part was



! seat. pronounced like our k. Thus, the Romans pronounced Cicero, the name of their great orator, Kikero. Now the x in judex is

EXERCISE 31.-LATIN-ENGLISH. made up of these letters, thus, judecs—the c and s blending

i. Aves fallant cælibes. 2. Matres occiduntur febribus. 3. Valde together to form x; hence, judec, judicis, judecs: in the genitive, diligo mare. 4. Mare diligitur a nautis. 5. Agricolæ colunt segetes. the laws of pronunciation convert the e of the nominative into

6. Nautæ sunt in navibus. 7. In orbe est ignis. 8. In ignibus sunt

fratres. 9. Altaria sunt deabus. 10. Nonne diis sunt altaria ? 11. i; as it does in comes, comitis. From this example you see

Securi defendunt agricolæ ovilia. that the variations which words undergo are not arbitrary. Those variations depend on the nature of the letters that come

EXERCISE 32.- ENGLISH-LATIN. together, and in their ultimate causes, on the structure of the 1. Sailors defend ships with (their) bodies. 2. Birds are on the organs of speech, as these organs are in each nation modified rocks. 3. Are rocks loved by sailors ? 4. Slaughter injures the by natural endowments, climate, culture, and a variety of other

a variety of other people. 5. Birds strike the clouds. 6. Axes defend the ships. 7.

The birds of the citizens are injured. 8. The seat of the prince is circumstances. The b in urbs may be considered as equivalent to p, for 6

praised. 9. We conquer the companions of the princes. and p being labials—that is, letters in pronouncing which the General view of nouns of the third declension, according to their lips are chiefly used—are, as letters of the same organ, inter-stems :changeable, or may be used the one for the other, under certain

Class I. conditions.

Nouns with consonantal stems, or imparisyllabic.

Ist division: Nouns without the termination s.

1st subdivision: Nouns in which the nominative and the stem are Ætas, ætatis, f., age. | Grex, grėgis, m., a Plebs, plēbis, f., the

the same; the stems end in r and l. Artifex, artifycis, m., | flock.

people (plebs has no

2nd subdivision : Nouns in which the nominative and the stem are an artist or artificer. Lex, légis, f., a law. I plural).

different; the stems end in n and r. Cælebs, cællbis, m., a Merces, mercēdis, f., Seges, segštis, corn.

2nd division : Nouns with the termination s, with the sounds bachelor. a reward.

land. Cervix, cervicis, f., the Miles, militis, m., a Stirps, stirpis, f., a

k, t, p.

Class II. neck. soldier. race, stem.

Nouns with the vowel-stems, or parisyllabic. Eques, equitis, m., a Pollex, pollycis, m.,

With and without the termination s. horseman or knight, the thumb. EXERCISE 29.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

Some peculiarities belonging to this declension must be

briefly indicated. The termination of the accusative singular is 1. Artifices debent pueros docere. 2. Pollicem movet rex. 3. Reges

properly m, which is connected with the consonantal stem by custodiunt leges. 4. Leges custodiuntur a regibus. 5. Filius polli.

the interposition of e. In the vowel-stems no interposing vowel cem mordet. 6. Equites vexantur. 7. Artifices ornant urbes. 8. Merces artificum nutriunt filios et filias. 9. Celebs dormit.

That vowel is required, because there is a vowel in the stem.

10. Ple defenditur. 11. Stirps artificis laudatur. 12. Estne tibi seges ? 1

is i. Vowel-stems, therefore, end in im in the accusative, and Cervix inilitis læditur. 14. Cselibis wtas magna est.

in i in the ablative singular; for the most part, however, they EXERCISE 30.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

in usage have e in both. However, in sitis, thirst, tussis, a

cough, and vis, strength, i only is used. Vis is a defective noun, 1. I defend artists. 2. Artists are defended by me. 3. Has he a

and is thus declined : singular, vis, vim, vi; plural, vires, reward P4. He has not a flock. 5. I am pricked in the neck. 6. Artists paint flocks. 7. The laws of the kings are deadly. 8. The

virium, viribus, vires, virys, virious, the plural being complete corn-land of the horseman is yielded. 9. Why is the bachelor blamed ? and regula

as | and regular. In these nouns,-namely, febris, a fever ; securis, 10. The people blame bachelors. 11. Soldiers have rewards. 12. Age an axe; pelvis, a basin; turris, a tower; and restis, a cord, im teaches many things (multa).

is more usual than em; but less usual than em is it in classis,

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