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BCE Bisect the angle B C E by the method shown in CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT OF müsjen. Problem VI. (page 191). Each of its halves is an angle of 15
PRESENT. degrees, and the angle formed by the angle A.CE and the half
Plural. of B CE must necessarily be an angle of 45 degrees. To describe or draw an equilateral triangle, whose sides shall | Ich muß, I must;
wir müssen, we must. be of a given length, it is manifestly only necessary to set off Du mußt, thou must;
ihr müßt, you must. A B of the length required, and then to proceed to form the | Gr muß, he must;
fie müssen, they must. triangle by the mode of construction given above.
Du mußtest, thou wast obliged; ihr mußtet, you were obliged.
Er mußte, he was obliged; sie mußten, they were obliged. SECTION XXIV.-CONJUGATION OF VERBS.
5. Sollen indicates necessity, dependent upon the will of Dürfen expresses a possibility dependent upon the will of another, another person ; thus corresponding in signification with the or upon a law, as :- Ich darf diese Blumen nicht pflüden, I cannot (I second and third persons of our word "shall," as–Du sollst sterben, am not allowed, permitted to) pluck these flowers. Der Bauer thou shalt die. Er soll es thun, he shall do it. Sic sollten hier bleiben, tarf nicht Fischen, the peasant is not allowed (by law) to fish. Ich you should (ought to) remain here. Wenn er kommen sollte, if he tarf tiefe Früchte essen, aber ich kann sie nicht erreichen, I can (have the should come. (8 83. 6.) right to) eat these fruits, but I cannot obtain (get at) them.
CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT OF follen. ($ 83. 1. 2.)
PRESENT. CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT OF bürfen.
wir sollen, we shall.
ihr sollet, you shall. Ich darf, I am permitted ; wir türfen, we are permitted.
Er soll, he shall;
sie rollen, they shall. Du darfst, thou art permitted ihr dürfet, you are permitted.
IMPERFECT. Er darf, he is permitted ; sie dürfen, they are permitted.
Ich sollte, I should ;
wir sollten, we should. IMPERFECT.
Du solltest, thou shouldst; ihr solltet, you should. Ich durfte, I was permitted; wir turften, we were permitted. Er sollte, he should;
sie sollten, they should. Dú rurftest, thou wast permitted; ihr durftet, you were permitted.
6. Wollen expresses a desire, but not a positive intention, Gr burfte, he was permitted; sie durften, they were permitted.
and is rendered by “to wish,” as:—Was will er? What does he 1. Können corresponds in the present and imperfect to the wish? Was will cr thun? What does he wish to do? English “can,” as :- Der Fisch fann schwimmen, the fish can swim. The imperfect often answers to our “was going," when er. Er konnte nicht lesen, he could not read.
pressive of purpose, as :-Ich wollte sagen, I was going to say. Rönnen also answers sometimes to "may," as :-Das fann sein, | (8 83. 8.) that may be. Er fann schon da sein, he may be already there. Es CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT Of wollen fann regnen, it may rain. (8 83. 1. 3.)
WITH AN ACTIVE VERB.
| Id will gehen, I wish to go; wir wollen gehen, we wish to go. Ich fann, I can;
wir fönnen, we can.
Du willst gehen, thou wishest to ihr wollet gehen, you wish to go. Du kannst, thou canst;
ihr fönnt, you can.
go; Gr tann, he can;
sie fönnen, they can.
Er will gehen, he wishes to go: sie wollen gehen, they wish to go. IMPERFECT.
IMPERFECT. Ich fonnte, I could ;
wir konnten, we could.
Ich wollte geben, I wished to go; wir wollten gehen, we wished to go. Du konntest, thou couldst; ihr fonntet, you could.
Du wolltest gehen, thou wishedst ihr wolltet gehen, you wished to Er konnte, he could ;
sie fonnten, they could.
go. 2. Mögen expresses a possibility dependent on the will of the
Er wollte gehen, he wished to go; sie wollten gehen, they wished to
go. subject or the speaker, as :-6r mag gehen, he can (may, is at liberty to) go. Sie mögen gehen, you may (have permission to).
1 7. The perfect and pluperfect tenses of these verbs, as also of go. Ich mag ihn nicht sehen, I do not wish to see him. Das mag ich Tajien, to permit, to cause, is formed by means of the infinitive, nicht glauben, I do not like to believe that. ($ 83. 4.) . instead of the participle ($ 74. 3), as :-3. Mögen, like "may," denotes a concession on the part of the Er hat nicht geben fönnen.
He has not been able to go. speaker, as :- r mag cin treuer Freund sein, he may be a true friend. Wir haben nie schicken türfen. We have never been allowed to Sie mögen es gethan haben, they may have done it. (8 83. 4.)
shoot. CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT OF mögen. Ich habe es nicht thun mögen. I have not wished to do it.
Sie haben schreiben müssen.
They have been obliged to write. Sie hätte lesen sollen.
She onght to have read. Singular.
Sie haben nicht arbeiten wollen. You have not been willing to Ich mag, I may or am allowed; wir mögen, we may or are al
Ihr habt ihn nicht gehen lassen. You have not caused him to go Du magst, thou mayst or art al. ihr möget, you may or are al.
(have not sent him). lowed ; lowed.
8. In the future, therefore, these verbs (except in the tense Er mag, he may or is allowed; sie mögen, they may or are al
auxiliaries) are, in form, like the perfect. Compare the follow. lowed.
ing examples :IMPERFECT.
Ich werde reten dürfen.
I shall be allowed to speak. 3d, mocyte, I was allowed; wir mochten, we were allowed. Ich habe reden türfen.
I have been allowed to speak. Du mochtest, thou wast allowed; ihr moctitet, you were allowed. Du wirst ihn sehen können.
You will be able to see him. Er mocyte, he was allowed ; fie mochten, they were allowed. Du hast ihn sehen können.
Thou hast been able to see him. 4. Miffon in those tenses in which its English equivalent English canivalent. Er wird bleiben mögen.
He will wish to remain. "must" is defective, is to be rendered by “to be obliged, forced, ered by a to be obliged forced. Er hat bleiben mögen.
He has wished to remain. compelled," eto., as :-Er mußte e8 thun, he was obliged to do it. 9. The phrase, Wie viel Uhr ist es ? like the corresponding one See complete conjugation, $ 83. 5.
in English, is abbreviated; the full form being Wie viel auf der
Uhr ist es ? What o'clock (literally, how much upon the clock) Wir dürfen Andern nicht thun, was We must not do to others what is it?
wir nicht wünschen von ihnen ge- we do not wish to have done When a part or the whole of the last quarter of an hour is than zu haben.
by them. named, it is designated, as in English, by its distance from the Er hat Briefe (dreiben wollen. He has wished to write letters. hour follouring, as :
Wird sie gehen müssen ?
Will she be obliged to go ? Gi fehlen fünf, acht, oder zehn Mis It lacks five, eight, or ten
Sie wird nicht gehen können. She will not be able to go. nuten bis (or an) zwölf. minutes to twelve.
Wir haben es nicht thun mögen. We have not wished to do it. Es fehlt ein Viertel bis zwölf. It lacks a quarter to twelve.
Sie werden gehen dürfen.
You will be allowed to go.
Ich mußte den ganzen Abend lesen. I was obliged to read the whole When a half-hour is named, it is not measured, as in English,
evening from the preceding hour, but from the one that follows. This
Sie hatten es nicht thun sollen. They ought not to have done it. is, likewise, commonly the case with any part or the whole of the first quarter, although it may, as in English, be referred to
EXERCISE 37. the hour preceding, as :
1. Wollen Sie mit mir nach Mannheim gehen? 2. Ich fann nicht, ich Gi ist halb* zivölf.
It is half (towards twelve) past | Habe feine Zeit. 3. Wann fönnen Sie gehen? 4. Ich werde die nächste eleven.
Woche gehen, wenn Sie so lange warten können. 5. Will Ihr Lehrer init 6s ist zehn Minuten auf zwölf. It is ten minutes (towards
Ihnen auf das Feld oder nach ter Stadt gehen? 6. &r will nicht auf's twelve) past eleven.
Felt, und kann nicht nach der Stadt gehen. 7. Was wollen diese Kinder ? Es ist ein Viertel auf zwölf. It is a quarter (towards twelve)
8. Sie wollen Aepfel und Kirschen, aber sie fönnen feine faufen, denn sie past eleven.
haben kein Geld. 9. Was wollen Sie, mein Herr? mein Fräulein? meine Ei ist zehn Minuten nach eins. It is ten minutes past one. Dame? 10. Wollen Sie die Güte haben, mir ein Glas (Sect. LXI.) Ge ist ein Viertel nad, eins.
It is a quarter past one. Wasser (Sect. XXV.) zu geben? 11. Können Sic mir sagen, wie viel 10. The prepositions bei, nach, mit, von, zu, etc. (8 111) govern Uhr es ist ? 12. Ich kann es (Sect. XXXV. 6) Ihnen nicht sagen, ich no case but the dative, while an, auf, in, unter, etc. ($ 115) govern
Habe feine Uhr bei mir. 13. Was wollte der Kaufmann Ihnen vers the dative only when used with a verb of rest, or of motion, kaufen? 14. Id konnte nichts bei ihm finden, was ich kaufen wollte. 15. within specified limits, as :
Wir werden morgen schlechtes Wetter haben. 16. Es fann sein, daß Der Mann arbeitet an dem (am, The man is working at the
es noch heute regnen wird. 17. Können Sie rie teutsche Handschrift
lesen? 18. Nein, ich habe genug mit der Drudtschrift zu thun 19. Der $ 4. 2) Lische. Du kind tanzt auf dem Brette. The child is dancing on the
Neidische (Sect. XVI.) will seinen Freund nicht loben. 20. Gine board.
Gelehrte ist nicht immer eine gute Hausfrau. 21. Get uld ist eine schwere Der Knabe spielt in dem Garten.
Kunst; Manche ( 53. 1) können sie lehren, aber nicht lernen. 22. Gin The boy is playing in the garden.
guter Lehrer muß Geduld haben. 23. Jeder gute Schüler wird aufmerfam Der Hund ist unter dem Baume. The dog is under the tree.
EXERCISE 38. But when motion towards a given point is signified, the accusative is used, as :
1. You can go into the garden, but you cannot remain long
there. 2. These attentive scholars were allowed to go with Der Mann geht an den Tuch. The man is going to the table.
their teacher to Mannheim. 3. We can employ (anwenden] our Das Kind springt auf das (aufs. The child springs upon the time better. 4. Can you speak German ? 5. We could not $ 4.2) Brett. board.
learn our lessons this week. 6. You must learn this week's les. Der Knabe cilt in den Garten. The boy hurries into the gar
sons [bie Aufgaben dieser Woche] attentively. 7. You may go toden.
morrow to your parents. 8. He may be a good man. 9. The Der sund läuft unter den Baum. The dog runs under the tree.
housewife must (is obliged to) go to market to-morrow. 10. Dative and Accusative.
Have you written to your parents ? 11. Yes, I was obliged to Der Tisd schwimmt in dem Wasser. The fish swims in the water.
write. 12. It is two o'clock. 13. I shall arrive at your house Der Stein fällt in tad Wasser. The stone falls into the water.
at a quarter past three o'clock. 14. Will you come twenty Gr steht an der Thüre. He is standing at the door.
minutes before eight o'clock? 15. I may come to your house Gr gebt an die Thüre. He is going to the door.
this evening, but do not wait for me. 16. As long as (so lange
als) it rains, I cannot go out. 17. Fish can only (nur] live in VOCABULARY.
water, and birds in the air. 18. You should not have done that, Pluj'mettiam,attentive Hausfrau, f. house. Nächst, next.
it will not be any recommendation (feine Empfehlung] to you. 19. Daf, that.
I wish to go to the theatre this evening. 20. We may not have
Schiver, heavy, hard, Getult', f. patience. Kunst, f. art, skill. difficult.
LESSONS IN MUSIC.-IV. Genug', enough. Lernen, to learn. Thun, to do. Güte, f. goodness, Lesen, to read. | Verfau'fen, to sell. THE Binary (or two-pulse) measure is the boldest of the meakindness.
Mannheun, n. Mann. Warten, to wait. sures, and the one most easily felt or performed. It is by far Gantschrift, f. hand- heim,
Woche, f. week. the best for large masses of voice, and is well adapted to aid writing, manu- Morgen, to-morrow. Wollen, to will. in giving majesty to a tune. Try “St. Stephen's” or “Bedford,” script. Müssen, must. Zeit, f. time.
first in the three-pulse measure (lengthening the accented notes),
and then in the two-pulse measure, and you will understand the RÉSUME OF EXAMPLES.
character of the Binary measure. The Trinary (or three-pulse) INit der Ruhe eines Stoʻifers ertrug' With the (quiet) calmness of a measure is well adapted to aid in producing a soft and soothing er ten beftigsten Schmerz.
stoic he endured the most musical effect. When the tune is simple it is not unfit for violent pain.
congregational use, especially if the people have been trained Bei dem Geban'fen an die Schmach At the thought of the disgrace to keep the accent. The adaptation of this measure to soft and feines Ba'terlantes fonnte er tie of his native country he soothing music is illustrated by its analogy (according to Dr. Thränen nicht länger zurüd hals could not (longer) repress Bryce) to the breathing of health and rest. The Quaternary (or ten.
(the) his tears.
four-pulse) measure, when delicately performed, gives much eleWir müssen uns bestreben, wenn wir We must exert ourselves, if we gance to a tune. It is adapted to congregational tunes when the
inters gute Bürger sein wollen, (otherwise) wish to be good movement is not too slow. Try the well-known tune “Vesper mit unsern Kräften und nach un citizens, with all our strength Hymn," taking care to give the medium accent. The Senary (or ferm Vermoʻgen tem Staate jut and according to our ability six-pulse) measure is commonly used in connection with quick to serve the State.
movements, and is naturally soft, light, and elegant; for this
reason it is better adapted to secular compositions than to * In case of halb, the preposition auf is commonly omitted. sacred music.
Take a low sound of your voice for the key-note in this modulator, you will probably be able to make this out without exercise. If any one gives you the pattern from an instrument, 'pattern. Be careful to give the proper accent. You are tell him to play in the key of D with two skarps. You under strongly recommended not to study the “staff,” at present, in stand that the letters under the “staff" are the initials of the any of these exercises. It is printed here that you may be able notes on the modulator, and direct you in tracing out the tune to return to it when you have gained some command of voice there. The notes are placed within the accent marks to which and some knowledge of music itself, and are not likely to be they belong. Doh occupies the whole of the loud "pulse" of perplexed by its numerous signs; but if we may suppose that the measure. Me fills the first soft pulse, and Son the second. you have done this, then the following remarks will be of use. This is the Trinary measure. The second measure is easily [The open note is twice as long as the closed notes. The empty understood. In the third measure you have the first Don "pulse," during which the voice rests, is represented by a occupying two pulses (loud and soft), and the second Dou only distinct character, called a "rest.” It tells you to rest as long one pulse. The horizontal stroke, as in the second pulse, always as one of the closed notes, in the same time, would be sung. indicates that the preceding note is to be continued. Thus the A dot after a note, in the old notation, bids you sing that last note of the exercise is continued through the whole measure. note half as long again. Thus you perceive that the relative In the fourth measure the third accent-mark is followed by no length of notes is expressed by symbols, and not, as in the solfa note. In the time of that pulse, therefore, the voice rests. If notation, measured out pictorially by the regularly recurring the previous exercises have been perfectly learnt from the accents placed along the page.]
Take a low note for the key-note of this exercise also. Point I always in the same place on the staff. It would be well for you it from memory on the modulator, like the last, and all you if it could be so. But as it is to be found, in different tunes, learn. Mark the accent well, and learn to sing both the upper on every position on the staff, it is important that we should not and the lower line of notes. [The key-note is placed on the mislead you. We prefer, however, that this exercise should be lowest line to prevent your accustoming your eye to look for it | sung in the key of D or C, not of E.]
EXERCISE 11.-DOH, ME, Son. Four-pulse Measure. Key G. Quickly.
ä: 4: m
-Si ş işls :m die m
S :s Take a middle sound of your voice for the key-note. If your | ing the accents carefully. What measure is it in? friend patterns, let it be “in the key of G with one sharp.” | notice that the old notation has no mark for the secondary
[You will Trace the exercise on the modulator. Sing it with spirit, mark- / accents.]
Take a low, but not very low, note for your Don. Tell your them a little in the middle, so as to express the medium accent. Siend to pattern it (if you are still dependent on him) " in F | [The open note without a stem is to be sung twice as long as
one flat.” Learn both “parts." Be careful to hold the that with a stem. There was not room to write the last long
tes of the lower line with evenness of sound, swelling open note of the "second" part on the staff.]
Take a low sound for the key-note. Sing, when you have the dotted open note and the close note, to show that these two traced the tune on the modulator, rapidly and lightly, marking notes should be sung as one. The note is written in this way, delicately the accents. In singing from the book, your eye will instead of being written as a dotted open note without a stem searcely rest on the soft accents. You will only have time to think (which would give the same length), that the accent may be of the " loud" and "medium" marks. (A curve is placed over marked.]
You should take a rather low note for your Dos here. Tell to the other note-in this case Me. When you have carefully Four patterning friend—“the key of F with one flat.” The first traced the first phrase of the tune (five notes) on the modulator, thing you will notice, in looking at this tune, is, that some of then sing it with special attention to this point-letting the the "aliquots” or pulses have two notes in them. The dot notes SoH ME (which are placed in one pulse of the voice) run which follows Son, the second note, always means that the note from your tongue just twice as fast as the others. And so on before it takes half a pulse. It, of course, leaves the other half with the rest. You will notice that both the first and second
parts of the tune are repeated, so that it is not so long as it vowels, in the same word, are thus divided, to show their prolooks. If you find the “ second " part of the tune low for your nunciation :voice, pitch the key-note a little higher. Be careful to point on iai i-ai
ou-i 000 or wee. the modulator from memory. Remember that every tune, thus
na or wa, thoroughly learnt, becomes a power by which others will be ieu i-eu
uei u-ei more easily mastered. You need not attempt the words yet.
ooah or wah. nie u-ie ulee or wee. When you do, let those printed in CAPITALS be sung with
ueu u-eu uuh*. increased force and loudness of voice, and those in italics with in-| 70. Diphthongs of four successive vowels in the same word are creased softness. [The square note is used to indicate the place thus divided for pronunciation:of Don at the beginning of the staff, but it is not to be sung.
ouai ou-ai The place of Doh, being thus once marked, is not afterwards
ou-eu oouh. indicated by a square note as in previous exercises. The pupil
ooay. must learn to keep the place of Don in his mind. The notes
VII.NASAL VOWEL SOUNDS. with a tail to the stem are to be sung half as long as those
71. The sound of am and an, em and en, im and in, is reprewithout the tail.]
sented by the letters anh, and is like the sound of the letters an
in the English words an-chor and can-ker, with an effort to speak LESSONS IN FRENCH.—XIV.
through the nose, as it is termed. But be particular to avoid
the sound of English g in all nasals. SECTION 1.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued). There is strictly speaking, a real difference between the
nasal sounds of an, en, and in, but it is so slight, and so pecuVI. DIPHTHONGS (continued).
liarly delicate, that scarcely any one not a native Frenchman UA.-Name, wah. Sound: this diphthong has the com. can detect and describe it intelligibly. In common reading and bined sound of the French u, together with that of a in the conversation, these nasals above-mentioned have but one sound, English word fat, unless the latter be under a circumflex accent; viz., that which has been assigned them in our previous Lessons. in which last case the a has the sound of a in the English | It is considered correct enough for all practical purposes. word mark.
When extraordinary nicety of pronunciation is demanded, as
is always the case in asing the language of prayer, and in holy FRENCH, PRONUN. ENGLISH | FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. Ecuage Ay-kuazh Scutage (in Guano Gua-no Guano.
and devotional language, the a of the nasals am and an should feudallaw). Huard Var Sea-eagle.
be pronounced broader than the e or i in the nasals em, en, im, Empuan- Anh-puanh. To infect. Nuage Nuazh Cloud.
and in. In the former case, let the a have the sound of ah; in ter tay Puant Puanh Offensive. the latter, the sound of a in the word fat.
The sound of om and on is represented by the letters onk, Sometimes this diphthong has the sound of a in the English and is like the sound of the letters on in the English word conword fat, viz. :
quer, uttered with an effort to speak through the nose, as it is Aiguade Ay-gad A watering-place.
The sound of um and un is represented by the letters un), To an Englishman, at least, the sound of a w is naturally and is like the sound of the letters un in the English word un-cle, suggested in the pronunciation of this diphthong
uttered with an effort to speak through the nose. We might illustrate its sound by the use of a w in the above Concerning these nasals, remember these two general rules, words, viz.:
Rule 1.-Single m's and n's followed by vowels are not Ecuage Ay-kwazh
nasals. Emplanter Anh-poxanh-tay. 1 Nuage
Rule 2. – When the m and n are doubled, the nasality is Gwa-no
destroyed. This last illustration, however, is not strictly correct, because Exceptions to this last Rule will appear in their proper places. it does not preserve the distinct sound of the French u, which We now proceed to illustrate these nasal sounds, commencing sound, especially in combination, many Frenchmen themselves with examples in which the sounds am and an are found. are not careful to preserve. In common conversation, this
AM. diphthong sounds like an English w.
Embassy. two different sounds. In some the sound of ua would be illus. Ambre
Amber. trated by the letters koua or k'wa, but in others by ko, viz. :- Chambre
ENGLISH. ture, or k'wah-dra-ture. But the same word, used as a term of Ancêtres
Ancestors. horology, is pronounced kah-dra-ture.
When. Until the learner has become really familiar with the French Aim, ain, and ein have each the nasal sound of an, repralanguage, the surest way to be correct in the use and pronun sented by anh. The reason will be obvious, if we but dissect ciation of words commencing with qua, will be to consult a these combinations, which we now proceed to do, viz. :dictionary.
In the first, aim, ai is equivalent in sound to a only; hence, UE.--Name, we. Sound: this diphthong occurs most fre- substituting a for ai in the combination aim, we have simply quently as the final letters of French words, after the consonants | am, whose sound has been explained. g and q, in which cases both are silent.
In the second, ain, its sound is represented by anh, for the When final, and before other consonants, they have the usual same reason. sound of the French u.
In the third, ein, ei is equivalent only to a in sound; hence, UI.-Name, we. Sound : this diphthong has the combined substituting a in the place of ei in the combination ein, we have sound of the French u, together with that of French é, which an, whose sound is represented by anh. latter is like the letters ee in the English word bee.
Again, ean and oan have each the nasal sound represented by FRENCH. PROXUN.
the letters anh. ENGLISH., FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. inpui Ap-puior A-pwee Support. Oui
Aen in the proper name Caen have also the sound of ar,
Ooee or Wee Yes. Tronduite Konh-d'weet Tube. Puissance P'wee-sanhs Pource,
represented by the letters anh; hence the word Caen is proiuit Ueet or Weet Fight. Ruine Rueen or Ruin.
nonnced kanh. Luee or L'wee Him.
The following will afford good examples in illustration of the fuit Nuee or N'wee Night.
nasal vowel sounds em and en :69. The ten diphthongal combinations of three successive
• Like the sound of o mute.