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Avez-vous des écoliers attentifs? Have you attentive scholars ?

Mes écoliers et mes écolières sont My scholars (male and female) are 11 4114 AND SOUND OF THE VOWELS.

très attentifs et très-studieux. very attentive and rery studious, 1.1. Namne, CD, ee; sound, like the letters ee in the Ces demoiselles sont-elles studi- Are those young ladies studious!

euses? Insowel receives but one kind of accent, and that is the Elles ne sont pas très-studieuses. They are not very studious.

Ces règles sont-elles générales ? Are those rules general ? n ullux, viz. :-1,1; though it is comparatively seldom found |

Ces principes sont généraux. Those principles are general. Tin nocented. This vowel has two sounds, viz., long and short;

Leurs habillements sont superbes. Their clothes are superb. long, as ee in the English word see, and short, like i in the

Avez-vous peur de ces chevaux Are you afraid of those restice Taglish word pin, or nearly like it. It becomes nasal in com

rétifs ?

horses ? bination with the letters m and nu, in which case the character Vos montres d'or sont excellentes. Your gold watches are e.ecellent. of its own sound is completely changed, which is indeed truo of I.es miennes sont-elles meilleures Are mine better than yours ? all the vowels.

que les vôtres ? In these Lessons, the vowel I, i, will be represented by the Les vôtres sont meilleures que les Yours are better than mine.

two letters ee, when long or under the circumflex accent, and by
e when it has the short sound.


Agréable, agreeable. | Mauvais, -e, bad. Souvent, often,

Ainé, -e, elder, Mule, f., mule.

Travail, m., labour.
Liquide Lee-keed Liquid. Allemande, f., German. Oisif, -ve, idle.

Très, very.
To say.
Lire Leer
To read. Jamais, novor.

Pantoufles, f., slippers. Utile, useful.


Indulgent, -e, indulgent Personne, m., nobody. | Velours, m., velvet.
Mille Meel Thousand.

Laine, f., wool; woollon. Rétif, -ve, restive. Vif, -ve, quick, lively.
Ee-ris Iris.


Who. Maroquin, m., morocco.
Lime Leem
Rite Reet (trill Rito.

the r)
42. Î, i, CIRCUMFLEX.–Name, EE, ee; sound, like the letters

1. Les chevaux de notre ami sont-ils rétifs ? 2. Ses chevaux ce in the English word sce; sound prolonged.

ne sont pas rétifs, mais ses mules sont très-rétives. 3. Les

chevaux et les mules de votre frère sont excellents. 4. Vos EXAMPLES.

spurs sont-elles très-vives? 5. Mes frères et mes scurs sont FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRONUN, ENGLISH. très-rifs. 6. Sont-ils souvent oisifs ? 7. Non, Monsieur, mes Abime Ab-eem Abyss. Epitre Ay-peetr Epistle.

seurs ne sont jamais oisives. 8. Avez-vous peur de votre Assit Ass.ee Might assist. Finit Fe-nee Might finish.

frère ? 9. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai peur de personne. 10. Ne Battît Bat-tee Might beat, Gite Zheet Lodging-place.

sommes-nous pas indulgents ? 11. Vous êtes indulgents, et Dime Deein


Diner Dee-nay To dine.

13. Vous ne les avez
vous avez raison. 12. Ai-je vos livres ?

Might place.

pas, vous avez ceux de mon frère aîné. 14. Ne les avez-vous SECTION XII.-AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES,-PLURAL OF pas ? 15. Je ne les ai pas. 16. Avez-vous une bonne paire de ADJECTIVES.

bas de laine ? 17. J'ai une belle paire de bas de soie. 18. 1. An adjective qualifying a plural noun, or two or more | Avez-vous les bonnes maisons ou les mauvaises ? 19. Je n'ai singular nouns of the same gender, assumes the gender of the ni les bonnes ni les manvaises, j'ai celles de ma cousine. 20. noun or nouns, and is put in the plural.

Le travail est-il agréable ? 21. Le travail est utile et agréable. Les arbres et les fruits sont beaux, The trees and fruits are fine.

22. Avez-vous mes beaux souliers de maroquin ? 23. Je n'ai Les fleurs et les plantes sont belles, The flowers and plants are fine, pas vos beaux souliers de maroquin, j'ai vos belles pantoufles Vos jardins sont très-beaux,

Your gardens are very fine. de velours. 2. An adjective qualifying two or more nouns of different

EXERCISE 22. genders is put in the plural masculine ($ 18).

1. Are your brothers and sisters very (bien) quick? 2. My Mon frère et ma sur sont contents, My brother and sister are pleased. Le canif et la plume sont bons,

3. Have you The penknife and pon are good.

brothers are quick, but my sisters are not quick. 3. The plural of the feminine of adjectives is invariably formed

not two restive horses? 4. No, but I have a restive mule. 5.

Have you not two good pairs of silk gloves ? 6. I have a good by tho addition of an s.

pair of cotton gloves, and two pairs of silk gloves. 7. Are you Vous avez de jolies maisons,

You have pretty houses.

not afraid of your friends ? 8. No, Sir, I am never afraid of Ces demoiselles sont attentives, Those young ladies are attentive.

my friends. 9. I am afraid of nobody. 10. Are you right or 4. The plural of the masculine of adjectives is generally formed wrong? 11. I am right. 12. Have you my beautiful leather by the addition of an s.

slippers, or my old satin slippers ? 13. I have your old leather Ces écoliers sont attentifs, Those scholars are attentive. shoes and your velvet slippers. 14. Are those ladies pleased : Ves bois sont magnifiques, Your woods are magnificent.

15. Those ladies are pleased, and they are right. 16. Has the 5. The terminations s and « are not changed for the plural German lady your father's shoes or mine ? 17. She has neither masculine.

his nor yours, she has my sister's. 18. Has your elder brother Nos fruits sont mauvais, Our fruits aro bad.

good houses or bad? 19. His houses are better than yours and Vos oiseaux sont hideux, Your birds are hideous.

than mine.* 20. Are his houses old ? 21. His houses are old, 6. To the termination eau, x is added for the plural masculine. but they are good. 22. Have you them? 23. No, Sir, I have Vos champs sont trds-beaux, Your fields are very fine.

them not, I have no houses. 24. Have you my brother's or my 7. The termination al is generally changud into aux for the

sister's ? 25. Your sister has hers and my mother's. 26. Are plural masculino ($ 17 (3)].

your scholars attentive ? 27. My scholars are very attentive Les homms sout égaux, Men are equal.

and very studious. 28. Are those German ladies studious ? 8. For more explicit rules, and for exceptions, see § 17,

29. They are very studious and very attentive. 30. Are you Part II.


Negatively and Interrogatively.

Je ne suis pas, I am not. Ne suis-je pas? Am I not; 1. The adjective in French follows the noun much more
Tu n'es pas,

Thou art sot. N'es-tu pas ? Art thou not ? | frequently tłaz it precedes it (S 85 (1)]. Il n'est pas,

N'est-il pas?

Is he not?

N'est-elle pas ?
Elle n'est pas,

Is sho not?
Vous avez des amis fidèles,

You have faithful friends,
Ne sommes-nous Are we not?

Ma seur a des livres instructifs,
Nons na som

My sister has instructive boobs, Vous n'te

pas? Ils sont

'êtes-vous pas ? Are you not ? Que meaning which, and que conjunction, are never understood in Ello no

e sont-ils pas? m., Are they not? French, they must be rereated before every noun, pronoun, and verb Je sont-elles pas? f., Are thoy not? I ($ 17, R. 1).


2. Those adjectives which generally precede the nouns have ami a-t-il des parents ? 17. Oui, Monsieur, il en a. 18. Ce been mentioned (Sect. VI. 5], and will be found [$ 85 (11)]. | Monsieur a-t-il une bonne plume d'acier ou une belle plume d'or? Nous avons de belles maisons, We have beautiful houses.

19. Il en a une d'acier et nous en avons une d'or. 20. Le Votre jolie petite fille est studieuse, Your pretty little girl is studious. général n'a-t-il pas de bons soldats ? 21. Il en a de très braves. 3. The adjectives which are placed after nouns are :-1st.

22. Les Américains n'ont-ils pas de bonne terre ? 23. Ils en All participles, present and past, used as adjectives.

ont d'excellente. 24. Le marchand a-t-il des couteaux anglais

| ou français ? 25. Les couteaux du marchand ne sont ni anglais Nons avons une histoire intéres. We have an interesting history.

ni français, ils sont belges. sabte, Vous avez des enfants polis, You have polite children.

EXERCISE 24. 4. 2nd. All such as express form, colour, taste; such as relate 1. Has your brother Arabian horses ? 2. Yes, Sir, he has to bearing and touching ; such as denote the matter of which an some. 3. Has he handsome ones? 4. Yes, Sir, he has handobject is composed ; as also such as refer to nationality, or to some ones. 5. Are the good Americans wrong? 6. No, Miss, any defects of the body ($ 85 (4) (5) (6) (7)].

they are not wrong, they are right. 7. Have you a French Nos parents ont des chapeaux noirs, Our relations have black hats. shawl? 8. Yes, Sir, I have one, I have a handsome French Vous avez des pommes douces, You have sweet apple

shawl. 9. Has your innkeeper your silver knife or mine? 10. Voilà de la cire molle, There is soft wax.

He has neither yours nor mine, he has his sister's handsome Cette dane espagnole a un enfant That Spanish lady has a lame child. steel knifc. 11. Has the Belgian a good guitar? 12. He has boiteux,

an excellent French guitar. 13. He has an excellent one. 14. 5. 3rd. Almost all adjectives ending in al, able, ible, ique, Has the gentleman amusing books ? 15. Yes, Sir, he has two. and if.

16. Has the general French or Arabian horses ? 17. He has Ces hommes libéraux sont aimés, Those liberal men are loved.

neither French nor Arabian horses, he has English horses. 18. Voilà un esprit raisonnable, That is a reasonable mind.

Who has Arabian horses? 19. The Arabian has some. 20. Voilà un esclave fugitif, That is a fugitive slave.

Has the Englishman any? 21. The Englishman has some. 6. Some adjectives have a different meaning, according to 22. Has your friend's sister a good steel pen? 23. My friend's their position before or after the noun (S 86].

sister has one, but my relations have none. 24. Are you not Un brave homme, a worthy man. I Un homme brave, a brave man. wrong, Sir ? 25. Yes, Madam, I am wrong. 26. Are those 7. En is used for the English words some or any, expressed or

knives English ? 27. No, Sir, they are Belgian. 28. Have

you relations ? 29. I have two, and they are here (ici). 30. understood, but not followed by a noun ; en has also the sense of it, of them, thereof, generally understood in English sentences,

Has the English butcher meat ? 31. Yes, Sir, he has much.

32. Has he much money ? 33. He has but little. 34. Has the particularly in answers to questions ($ 39 (17), S 104, § 110 (2)

Belgian general brave soldiers ? 35. Yes, Sir, he has good

Avez-vous des sonliers de cuir ? Have you leather shoes ?
Jen ai,

I have some, I have (of them).
Votre fils en a-t-il ?
Has your son any?

HISTORIC SKETCHES.—III. 8. An adjective used substantively, and having a partitive

SIR RICHARD GRENVILLE, WHEN HE CRIED “NO SURRENDER !” signification (in & sentence containing the pronoun en), must be preceded by the preposition de in the same manner as if the noun

DURING the time Queen Elizabeth was on the throne of were expressed (see Sect. VI. 4].

England (1558 to 1603), there was a public feeling of a kind Avez-vous de boutes plumes? Hapk you good pens?

and intensity unequalled by any that has existed either before Non, mais j'en ai de tsuvaises, No, but I have bad ones.

or since. It was a feeling in which political and religious RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

hatred were closely combined, and which was fanned from a

spark to a flame by repeated provocations. There are those yet Avez-vous de beaux jardins? Have you fine gardens ?

| living who can freshly remember the rancorous animosity which Oui, j'en ai de beaux, (R. 7.) Yes, I havc fine ones. Votre frère n'a-t-il pas des souliers Has not your brother Llack shoes?

existed in this country towards the French, when the great Doirs ?

French war was at its height. That animosity, bitter as it Il n'en a pas, mais ma bour en a. He has none, but my sister has some. was, and tersely expressed in the summary of advice which Ya-t-elle pas aussi une robe Has she not also a white dress ? Nelson is said to have given his midshipmen—"Fear God; blanche ?

honour the king; and hate a Frenchman as you do the devil ” Oui, elle en a une. Yes, she luas one.

-was not, if we may judge from the circumstances attending Non, elle n'en a pas, No, she has none.

it, so bitter, or so uncompromising as the hatred Elizabeth's Qui en a une ? Who has one ?

Englishmen had for the Spaniard and the Pope.
Qui n'en a pas ?
Who has none ?

In that day, the kingdom of Spain, which now has sunk so Le boucher n'a-t-il pas do la viande Has not the butcher fresh meat ?"

low, was only being weighed in the balance. She had been fraiche ? Il en i, il n'en a pas. He has some, he has none.

found wanting in many things which, as the event proved, Il en a beaucoup. He has much (of it).

were necessary to her life as a nation; but she had not been Il n'en a guère. He has but little (of it).

found wanting in strength. Her power was enormous, and the Il en a deux livres. He has tro pounds (of it).

ambition of her princes aimed at universal dominion. Spain, VOCABULARY.

the Netherlands, Naples, and Sicily were her European posses. Amusant, -e, amusing. Bijou, m., jewel. Laine, f., wool.

sions, and in Germany her influence was all-powerful. In the Américain, -e, American Blanc, -he, white. Mademoiselle, f., Miss. East Indies the sovereignty of the King of Spain was acknowAnglais, -e, English. Brave, brave, worthy. Monsieur, m., Sir, Mr., ledged in many a place, while the whole of the Western Arabe, Arabian, Chále, m., sharcl.


hemisphere was under his sway. By succession, by marriage, Aubergiste, m., inn. Couteau, m., knife. Parent, m., relation. by purchase, or by conquest, the territory of the Spanish king keeper. Français, -e, French. Soldat, m., soldier,

was so great that it was well said the sun never set in his Beaucoup, much, many. Guère, little, but little. Terre, f., land,

dominions. The wealth of the mines of Mexico and Peru was Belge, Belgien, Guitare, f., guitar.

his; the most splendid troops that Europe could produce did E EXERCISE 23.

his bidding; diplomatists the most subtle and the most accom1. Avez-vous une bonne guitare ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai une plished were his servants, and among his naval and military guitare excellente. 3. Avez-vous de bons habits ? 4. Oui commanders were men of names the most renowned and Madame, j'ai de bons habits noirs et de belles robes blanches. illustrious. No other power in Europe, whether allied or single5. Votre mère n'a-t-elle pas une châle de soie ? 6. Oui, Made-handed, was willing to measure itself with Spain; the odds moiselle, elle en a un de soie et un de laine. 7. L'aubergiste were so great, the issues so momentous, that lesser nations a-t-il de bons chevaux anglais ? 8. L'aubergiste a des chevaux | preferred to put up almost with anything rather than bring anglais, français, et araber. 9. Il en a de superbes. 10. L'ami down upon their people the wrath of the cruel and haughty de votre frère a-t-il des bijoux d'or? 11. Oui, Monsieur, il en a. Spaniards. It was only when desperation made men blind to 12. A-t-il ausai des bijoux d'argent. 13. Il en a aussi. 14. En the consequences that resistance was offered to the dominant a-t-il beancoup: 15. Non, Monsieur, il n'en a guére. 16. Votre ard domineering power-and then, as in the Netherlards, where

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the people were goaded into insurrection, the fight was long over. Protestants and freedom-loving Catholics learned in the and bloody, and the victory dearly won.

| Low Countries, from the Duke of Alva, Requesens, and other The strength of Spain was tremendous, crushing ; but there Spanish rulers, how that the tender mercies of the cruel are was a canker in it, which, eating through, eventually proved cruel also. In the newly-discovered regions of America, which fatal to the life of the tall tree. The King of Spain, Philip II., the enterprise of Columbus had opened to Spain, the religious arbiter as he was of the fate of millions, mighty and feared as system of the Spaniards was so unlike the religion of Him he was, was the abject slave of another power. The priests of the whom "the common people heard gladly," that Roman Church were his masters, the Pope of Rome was his lord,

“the poor Indian, whose untutord mind and the mind of the man was in perfect subjection to the rule

Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind," of his spiritual guides. So the interests, or supposed interests fled in horror from it, preferring death to conversion. Champ.


BIR FRANCIS DRAKE. of the Roman Cathollo Church boonmo identified with those of lain, tho navigator, after whom the American lake of that the path rown Wherever tho Spaniard onmo, there camo name is called, and who visited the West Indies in 1599-1602, the pict, w o wo together vopronontod pure despotinın in thus wrote of the Spanish priests and the Indians :-“At the thio State Church system which wat onrried out throngh commencement of his conquests, he (the King of Spain) had the medium of the TrinitionCountries in whloh the Roman ostablished the Inquisition among them, and made slaves of, China w

dagply rooted Vlowed the approach of the or caused them to dio cruelly in such great numbers, that the

lony and dinile, though they | molo rocital would cause pity. This evil treatment was the of inawy w the hands Tue in ronson that the poor Indians, for very apprehension, fled to oh was not the faith of the | the mountains in desporation, and as many Spaniards as they

caught they eat them; and on that account the said Spaniards Www polimon the coming of the were constrained to take away the Inquisition, and allow them Www We Arched and wrtevod personal liberty, granting them a more mild and tolerable rule

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of life, to bring them to the knowledge of God and the belief of could be nothing but perpetual war between the nations, and a the holy Church ; for if they had continued still to chastise fresh declaration of an old fact would have beon useless as well them according to the rigour of the said Inquisition, they as tiresome. So whenever a Spanish treasure feet was coming Fould have caused them all to die by fire."

| home, or a Spanish squadron of merchantmen was known to bo Such then were the causes of the deep hatred already spoken on the seas, the English royal vessels slipped out of port, and of as existing among Englishmen during the reign of Elizabeth. smote the Philistines wherever they found them. The Spanish political power and the Spanish ecclesiastical One of the most courageous and indomitable of the English power, each lusted after dominion, and allowed no considera- rovers was Sir Richard Grenville, of Stowe, in Cornwall, a tions nor soruples to stand in their way. Each helped the other ; ! gentleman of ancient family and large fortune, an enthusiastic the priests taught the "right divine"

admirer of all that was generous and of the Spanish king “ to govern wrong,"

manly. He hated the Spaniards with and the Spanish king in return up

an exceeding bitter hatred, and again held, with brutal obstinacy, the priests'

and again left his pleasant home in Inquisition-an institution of which

Cornwall to roam the seas after the more will be said in another paper;

enemies of God and man, as he conbut of which it will be enough here to

sidered them to be. He had been emi. say that it was a spiritual tribunal,

nently successful, both in distant exirresponsible and acting in secret, which

peditions and in repelling the attack punished men and women with all pun

of the Armada on the English coast ishments, including death, for not act

itself; and his name was a terror to ing in strict accordance with the rules

many a Spanish sailor. It happened, of the Roman Catholic Church.

in the year 1591, that a Government Englishmen, after the Reformation

expedition of the kind above-menespecially, hated both these powers.

tioned was about to sail under orders The one cramped their action and

of Lord Thomas Howard, to intercept their enterprise, forbidding them under

the Spanish treasure ships on their pain of being treated as pirates to trade

way from the West Indies. Sir Richto places where the Spaniards claimed

ard was appointed second in command, to have a monopoly, as in America ;

and hoisted his flag on board the the other oppressed their souls with

Revenge; the rest of the squadron inburdens too heavy to be borne, and

cluding eight fighting ships, with tenthen killed them for stumbling. GeneENGLISH SHIP OF WAR. TIME OF ELIZABETH,

ders and victuallers. The account of rous sympathy also for those who suf

the action in which the Revenge fought fered wrong at the oppressor's hands, and were unable to help single-handed for England is given here as best showing the themselves, glowed in the English breast; and that sympathy, in kind of spirit it was which animated Englishmen at the time an age of adventure and of chivalrous feeling, was not slow to when their enemies were the detested upholders of Absolutism espress itself in action. It had received a fillip, too, in a point in Church and State. which nearly concerned the best interests of the nation. An Lord Thomas Howard sailed with his ships in August, 1591, attempt had been made after the death of Edward VI., in 1553, and after cruising about for some time, put into the Western to introduce both the detested powers into England. Philip II. Islands, to recruit his men, ill with scurvy, and to wait there of Spain, was actually married to Queen Mary of England, and for the treasure ships. On the 31st of August, 1591, the lookthough the nation was, to a man, hostile to the introduction out men reported a fleet in sight, and great was the joy and of the Inquisition, and swore it would

greedy, perhaps, the expectation of not have it at any price, the energy

the English warriors. But a nearer and watchfulness of the best men were

view disclosed, not tho Spanish trearequired to prevent the planting of

sure ships, but a fleet of fifty-three the Spanish political power. In 1558

ships of war, which had been equip. Elizabeth came to the throne, and not

ped and sent out for the very pur. only roused the wrath of disappoint

pose of pouncing on the pouncers. ment and jealousy by her prompt re

Half the English crews were on shore, jection of Spanish advances, but

ill, and the rest wero busy watering directly and indirectly she challenged

and victualling the ships. Lord Thomas the Spaniards by the uncompromising

looked at his vessels and sickly crews, Protestantism of her policy.

and then at the enemy's ships, conHer subjects were imbued with tho

cerning which the cry was still, “ They same spirit as the Queen. The Span

come.” Eight against fifty-three—the iards were looked upon as public ene

disproportion was too grcat. He demies, whom to destroy was to do God

termined not to try conclusions with service; and many was the private ad

them, and having recalled his crews by renture made by persons of good name

signal, stood out of the Bay of Flores, and reputation, to make war upon

and succeeded in getting away. them. In a time when the two govern

There was one ship, however, which ments were at peace, cruisers were

did not follow. Sir Richard Grenville Etted out in England - notably in

felt it to be almost an immoral act to West-country ports—to prey upon the SPANISH THREE-DECKER. TIME OF ELIZABETH, retreat before a Spaniard, and though enemy's commerce on the Spanish

he was too good an officer wilfully to Main and in the West Indies. Such men as Sir John Haw- | disobey the orders of his superior, he was not loth to take Eins, Sir Martin Frobisher, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Francis advantage of some unavoidable delay which occurred in getting Drake, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, and Sir Richard Grenville, sailed his men from the shore, to stay behind. The other English on their own account upon expeditions which, directed against ships gained the offing, and thither, too, was sent the master any other power than Spain, would have been called piratical, of one of the victuallers, who, seeing Sir Richard's danger, or at least, buccaneering; and they won honour and no small offered to stay and share it with him. profit in the course of them. After the Spanish Armada, sent On came the Spanish fleet, on the weather bow of the in 1588 for the avowed purpose of conquering England and Revenge. Some of the officers remonstrated with the admiral, establishing despotism and priestcraft therein, had shown the and advised him to crowd all sail and try to outsail the enemy; depth of the Spanish ill-will, the Government acted pretty much but Sir Richard declared "he would much rather die than as its subjects had done, and made war whenever it chose. leave such a mark of dishonour on himself, his country, and th There was no declaration of war. After the Armada there Queen."


Lucia, Czars of. | Spain, Kings of. 1 Turkey, Sultans of.
I. IV. . . . 1533

Philip II.. . 1556 Solyman II. . . 1520
Sonarch uished
Philip III. . . 1598

Selim II. . . . 1506 : . Queca Eliza

Amurath III. 1574

Mahomet III. 1595 Ferior I. . . . 1581

United Provinces

Sweden, Kings of. karis Godonof . 1503

of the Netherlands,
Satland, Kings of. Gustavus Vasa. 1523 Stallholders of.
Vary Queen of Eric XIV. , . 1560 William the Si.
Soots . . . . 1512 John III.. . 1568 lent.

. .

. . 1579 James VI. . . 1367) Sigismund . . 1592 | Maurice . . . 1587




si tous, Ir is important that the learner should become thoroughly and - vont down, I practically familiar with the structure of that musical “scale of

that good all nations and of all time” which was partially described in the ble ught, Sir last lesson. The following account, by General T. Perronet t'was obliged Thompson, who is no less distinguished for his philosophical www, he received and learned disquisitions on the science of music than for the

wa mavu was killed other great services which, by pen and speech, he has rendered i wa board--were to his countrymen—the following account by him, of the first

w Wup's masts had attempts of philosophy to measure this scale, will interest the

to bull was pierced student : ishedly short : but Sir " The dispute upon this point (the application of science to

ad when after two music), is at least as old as the contest between Aristoxenus w it was proposed to and the Pythagoreans, which dates as eor y as 300 years before

W to trust to God's the Christian era. '* * * The opposition of Aristoxenus line mud to blow up the was, in reality, nothing but a good car declaring itself against i otw board the Spaniard | a faulty division. The musical mathematicians of antiquity or Dchard being too ill took as many as three successive steps into the truth, but their

next was a marvellous blunder. * * * yong man had every atten- “The histories of all nations refer to very early periods the I n drumed, and the Spanish discovery that certain successions or combinations of sounds Ludlo aclmire him. Feeling tho have the effect upon the ear which is implied by music; and it Jill that all might understand : may be assumed that in all countries a considerable degree of ni wacha joyful and quiet mind, for practical acquaintance has been acquired with the sounds before

no soldior ought to do, fighting | any person has thought of investigating the cause. The story M u nd honour, leaving behind the of Pythagoras listening to blacksmiths' hammers, and disil lud overy valiant soldier is in

covering that the different sounds had some relation to the Il back, and the Revenge, the first weiglits, has been sufficient to secure to that philosopher the I loll lito Mpanish hands, refused to

renown of being the first who sought for the explanation of I had no shortly after the action,

musical relations in the properties of matter. The account windon bourd, "ro that it may be said given by Nicomachis is that Putha.come heard som

given by Nicomachus is, that Pythagoras 'heard some iron Ilmaine, and forced the Spaniards

hammers striking on an anvil, and giving out sounds that made most harmonious combinations with one another, all except one

pair,' which led him to inquire what were the peculiarities of the in Bad AND REIGN OF ELIZABETH.

hammers which produced these different effects. Whether this Ther loor of Henry VIII. by his second is an exact account or not, some observation of this kind I,. When W klub the twenty-third Sovereign of appears to have speedily led to the discovery, that of strings of i l'unqueat, and the fifth and last of | the same thickness and composition, and stretched by the same

weight, those gave the same musical sound (or were what is called Massacre of St. Bartholomero

in unison) which were of equal lengths ;—that if of two strings in (France). .. . Aug. 23 1572

unison, as above, one was shortened by a half, it produced a Trial of Mary for treason at sound which, though very far from being in unison with the

Fotberingay Castle. 1536 sound of the other, might be heard contemporaneously with it, Execution of Mary. Feb. 8 1587 with a strong sensation of satisfaction and consciousness of Destruction of the "Invin

agreement, and that the two sounds in fact bore that particular cible Armada" . . . . 1533 Cadiz burnt by the English 1597

relation to each other by which two voices, of very different Tyrone's robellion in Ireland 1599

kinds, like those of a man and a child, can sing the same tune 1670 Died at Richmond. Mar. 2. 1603

or air as really as if they sang in unison, being what musicians

have since distinguished by the title of octares; that if, instead protn TNIAM POLARY WITH ELIZABETH.

of a half, the string were shortened by a third part, there was i Poland, Kinga of. America vero seized by produced a note which, heard either in combination with or Bislamund II. (as Philip II. of Spain in succession to the first, created one of those marked effects which

erwurds King of 1580, and remained an. all who had attained to any degree of musical execution by the
1518 nexed to that Country

guidance of the ear had treasured up as one of the most efficient ry de Valois until 1610.]

weapons in the armoury of sweet sounds, being what modern wrwards King Punce... 1573 Romo, Popes of.

musicians name the fifth ;-and that if, instead of a third part, bowhow Bathori 1575

it was shortened by a fonrth, there was produced another note Paul IV. . . . 1555 were from 1536

very distinct from the last, but which, like it, was immediately Pius IV. . . . 1559 Aside III. 1587

recognisable as one of the relations which experimental musicians Pius V. . . . 1368 , Kings of

had agreed in placing among their sources of delight, being the Gregory XIII. 1572 1657

same which in modern times is called the fourth. Sixtus V. . . . 1585

“So far, Pythagoras and his followers appear to have run 158)

Gregory XIV. 159) well. Instead, however, of pursuing the clue of which they guese do Innocent IV. . 1591 | already had hold, and examining the effects of shortening the Europe and Clemont VIII. . 1392 original string by a fifth part and by a sixth, they strayed into


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