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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XII.

reader's notice. In our copy-slips up to the present lesson,

letters commencing with the top-turn have always been begun IN Copy-slip No. 40 the learner will see how the letter o is from the central line that, in all cases when we have found it joined to any letter that follows it, namely, by carrying a hair. necessary to designate it by letters, has been marked c c, but stroke to the right from the point a little above the central line, when they follow the letter o it is manifestly impracticable to in which point the letter is completed, and a junction effected commence them at or on this line, and the connecting hair-stroke between the hair-strokes with which the letter is commenced must be carried to the right and turned with a graceful curvo and ended. The position of this point is shown in Copy-slip into the hair-stroke of the top-turn about midway between cc No. 35 by the letter 2, a little above the line cc, to the right of and the line immediately above it, which we have always marked the letter o. There are different modes of beginning the hair-a a in copy-slips to which small italic letters have been appended stroke by which the letter o is joined to the letter that comes for the sake of explanation. This will be found to be the case after it. Sometimes a dot like a period or full-stop is made whenever letters beginning with the top-turn are joined to letters at that part of the right side of the letter from which the such as b, f, o, r, s, w, and v, which do not end in a bottomhair-stroke turns off towards the next letter; sometimes the turn or top-and-bottom-turn, or anything resembling in forma. pen is turned round to form a small curved line, open in tion the lower portions of these turns. the centre, like the line which is called the circumference of The learner may now begin to test his recollection of the a circle, or resembling in general appearance the outline of a forms of the letters he has hitherto been copying from our comma placed thus, e; while in some cases the hair-line is copy-slips, by selecting words from the POPULAR EDUCATOR, carried on from the letter o without any dot or curved line into whose composition those letters only enter with which he whatever.

has already been made acquainted. There are some that he The hair-stroke that is used to connect the letter O with any may select even from the lesson that is now before him, such as letter that follows it, influences in some measure the commence top, not, that, dot, and, etc.; although they are not many ment of the formation of letters that begin with the top-turn in number, they are amply sufficient to test his skill in copying cr top-and-bottom-turn, such as m and n, and some other words in type, without having the writing alphabet before letters as V and y, which have not yet been brought under the his eyes.

Jump.

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XII.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Avez-vous besoin d'argent ?
SECTION I.--FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued).

Do you want money?
J'ai besoin d'argent.

I want money.
V.--COMPOUND VOWELS.

Je n'en ai pas besoin. (R. 3.) I do not want any.
En avez-vous besoin ?

Do you want any ? 67. THERE are seven compound vowels, whose different sounds we

J'en ai besoin, et mon frère en a I want some, and my brother wants now proceed to illustrate, viz. :-ai, au, eau, ei, eu, oi, ou.

besoin aussi,

some too. AI.-Name, ay; sound, like the letters ay in the English

Avez-vous besoin de votre frère. Do you want your brother. word day.

J'ai besoin de lui.

I want him.
FRENCH, PRONUN. ENGLISH, FRENCH. PRoxUX, ENGLISH. De quoi avez-vous besoin ?

What do you want ?
Ai
Ay
Have.
Connais Ko-nay Know,

J'ai besoin d'un dictionnaire. I want a dictionary.
Aimer
Ay-may

To love. Dirai De-ray Shall say. Avez-vous soin de votre livre ? Do you take care of your book? Aurait O-ray Would have. | Fait Fay Fact.

J'en ai soin.

I take care of it.

Avez-vous soin de votre père ? Do you take care of your father ? When the last letter i of the compound vowel ai is under the

J'ai soin de lui

I take care of him. circumflex accent, thus, al, the character of its sound is not Votre frère est-il fâché contre moi? Is your brother angry with me? materially changed from that illustrated above; it is merely Il est fâché contre votre sæur. He is angry with your sister, prolonged.

Avez-vous peur de ce chien ? Are you afraid of this dog ? AU.-Name, o; sound, like the letter o in the English J'en ai peur.

I am afraid of him. word no.

De qui avez-vous honte ?

Of whom are you ashamed ? Je n'ai honte de personne.

I am ashamed of nobody. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. | FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH.

H: Avez-vous besoin de quelque chose? Do you want anything?
Auprès O-prui Near,

Gauche Goshe
Left hand. Je n'ai besoin de rien.

I want nothing.
Aussi 0-see Also. Pauvre Povr' (long o). Poer.
Faute Fote Fault. Rauque Roke

Hoarse.

VOCABULARY. Fraude Frode Fraud, Saut So

Besoin, m., want, need. Faché, -e, sorry, angry. Lire, to read. EAU.–Name, 0; sound, like the letter o in the English

Conduite, f., conduct. Fatigué, -e, teary, Parler, to speak. word no.

Domestique,m.,servant. tired.

Reposer, to rest, FRENCH. PRONUX, ENGLISH FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. Effets, m. pl., things, Garçon, boy.

Soin, m., care. Bateau Ba-to Boat. Gateau Gah-to Cake.

clothes,

| Jeune homme, young Travailler, to work. Chapeau Shap-po Hat. Nouveau Noo-vo New. Etonné, -e, astonished. I man.

Vieux, old.
Beau
Во

Fine. Organeau Or-gan-no Iron ring.
Cadeau Kad do Gift.
Troupeau Troo-po Herd.

EXERCISE 37.
Eau
Wator.

1. Qui a besoin de pain? 2. Personne n'en a besoin. 3. EI.-Name, ay; sound, like the letters ay in the English N'avez-vous pas besoin de votre domestique ? 4. Oui, Monsieur, word day.

j'ai besoin de lui.* 5. Votre jardinier a-t-il soin de votre jardin? FRENCH. PRONUN, ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH.

6. Oui, Madame, il en a soin. 7. A-t-il bien soin de son vieux Cheik Shayk Sheik.

Reine
Rayn
Queen.

père ? 8. Oui, Monsieur, il a bien soin de lui. 9. Votre garçon Eider Ay-dair Eider duck. Seine Sayn Draj-net. a-t-il honte de sa conduite? 10. Oui, Monsieur, il en a honte. Meistre Maystr Mainmast. Sereine S'rayn Placid.

11. Avez-vous peur de ce cheval-ci ou de celui-là ? 12. Je n'ai Neige Nayzh Snow. Treize Trayz Thirteen.

peur ni de celui-ci ni de celui-là. 13. Notre domestique a-t-il Peine Payn Pain. ! Veine Vaya Vein of marble. soin de vos effets 14. n en a bien soin. 15. Avez-vous peur

When e and i stand together, and the e is accented thus, éi, de parler ou de lire ? 16. Je n'ai peur ni de parler ni de lire. they are no longer a compound vowel, but each letter has its 17. Etes-vous étonné de cette affaire ? 18. Je n'en suis pas own distinct vowel sound.

étonné. 19. En êtes-vous fåché ? 20. Oui, Monsieur, j'en suis

bien fåché. 21. Avez-vous besoin de ce garçon ? 22. Oui, SECTION XXI.-IDIOMS FOLLOWED BY THE PREPOSITION

Madame, j'ai besoin de lui. 23. N'avez-vous pas besoin de son DE.

livre ? 24. Je n'en ai pas besoin. 25. Avez-vous envie de 1. The expressions avoir besoin, to want; avoir soin, to take

de travailler on de lire ? 26. Je n'ai envie ni de travailler ni de care; avoir honte, to be ashamed; avoir peur, to be afraid, require also the preposition de before a noun. These idioms

| lire, j'ai envie de me reposer, car je suis fatigué. mean literally to have need, to have care, etc. :

EXERCISE 38.
Avez-vous besoin de votre frère ? Do you want your brother ?
I take care of my things.

| J'ai soin de mes effets,

1. Do you want your servant ? 2. Yes, Sir, I want him. 3. Il a honte de sa conduite, He is ashamed of his conduct.

Does your brother-in-law want you ? 4. He wants me and my Elle a peur du chien, She is afraid of the dog.

brother. 5. Does he not want money? 6. He does not want 2. As these expressions require the preposition de before their

money, he has enough. 7. Is your brother sorry for his conduct?

8. He is very sorry for his conduct, and very angry with you. object, they will, of course, require the same preposition before

9. Does he take good (bien) care of his books ? 10. He takes the pronoun representing that object :

good care of them. 11. How many volumes has he? 12. He J'ai besoin de vous, I want you.

has more than you, he has more than twenty. 13. What does J'ai soin de lui, I take care of him.

the young man want? 14. He wants his clothes. 15. Do you De qui avez-vous besoin ? Whom do you want ?

want to rest (vous reposer)? 16. Is not your brother astonished De quoi a-t-elle besoin ? What does she want?

at this? 17. He is astonished at it. 18. Have you a wish to 3. When the object is not a person, and has been mentioned read your brother's books ? 19. I have a wish to read them, before, the pronoun en takes the place of the preposition de, and but I have no time. 20. Have you time to work? 21. I have that of the pronoun representing the object :

time to work, but I have no time to read. 22. Does the younger Avez-vous besoin de votre cheval? Do you want your horse ?

brother take care of his things ? 23. He takes good care of J'en ai besoin, I want it.

them. 24. Is that little boy afraid of the dog? 25. He is not 4. The expressions Atra fiche to be sor . Atre ftonná to be afraid of the dog, he is afraid of the horse. 26. Do you want astonished; être content, to be satisfied, require the preposition

bread ? 27. I do not want any. 28. Are you pleased with de before a noun or pronoun ($ 88]:

your brother's conduct? 29. I am pleased with it. 30. Has Je suis fâché de son malheur, I am sorry for his misfortune.

your brother a wish to read my book ? 31. He has no desire to Je suis étonné de sa conduite. I am astonished at his conduct.

read your book, he is weary. 32. Is that young man angry Je suis content de lui, I am pleased with him.

with you or with his friends ? 33. He is angry neither with me 5. Être fâché, in the sense of to be angry, requires the pre

nor with his friends. 34. Do you want my dictionary? 35. I

want your dictionary and your brother's. position contre :Vous êtes faché contre moi, You are angry with me.

* The word en should be avoided as much as possible in relation to 6. For rules on the government of adjectives, see § 87, and persons. following sections.

† Repeat the preposition de.

SECTION XXII.-STEMS AND TERMINATIONS OF THE N'aimez-vous pas les enfans atten. Do you not like attentive children?
REGULAR VERBS.-PRESENT INDICATIVE.

tifs ?
Je les aime beaucoup.

I like them much. 1. If the ending or distinguishing characteristic of the conju.

Ne recevez-vous pas beaucoup de Do you not receive many letters? gation of a verb, in the present of the infinitive, be removed, the

lettres ? part remaining will be the stem of the verb:

Nous en recevons beaucoup.

We receive many lettors. Chanter Fin-ir Recevoir Rend-re. Vendez-vous beaucoup de marchan- 'Do you sell many goods ? 2. To that stem are added, in the different simple tenses of a

dises ?
Nous en vendons beaucoup.

We sell many. regular verb, the terminations proper to the conjugation to

Votre frère aime le bouf et le Your brother likes beef and mutton. which it belongs ($ 60).

mouton, 3. PARTICIPLE PRESENT.

VOCABULARY. Chant-ant Fin-issant Rec-evant Rend-ant.

OBS.-We shall hereafter put a hyphen between the stem and the termina. Singing Finishing Receiving Rondering.

tion of the verbs placed in the vocabularies. The number indicates the 4. PARTICIPLE PAST.

conjugation. Chant-é Fin-i

Rec-11
Rend-u.

Aim-er, i, to love, to Donn-er, 1, to give. Non seulement, not
Finished
Singing

Received
Rendered,
like, to be fond of. Fin-ir, 2, to finish.

only.
Autre, other.

Fourn-ir, 2, to furnish. Lecture, f., reading. 5. TERMINATION OF THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE.

Assez, enough.

Gard-er, 1, to keep. Paille, f., straw.
SINGULAR,
Chapeau, m., hat, Guère, but little.

Perd-re, 4, to lose. 1. Je chant -e fin is reçois rend -8.

Chér-ir, 2, to cherish. Habits, m. pl., clothes, Porter, 1, to carry,
sing
finish
receive

render.
Cherch-er, 1, to seek, to garments.

wear. 2 Ta parl .es chér .is aperç -ois vend -S.

look for,
Mais, but

Recevoir, 3, to receive.
speakest
cherishest perceivest

sellest,

Compagnon, m., com. Maison, f., house. Souvent, often. doan fourn -it perç -oit tend -s. panion.

Marchand, m., mer. Toujours, always.
gives
furnishes
gathers

tends.
Dame, f., lady.

chant. [goods. Travail, m., labour.

De bonne heure, early. Marchandises, f. pl., Trouv-er, 1, to find. PLURAL.

De-voir, 3, to oue. Neveu, m., nepher. Vend-re, 4, to soll. 1 Xous cherch-ons pun issons conc -evons entend-ons, seek

EXERCISE 39.
punish
conceive

hear. 2. Vous port -ez sais -issez d evez perdez. 1. Votre mère aime-t-elle la lecture? (Sect. XXII. 11.) 2. carry seizo ove lose.

Oui, Mademoiselle, elle l'aime beaucoup plus que sa sœur. 3. aimn -ent un issent déc-oivent word er

Quel chapeau votre neveu porte-t-il ? 4. Il porte un chapeau lore, like unite deceive bite.

de soie, et je porte un chapeau de paille. 5. Cette dame aime-t6. The present of the indicative has but one form in French, elle ses enfants ? 6. Oui, Monsieur, elle les chérit. 7. Fourtherefore je chante may be rendered in English by I sing, I do nissez-vous des marchandises à ces marchands ? 8. Je fournis sing, or I am singing.

des marchandises à ces marchands, et ils me donnent de l'argent. 7. The plural of the present of the indicative may be formed 9. Vos compagnons aiment-ils les beaux habits ? (Sect. XXII. from the participle present by changing ant into ons, ez, en. 11.) 10. Nos compagnons aiment les beaux habits et les bons Ex: Chantant, nous chantons; finissant, nous finissons ; rece. | livres. 11. Cherchez-vous mon frère ? 12. Oui, Monsieur, je Fant, nous recevons; rendant, nous rendons.

| le cherche, mais je ne le trouve pas. 13. Votre frère perd-il son 8. This role holds good not only in all the regular, but in temps. 14. Il perd son temps et son argent. 15. Perdons-nous almost all the irregular verbs.

toujours notre temps ? 16. Nous le perdons très souvent. 17. 9. Verbs may be conjugated interrogatively in French (except | Devez-vous beaucoup d'argent ? 18. J'en dois assez, mais je in the first person singular of the present of the indicative) ($ 98 n'en dois pas beaucoup. 19. Vendez-vous vos deux maisons à (4) (5)], by placing the prononn after the verb in all the simple notre médecin ? 20. Je n'en vends qu'une, je garde l'autre seases, and between the auxiliary and the participle in the com- pour ma belle-seur. 21. Recevez-vous de l'argent aujourd'hui ? pound tenses.

22. Nous n'en recevons guère. 23. Votre menuisier finit-il son Chantez-vous bien ? Do you sing well ?

travail de bonne heure ? 24. Il le finit tard. 25. A quelle Arez-vous bien chanté ? Have you sung well ?

heure le finit-il ? 26. Il le finit à midi et demi. 27. Nous Y'avez-vous pas bien chanté ? Have you not sung well ?

finissons le nôtre à dix heures moins vingt minutes. Sect. V. 2.)

EXERCISE 40.
Ne chantez-vous pas bien ?

Do you not sing well.
Votre père parle-t-il bien ? (Sect. Does your fathor speak well ?

1. Does your companion like reading ? 2. My companion II. 6, Sect. IV. 4.

does not like reading. 3. Does your father like good books? 10. The verb porter means to carry. It means also to wear,

(Sect. XXII. 11.) 4. He likes good books and good clothes. *

5. Do you owe more than twenty dollars ? 6. I only owe ten, in speaking of garments. Apporter means to bring, and emporter

but my brother owes more than fifteen. 7. Are you wrong to to carry away; aimer means to love, to like, to be fond of, and takes the preposition à before another verb.

finish your work early? 8. I am right to finish mine early, and

you are wrong not to (de ne pas) finish yours. 9. Do you Quel habit portez-vous ? What coat do you wear ?

receive much money to-day? 10. I receive but little. 11. Do Je porte un habit de drap noir. I wear a coat of black cloth.

we give our best books to that little child ? 12. We do not Votre frère qu'apporte-t-il ? (Sect. What does your brother bring ?

give them, we keep them because (parceque) we want them. II. 6.) Il apporte de l'argent à son ami. He brings money to his friend.

13. Do you sell your two horses ? 14. We do not sell our two

horses, we keep one of them. 15. Do you finish your work this 11. A noun used in a general sense ($ 77 (1)] takes the article morning (matin)? 16. Yes, Sir, I finish it this morning early. le, la, l', or les.

17. Does your brother-in-law like fine clothes ? 18. Yes, Madam, Aimez-vous le boeuf ou le mouton? Do you like beef or mutton ?

he likes fine clothes. 19. Do you seek my nephew ? 20. Yes, Je n'aime ni le bouf ni le mouton. I like neither beef nor mutton. Sir, we seek him. 21. Does he lose his time ? 22. He loses

not only his time, but he loses his money. 23. How much RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

money has he lost to-day ? 24. He has lost more than ten Chantez-vous une chanson ita- Do you sing an Italian song ? dollars. 25. Does your joiner finish your house ? 26. He lienne ?

finishes my house and my brother's. 27. Do you sel good Noas chantons des chantons alle. We sing Gorman songs.

hats ? 28. We sell silk hats, and silk hats are good. (Sect. inandes. Portez-vous ce livre à l'homme ?

XXII. 11.) 29. How old is your companion ?
Do you carry this book to the man ?

30. He is twelve Non, je le porte à mon frère. No, I carry it to my brother.

years old, and his sister is fifteen. 31. Does your brother Emportez-vous tout votre argent? Do you carry aray all your money ?

like meat ? 32. He likes meat and bread. 33. Do you receive J'en emporto seulement une partie. I carry away only a part of it.

your goods at two o'clock ? 34. We receive them at half after I missez-vous votre leçon aujour. Do you finish your lesson to-day? twelve. 35. We receive them ten minutes before one.

dhai? Kous la finjagons ce matin, We finish it this morning.

* Repeat the article.

LESSONS IN BOTANY.–VI.

i Botanists denominate an enlarged and flattened petiole of

o this kind by the term phyllodium, a word derived from the Greek SECTION IX.-ORGANS WHICH LOOK LIKE LEAVES, BUT

qualov (pronounced ful-lon), a leaf, and eidos (i-dos), form, and WHICH ARE NOT LEAVES.

which therefore means having the form or semblance of a leaf. We already discovered, at a very early period in our investiga- One example more of a portion of a plant resembling a leaf, tions, that Nature plays some strange tricks in the construction but which is not a leaf, and we have done. It might have been of plants, causing one thing to look like another, as though for mentioned whilst we were treating of the cactus, to the condition the express purpose of deceiving us. We discovered that of which the phenomenon about to be mentioned is similar. neither pine-apples, nor strawberries, nor figs, were fruit. We Perhaps the student has occasionally seen growing in the hedges shall now discover that certain things which appear like leaves the shrub called the butcher's-broom, ruscus aculeatus. Like are not leaves.

| the cactus, this plant seems to present the curious appearance What would the reader think as regards many of the cactus of flowers springing from the surface of a leaf. Flowers, howtribe? Would he not think these curious plants were all leaves? ever, never grow in that position. The part resembling a leaf

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52. STIPULATE LEAF-LEAF OF PANSY. 53. LEAVES OF THE BUTCHER'S BROOM. 54. LEAVES OF THE AUSTRALIAN ACACIA. 55. LATHYRUS

APHACA, 56. VINE TENDRIL. 57. THE PITCHER PLANT.

The fact is, they are totally without leaves, the leaf-like portions is no leaf at all, but only a flattened stem. The accompanying being merely flattened stems. What would he think, again, of diagram (Fig. 53) represents a sprig of butcher's-broom, in those two little leaf-like expansions recognisable in the pansy, of which this peculiar conformation is very evident. which we give a drawing (Fig. 52)? These are not leaves, but | SECTION X.-METAMORPHOSES OR CHANGES TO WHICH certain leaf-like appendages which botanists denominate stipules.

LEAVES ARE SUBJECT. Hence the real leaf of the pansy is said to be stipulate or stipu. Just as certain parts of vegetables not leaves may assume the lated; and the reason why we did not represent the pansy leaf general appearance of leaves, so, on the other hand, leaves occaamongst the other leaves a short time back was, because the sionally lose their own specific appearance, and look like things term stipulate had not been explained. The word stipule is they are not. derived from the Latin stipula, the husk round straw, because For example, who at first glance would think that the prickles the stipules stand out from the stem of the real leaf in much on common furze were leaves ? Nevertheless, they are; the the same manner as the leaves of wheat or barley spring from ordinary flat leaf-like appearance being lost. ' the stalk at intervals in pairs.

Again, many of those tendrils which shoot from slender plants, Occasionally the petiole, or leaf-stalk, itself becomes expanded enabling them to lay hold of neighbouring objects and derive into a leaf-like form, and the real leaves are stunted. This support, are nothing more than modified leaves. This is the peculiarity characterises many of the acacias which grow in case with the plant lathyrus aphaca, a representation of whic Australia. The appended diagram (Fig. 54) will render the we give above (Fig. 55). peculiar condition more evidont.

The student is not, however, to imagine that all tendrils are

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