« ElőzőTovább »
FRESEST ACTIVE INDICATIVE. PRESENT PASSIVE INDICATIVE. I do not commonly say good am I. But in Latin we may say Singular.
either sum bonus, I am good : or bonus sum, good am I. This Ist per. Audio, I hear 1st per, Audior, I am heard change in the relative position of the words of a sentence, is and » Audis, thou hearest 2nd , Audiris, thou art heard called inversion. The Latin language has great capability of 3rd , Audit, he hears. 3rd Audītur, he is heard.
inversion. The inversions which it employs are neither unPlural
natural nor arbitrary. The inversions depend on the sense. 1st per. Audimus, we hear 1st per. Audimur, we are heard
If we wish to throw emphasis on the epithet good, then we and , Audītis, you hear 2nd , Audimini, you are heard
must place bonus first. For example, suppose you wish to say 3rd » Audiunt, they hear. 3rd » Audiuntur, they are heard.
that I am good but not safe, you do so by putting bonus before VOCABULARY.
sum. But if you wish to say I am good, in opposition to some Custodio, 4 I guard. Falcio, 4 I support. Venio, 4 I come, one who says you are not good, then, you say, sum bonus, and Dormio, 4 I sleep. Nutrio, 4 I rourish. Vestio, 4 I clothe. not bonus sum. As then these inversions were a means by Erudio, 4 I instruct. Punio, 4 I panish. Vincio, 4 I conquer. which the Romans gave expression to their own feelings and Ferio, 1 I strike. Reperio, 4 I find. Cur, Why? opinions, they were with them perfectly natural; and if they EXERCISE 9.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
have the appearance of being annatural to us, it is merely 1. Custódis. 2. Fulcitur. 3. Venit. $. Cur dormis ? 5. Bene
because we express emphasis differently ; that is, we express by dormit. 6. Erudítur. 7. Pungis, 8. Occídit. 9. Valde fallis.
certain tones of the voice the emphasis which they expressed 10. Auditur. 11. Si valde dormig puníris. 12. Reperit. 13. Si bene by the position of words. In saying this, however. I do not erudis laudárig. 14. Vincítur. 15. Cur taces ? 16. Tacet et punitur, mean to assert that the Romans never gave emphasis by 17. Reperiantur. 18. Vestiris. 19. Bene vestiuntur. 20. Si bene intonation. The beginning of a sentence is the place of chief vestimini delectámini. 21. Male erudiuntur. 22. Si vincěris vincíris. emphasis; next to this stands the end ; an intermediate position EXERCISE 10.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
has least emphasis. 1. Why do you slay? 2. He is guarded. 3. They guard. 4. If
EXERCISE 13.-LATIN-ENGLISH. you are guarded you are conquered. 5. He blames and punishes. 1. Boni sumus. 2. Bonus est. 3. Bonus es. 4. Non sum bonus. 6. He hears and is instructed. 7. You are well educated. 8. Thou 5. Cæcus est. 6. Non est cæcus. 7. Valde docti sunt. 8. Salvi sleepest much. 9. They read. 10. If you dance you are delighted. | estig. 9. Non estis salvi. 10. Indoctus sum. 11. Indocti estis. 11. He is supported. 12. Why are they punished ? 13. They are 12. Non est indoctus. 13. Valde doctus es. 14. Cur malus es ? heard. 14. I am clothed ill. 15. They are struck and reminded. 15. Non sum malus. 16. Sumus boni. 17. Est indoctus. 18. Cur es
indoctus ? 19. Non sum indoctus. 20. Sumus salvi. 21. Salvi RECAPITULATION TERMINATIONS OR PERSON-ENDINGS OF
sumus. 22. Doctus et salvus es.
1. I am learned. 2. I am not learned. 3. He is learned. 4. They ACTIVE VOICE.
are learned. 5. You are bad. 6. You are not bad. 7. Thou art good. Singular.
8. They are good. 9. They are not good. 10. Why are they not 1. 2. 3. 4.
1. 2. 3. 4.
good ? 11. He is blind. 12. He is not blind. 13. Why is he blind ? 1st per. -0 -eo -0 .io 1st per. -or -eor -or -ior
14. Thou art not unlearned. 15. Thou art blind and not safe. 16. 2nd „ -18 -es -is -is 2nd ,, -āris -eris -ěris -īris 3rd , -at -et .it -it. 3rd , -ătur -ētur Itur
They are blind. 17. You are good and safe. 18. He is very unlearned.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN II. 1st per. -āmus -emus -Imus -jmus 1st per, -āmur -ēmur -Imur -imur
EXERCISE 3.- LATIN-ENGLISH. 2nd , -ātis -étis Itis -itis 2nd ,, -āmini -ēmini -imini -imini
| 1. I praise. 2. Thou blamest. 3. He adorns. 4. We educate, 3rd , ant -ent -unt iunt. 3rd , -antur -entur -untur -iuntur
5. You grieve, 6. They wound. 7. He tries. 8. He tries to dance. EXERCISE 11.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
9. Thou art wounded. 10. He is grieved. 11. We are praised. 1. Cedo. 2. Legis. 3. Movémus. 4. Exercéris. 5. Mordent.
12. Thou adornest. 13. They are educated. 14. Thou art grieved. 6. Florent et gaudent. 7. Legěre tentat. 8. Cur male legis ? 9. Dormit
| 15. You are wounded. 16. I delight. 17. Thou delightest. 18. He
delights. 19. We delight. 20. You delight. 21. They delight, 22. I male. 10. Valde diligěris. 11. Vincimini. 12. Bene scribunt. 13. Si bene pingitis laudámini. 14. Defendimur. 15. Ferímus. 16. Cur
am delighted. 23. Thou art delighted. 24. He is delighted. 25. We
are delighted. 26. You are delighted. panítis 17. Vestímur. 18. Vincimus. 19. Vincimur. 20. Vincímur.
27. They are delighted. 21. Vincitis. 22. Custodíris. 23. Ornátur. 24. Laudantur. 25.
EXERCISE 4.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Timémur. 26. Valde times. 27. Mordémini. 28. Educámus. 29. 1. Laudo. 2. Laudas. 3. Laudat. 4. Laudamus. 5. Laudatis. Male saltant.
at. 7. Laudor. 8. Laudaris. 9. Laudatur. 10. Laudamur. EXERCISE 12.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
11. Laudamini. 12. Laudantur. 13. Delectant. 14. Ornas. 15, 1 They yield. 2. If you yield you are conquered. 3. If you are Vexamini. 16, Educantur. 17. Saltat. 18. Vituperamini, 19. Tenconquered you are bound. 4. I am supported. 5. They sleep. tamus. 20. Tentamini. 21. Vulneratur. 22. Educor, 6. Why do they punish? 7. Why are they punished ? 8. You are clothed ill. 9. Thou conquerest. 10. Thou art conquered. 11. Thon bindest. 12. Thou art bound. 13. They prick. 14. They are pricked.
LESSONS IN DRAWING.—III. 15. Why dost thou more? As in the exercises which are immediately to follow, we shall
BEFORE commencing our remarks upon the methods of drawing have occasion for parts of the verb, esse, to be, I shall here lay
solid objects, we must lay before the pupil some very important before you so much of that verb as may be necessary for my
rules with regard to retiring lines and retiring planes; these
rules belong to Perspective. As we are now getting into deeper purpose. THE VERB ESSE, to be.
water, we must ask for the patient attention of the pupil in a
branch of the subject which would be much easier to explain in INDICATIVE MOOD, PRESENT TENSE.
his presence, with the help of a piece of chalk and the blackSingular.
Plural. 1st per. Sum,
board, than to express in writing. First, then, retiring lines I am
1st per. Sumus, we are ad » Es, thou art 2nd
are lines which go away from us. For instance, suppose we are
standing at the end of a street and looking down its length;
the lines of the eaves, and spouts, tops and bottoms of windows, VOCABULARY.
and doors, etc., are retiring lines. And secondly, the fronts Bonus, Good. Doctus, Learned. | Cæcus, Blind. of the houses are retiring planes, or surfaces. Again, sit at
Bad. Indoctus, Unlearned. | Non, Not. Salmus,
the end of a table; the lines or edges on the right side and on Safe.
the left are retiring lines, and the surface or top of the table REMARK 1.--Those adjectives which in the singular end is a retiring plane ; so that retiring planes, like retiring lines, in us, form the plural in i : thus, “ I am good” is bonus sum ; may be horizontal (parallel with the earth), perpendicular (upbut " we are good” is boni sumus. In order to form the plural, right), or inclined. We also direct the attention of the pupil to cut off t
rmination us, you thus get the stem; to the stem Figs. 28, 29, eto. In Fig. 28, f b, gd, h e, and i care horizontal add i.
retiring lines, and the whole surface of the pavement is a REMARK 2.-In Latin the order of the words is not so rigidly retiring horizontal plane. In Fig. 29 the wall to the left is a bred as it is in English. In English we say I am good, and retiring perpendicular plane. In Fig. 30 the fronts of the steps are
parallel perpendicular retiring planes. The tops of the steps each way within a greater angle, he wouid bare to turn his are horizontal retiring planes. In Fig. 31 the lid of the bos head, and consequently he would require two or more points of from its position is an inclined retiring plane.
: sight; this is only allowable in panoramas (viz., long pictures We advise the pupil now to make himself familiar with the generally placed upon upright rollers, and so drawn out as a following fixed principles relating to retiring lines and planes:- ribbon would be from a reel), when the view of a country for
1. The Line of Sight, or, as it is sometimes called, the hori. any number of miles in extent is exhibited; the proper or more zontal line, represents the height of the eye in the picture, convenient distance from the object is, when it is placed within which, when we come to the explanation of these terms, we will an angle of from 20° to 25o. mark in the illustrations H L (see Figs. 28 and 29).
Let a b, Fig. 25, be two objects to be drawn in the same 2. The Point of Sight, marked P s, is the point opposite the picture; the distance from them at c would be the nearest eye in the picture, and is consequently upon the line of sight. approach we could make; then the angle acb would be an
3. The Station Point is the place where the spectator is angle of 60°. If we removed our position to d, then the angle supposed to stand when viewing the object represented; would be much less, and more suitable for our picture. marked s P.
We beg it may be understood that hereafter when we say 4. A Ground Plan is the horizontal extent of the object when drawing from Nature, we allude to all objects, trees, buildings, drawn upon the ground.
etc. Although buildings are not natural objects, yet they are 5. The Vanishing Point is that point in the plane or surface included under this expression. . of the picture, where retiring lines if produced or continued, 4th. Ground Plan. The best illustration of a ground plan is would meet or terminate; marked y P.
& map; it has nothing to do with heights or depths. Suppose 6. All retiring lines have vanishing points.
the walls of a house were removed, and only the foundations 7. All horizontal retiring lines have their vanishing points left, we should then see the plan of the house. upon the line of sight.
1 5th. Vanishing Point (VP). If a line be drawn from the eye 8. All parallel retiring lines have the sime vanishing point. parallel to any original straight line of the object the point
9. All horizontal lines which are parallel with the picture where that line cuts the picture plane (or surface of the picture) plane, are drawn parallel with each other, and the line of sight. is the vanishing point of that original line. When the pupil
10. All horizontal retiring lines forming right angles with has read this, let him rise from his chair, and stand about eight the picture plane, or with our position, have the point of sight, or nine feet from the window, and look out upon the objects for their vanishing point.
beyond. Suppose that a house is in sight, having one of its cor11. All lines inclined with the horizon, and with the picture ners towards him. If he stood without moving from the position plane, have their vanishing points above or below the line of he has chosen, and took a long stick having a piece of charcoal, or sight, according to the angle they form with the horizon, their something that will make a mark on glass, fastened to the end, Vanishing points being always on a line perpendicular to the he might trace the form of the house upon the glass in the same vanishing point upon the line of sight, to which they would way as tracing a drawing through a piece of thin paper; he have retired had they been horizontal.
would then have made a true perspective drawing of that house Before going any further we will endeavour to explain the upon the glass. This glass is the picture plane; the place above fixed principles or definitions, taking them in their order. where he stands when making the tracing is the station point.
1st. The Line of Sight, I L (horizontal line), is drawn parallel Now, supposing the retiring side of the building he is tracing is with the base of the picture, according to the height of the eye on the left as he looks at it, let him raise his left arm and hold from the ground. If we are drawing a house from a higher it parallel to that retiring face or plare of the building, he will point of view than when standing or seated on the ground, the 'then be pointing to the vanishing point of the retiring face or line of sight will be higher in the former than in the latter case. plane, and all horizontal lines upon that plane would be retiring
2nd. The Point of Sight (PS) is subject to the same conditions also, and consequently meet at the same vanishing point. as to its height from the ground as the line of sight.
He might, for the sake of experiment, actually make & 3rd. The station Point (8P) may be at almost any distance tracing on the window of one or more of the parallel retiring from the object that is most convenient; but observe, if too lines of the building, and at the same time make a mark upon near, we get a distorted view of the object when drawing from the wall for the vanishing point. Then if he continue the traced Nature. Let the reader for a moment place himself in an up- lines on the glass he would eventually find that they will meet right position, keep his bead perfectly still, and turn his eyes to the mark upon the wall, that mark being the vanishing point; the right ar left; all that he can possibly see whilst so and he would also find that the mark upon the wall is on a level doing i
angie of 60° (sixty degrees), considerably with his ere, on the line of sight. He would find also that if there too
looking at to make a pleasing picture, were any other lines parallel with the windoro, those lines when ung. But if he included more objects traced would be parallel with the line of sight, and be drawn
horizontally on the glass. This explains all that is meant in same way with the other lines d g eh and ci. Now observe, if the definitions numbered 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. If there be any other all these lines were produced towards the line of sight, 1 l, lines of walls or buildings to be seen through the window which they would meet at the Ps. The other parallel lines, k, l, m, etc., are at right angles with it, these lines havo the point of sight must be carefully arranged according to the principles we have for their Fanishing point; just as the retiring lines of the already laid down in our introductory lessons. The pupil may covers of the books at A and B in Fig. 26, which are at right naturally inquire if there are not some perspective rules for angles to the edge of the table on which they are lying have regulating the retiring horizontal distances of objects, as well their vanishing point in the point of sight, while thoss that as their heights. We answer, there are. We do not intend to are not at right angles to
avoid this question, but put the edge of the table, as at E HL
PS and VP
it off for the present, lest and F, have their vanishing
the pupil should become too points to the right and left
early involved in technicaof the point of sight. This
lities that belong especially observation will explain Defi
to geometrical perspectivenition 10.
a branch of drawing to be Definition 11 will come
considered hereafter. With under our notice hereafter,
reference to the retiring lines when we will go more into
of the pavement (Fig. 28), the consideration of the
we have a fitting illustration above fixed principles with
in a railroad ; probably the the help of diagrams.
pupil has observed when An object can be placed
standing on a railway bridge in two positions, to which
and looking down the line, the rules of perspective are
that the rails as they retired applieable-parallel and an
seemingly converged to a gular.!
point in the distance; that Parallel perspective is a
point would be the vanishing
term used in reference to
point; therefore, in drawing objects of a rectangular
lines so placed, our having a form, such as the interior of
vanishing point renders the a room, & cube, etc., when
task much easier, and insures these objects are so placed
that which is so very desir. that their retiring sides are at
able, a truthful result. Let a right angle with the picture
Fig. 28 be practised over and plane, PP, and the remaining
over again, until the various sides are parallel to the same,
lines which compose it can be as in Fig. 27 (a).
drawn with ease and readiAngular perspective alludes
ness. Fig. 29 is the same, to objects of the same form
with the addition of a wall on 80 placed that all the sides
the left. After the last example retire, as in Fig. 27 (6), which
the manner of drawing it will is the plan of a room in
be self-evident. Fig. 30, a angular perspective, having
flight of steps; the retiring one of its angles towards the
edges of the steps are all picture plane PP, and its four
drawn towards the PS. The sides retiring.
other examples require no Parallel perspective is the
further explanation. Should more simple of the two, and easier to be understood, we the pupil in going along with us through these lessons have made therefore commence with that. The first example is a pavement some failures, and found some difficulties, there is no doubt that (Fig. 28).
most of them may be attributed to one great neglect which all Draw the horizontal line, HL, and place upon it a point beginners so readily fall into, that is, the not" marking in the dismarked P s and v P (point of sight and vanishing point). The tances" before they attempt to draw the lines. It is the common failreason that it is both the point of sight and the vanishing point ing with the majority of beginners, that they attempt to draw has been explained in Definition 10. Then mark the distance the lines without first arranging their positions. We have said of a from Ps, through a draw the line b c, and divide it in the quite enough of the practical way of proceeding with the arrange. points d and e; place the pencil on Ps, and draw it over the ment of lines, but once more, let the attention of the pupil be paper through b to f, mark f, join b f, proceed precisely in the ever directed to the “whereabouts” of the lines of his drawing
called the indefinite article, inasmuch as it leaves it indefinite what object is meant, merely intimating that it is not many objects but only one object that is intended. A, indeed, is only a variety of our word one, ane. Being so, its original form was
an. The n is now dropped before a consonant for the sake of
- weet net be cuphony (Greek, eu, well, and phoné, a sound; meaning agreeable
- - . tion, for so sound).
bears the name of the definite article ; that is, the. The is a tess we and a reduced form of these. Consequently the refers to an object
- . respunting to previously mentioned or known; as-
Alfred reads The writing;
We have already found a form of speech which qualifies - ss made by God.
nouns—namely, the adjective. We may therefore insert a "Dout 2
suitable adjective in this lengthening form ; thus :-
2 . -:-2 Air 20 abjective case.
SUBJECT. er a tough in the former,
reads the obscure writing and manuscript. *. . .
| modified. The verb reads may undergo a mod
Introduce the word soon :
t agaisa word world repre-
Alfred SOON reads the obscure writing and manuscript.
PREDICATE. 'n winged, then, does not conform
Alfred 800n reads to me the obscure writing and manuscript. bly uversity of relations in nouns na yuny in a limited degree. In
limited deren In Me is a pronoun, as we found he to be. Me, you see, holds the W ., anh language has long been to place of a noun. Me is the objective case corresponding to the . wwwns which it borrowed from its
nominative case I. Our pronouns, as you here see, have some vuouoy has for ages continued to
diversities of case, for in them you find varying forms correToday It is a tendency which deserves
sponding to varieties of meaning. The other word just addedwypu Lou as it is effectual, it gives
namely, to, is called a preposition. The word preposition . de iuguage, and makes the acquisition
signifies, according to its Latin element, that which is put before; N it rapid.
a preposition, then, is a word put before a noun; and it is put en wuportions have each an object as well before a noun in order to modify its signification, or mark the i iddially tho oase, and such is the case relation in which the noun stands to another word, or to other no at wppoar. In our standard phrase words ; e.g.
pomoc. And the statement may be He gave the book to me. He took the book from me. . Awondo to an object. Verbs in which He read the book with me. He bought the book of me.
We clear and obvions reference to an where to, from, with, and of are prepositions. i
r one vorba that is, verbs the action of In the ordinary list of the parts of speech stands the participle. i
slavu , nottrans, acro88 ; eo, I go) This word, of Latin origin, denotes the partaker (from pars, a l ī rad sloepe, Alfred runs, Alfred rides, | part, and capio, I take). The participle is so denominated . . i u imantivo verbs; because in each because it partakes of the qualities of the verb and the adjective. Li m e with thu mulyoot. But those and most Thus shining is a participle from the verb to shine. It may also aloe way become transitive by having an be employed as an adjective. Thus,
PARTICIPLE. The sun shining disperses the clouds.
ADJECTIVE. The shining sun dazzles the eyes.
speech has been contested not without reason. Perhaps less The Iridan one luurne, Allred wings a fine song.
valid is the claim of the interjection. An interjection (inter, i n Wind have fun olyject, then we must
between, and jacio, I cast) is a sound of surprise, or sorrow, i inny a l formula ; thus: -
thrown out under the impulse of strong and sudden emotion, as
0! Oh! Ah! and is with little propriety placed among the Object,
forms of articulate speech. Let us introduce a participle into writing.
our modelin a familia la tua mudo completo. The verb
A in forming the predicato of a
Alfred studying soon roads to me the obscure writing and manuscript.
1. Noun. 2. Participle. 3. Adverb. 4. Verb. 5. Preposition. 6. which stands, has all the ennential parts Pronoun. 7. Article. 8. Adjective. 9. Conjunction. di li v e additions in order to express modi.
The form is thus seen to comprise nine parts of speech. If the Inlodnon and, then it runs,
interjection, or exclamation, is to be reckoned a part of speech, it Aitor word mandineript,
may be prefixed in the shape of Yes! Here, then, we find a con#munotion Conjunction (Latin, densed view of all the parts of speech, and in the remarks by
on other words and sentoncem which the view has been prefaced and prepared, lies the kernel amor with working. Boforo of the entire English Grammar. If you have gone with me Witten Wanda thun
understandingly thus far, you will bave no difficulty in following writing
mo to the end, for having developed these general facts and Lina Wale Jent). Als principles, I have now only to take up each part of speech in
encsession, and, in connection with it, enter into such particularz
Brave Nelson fought and conquered the enemy, etc. 28 may appear desirable with a view to my object.
PREDICATE. Before I close the chapter, however, I will add a few general
OBJECT. remarks respecting the actual classification, which bears the name of the nine for ten) parts of speech. The aim of the (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) classification is to arrange under separate heads all the words of And lo! Stanley rising quickly caused great wrath in the king. the English (or any other) language. Now a good classification 1. Conjunction. 2. Interjection. 3. Nonn. 4. Participle. 5. Ad. has tro qualities: first, it is canaustive; secondly, it is distinc. verb. 6. Verb. 7. Adjective. 8. Preposition. 9. Article. Mr. It is chaustive--that is, it comprises and places under In the last example, one part of speech is omitted to exercise the some suitable head all the facts. It is distinctive-that is, it mind of the student, who is also expected to effect the reduction makes such clear and sharp distinctions as to place the several of the proposition to the name of being and the name of action. facts each under its own head, without confounding similar facts! Let the reader carefully study and analyse the following together, or putting under one head facts which may as properly sentences stand under another head.
1. Propositions without an object. The classification under review is neither exhaustive nor dis- | Birds sing. Cows graze. Rabbits burrow. Dogs fight. Children play. tinctive. It is not exhaustive, for it leaves out the infinitive
2. Propositions with an object. mwood, which has as good a right to be called a part of speech as
The sun lights the earth. The trees produce fruit. The rain waters the participle. It is not distinctive, for the term adjective makes the meadows. Storms purify the air. The universe proclaims its Author. no distinction where a distinction exists, and the term participle Onalifying
Qualifying words may be added at will, asmakes a distinction where no distinction is required." Indeed, the classification is wholly unscientific, being based not on a
3. Propositions with a subject and object qualifiod. principle, but on vague and general views. Something less
My young brother teased the little animals. Avaricious tradesmen
vercharge all their goods. A diligent scholar learns all his lessons. objectionable may be offered in the following words.
I subjoin some fragments to be made into complete senSpeech corresponds to the realities which it represents. Those realities are thoughts and things. Now, thoughts and things
tences :may be reduced to three classes :-1, Objects ; 2, qualities of
1. Propositions lacking subjects. objects ; 3, actions. Consequently, the essential parts of speech
- leads a blind man. - aids his sick mother. -- neglect their are the noun, the adjective, and the verb. But objects and their
duty. - avoids bad company. -- promises a rich harvest. - cost
much money. qualities are the same things differently viewed. We may there
2. Propositions lacking objects. fore strike out qualities. Thus we have two classes left
Disobedient children deserve - The proud despise — Thick clouds namely, the noun and the verb. Verbs, however, are the names
cover - A bad child grioves - An honest debtor pays - Wise men of action, as nouns are the names of being. Hence language rebuke resolves itself into names. We may, then, declare that speech
3. Propositions lacking verbs. is made up of names. These names may be expanded and The eldest sister - the younger ones. The father -- his incorrigible divided into 1, names of being, or nouns ; 2, names of action, or son. Noisy boys -- the neighbourhood. The police -- public order. verbs; and 3, names of qualities, or adjectives. Under the last | A grateful daughter - tender mother. The divine Saviour - our head, or names of qualities, may stand other parts of speech, human infirmities. for the adverb names the quality of the action of the verb, and it may here be necessary, by anticipation, to inform the totally the article names the extent in which the noun is to be taken. uneducated student that, when the verb is singular it has s at The term particles has not inappropriately been applied to ad. the end, when plural it is without s. The verb must be in the
eros and conjunctions, for, to a considerable degree they appear singular number when the noun or pronoun connected with it to be parts (particles—that is, little parts) or fragments of once denotes only one person or thing ; and the verb must be in the existing nouns and verbs. If, however, our analysis of language plural number when the noun or pronoun connected with it into names of being and names of action is correct, then the denotes more than one person or thing; e.g.-sentence which, aus given above, contains all the nine parts of
SINGULAR: A boy loves; the house stands; the duck swims. *peech, may be reduced to two; as,
PLURAL: Boys love; houses stand; ducks swim.
The rule might be put in another form, as, when the noun has an Alfred
s (or is in the plural) the verb is without; and when the verb Name of belog.
Name of action.
has an s the noun is without. and thus we are brought back to the very form with which we commenced our former lesson on “ Simple Propositions." Clearly, as compared with these two parts, the other words in
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-III. the sentence are incidental, and of small moment.
NOTIONS OF THE GREEKS AND ROMANS. It may be desirable to give another germ or two expanded THE desire for nautical expeditions, which, under the exciteinto the full forms.
ment of commercial enterprise, had began to spread among the SUBJECT.
nations, was restrained by the conquests of the Romans. These Nelson
conquests, however, if they did not extend the boundaries of the
fought OBJECT. Braca Nelson
known world, at least enriched the domain of geographical Brave Nelson T he
fought the enemy.
I knowledge with new facts, and more exact than those which Brave Nelson
often fought the enemy.
| had been collected and taken for granted by the writers of Brave Nelson
often fought the cruel enemy. former ages. The three Punic (Carthaginian) wars, tho Illyrian Brave Nelson, defying danger,
ofton fought the cruel enemy. war, the contests with the Gauls, the expeditions against Spain, Brave Nelson, defying danger and death, often fought the cruel enemy. and those of Ætius Gallus into Arabia and Ethiopia, all con(1) (2) (3)
can contributed, in their turn, to give to this science a more positive
(8) (9) Brave Nelson, defying danger and death, often fought the enemy of his
character and more varied details. Polybius, about 150 years country.
| before the age of Hipparcbus, gavo a description of the world 1. Adjective. 2. Nonn. 3. Participle. 4. Conjunction. 5. Adverb.
which, notwithstanding his numerous errors, evinced remarkable 6. Verb. 7. Article. 8. Preposition. 9. Pronoun.
progress in the knowledge of the globe. The new acquisitions
of the Romans, and of Mithridates Eupator, the campaigns of Other explanatory words or phrases might be added. Thus, to Julius Cæsar in Gaul and in Britain, rendered accessible the the subject might be appended the words sailing from England, knowledge of countries hitherto but partially explored, or alto
gether unknown. Posidonius, a Syrian, resident at Rhodes, Brave Nelson, sailing from England, and defying danger, fought.
endeavoured to correct the measurement of the earth's circum
ference formerly made by Eratosthenes. Ho observed that when Or, you might qualify fought by the adverb successfully. You the star Canopus, in the constellation Argo, became visible in Taight also make the sentence compound by inserting after the horizon of Rhodes, it was elevated seven degrees and a half fought the words, and conquered; thus :
| above the horizon of Alexandria. He supposed these places to