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feeding bird. The swallow, which plunges with such reckless in small quantity, and the result of this is that the fish can see impulse through the air, will nevertheless seize a small insect distant objects as well through the air as through the water : as it dashes along with almost unerring certainty. Usually the and this is important, because almost all fish are surface fish; vrey is so small, that the wonderful powers of the bird dis- many feed on flies, and most have to be on their guard against plaved in the chase cannot be observed ; but sometimes, when aerial foes. The reader, then, need not be surprised when the the insect has large wings, this dexterity may be seen.
sun-loving shoals of carp or chub all plunge headlong into the The writer has seen a swallow seize, while in headlong flight, | depths when he appears on the river bank. the beautiful, scarce swallow-tail butterfly, and shear out its As a singular instance of the adaptation of means to ends. sapid body from between the wide wings, and let them float it is found that all animals, whether reptiles, birds, or brutes, severally down; and then, not satisfied with a feast so little which are amphibious, or which spend much time in the water, proportioned to the splendour in which it was dished up, glance have eyes which, though they differ from those of fish, in some round and seize again the several pieces before they had time things have the same relation of the cornea and lens. Thus to reach the ground. How, then, is a long sight and a keen the whale and the dolphin (which are but brutes which have short sight to be obtained from the same eye? This is done taken to the sea), the cormorant and diver, the frog and the mainly by the aid of the bony plates already described. These crocodile, have all spherical lenses and flat corneæ. are so disposed that the edge of one is capable of sliding over Fish and frogs have on the outer layer of the choroid a layer the edge of its next neighbour, so that when the fibres of the of silvery or golden crystals, and this layer, which is continued muscle which unites them contract they compress the eye all round till it occupies the front layer of the iris, gives to the round and make it more tubular, while the humours of the eye, toad so metallic and bright an eye as to countenance the legend thus subjected to pressure, cause the cornea to protrude more, that it has a jewel in its head. So Shakespeare and also the retina to be removed further from the lens. These
“The toad, ugly and venomous, motions are, in addition to the adjustment for distance, found
Wears yet a precious jewel in its head." in mammals.
Intimately connected with this pressure upon and alteration of the dimensions of the humours of the eye, is another pecu
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-IV. liarity in the eye of a bird. This is a puckered, purse-like membrane, which is attached to the optic nerve, which in this
SECTION VIII.-INDEFINITE ARTICLE. class enters into the eye by a slit-like opening. This membrane Tue indefinite article is less varied than the definite, having for is sometimes called a marsupium, from its resemblance to a the masculine and neuter nominative but one form, aspurse, and sometimes a pecten, from its supposed likeness to a comb. It stretches to the interior of the eye to a different Masculine : ein Mann, a man. Neuter : ein Glas, a glass. extent in different birds, and is composed of a tangled mass of DECLENSION OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE MASCULINE AND blood vessels, mixed with pigment granules. Whether this is
NEUTER WITH NOUNS. simply an erectile organ, which can rapidly contract and enlarge
Nenter. suddenly as it is deprived of or injected with blood, or is capablo
N. Gin Mann, a man;
ein Kind, a child ; of feeding the vitreous humour with liquid strained by it from
G. Eines Mannes, of a man; eines Kindes, of a child; the blood, and draining it off again as circumstances require, is
D. Einem Manne, to, fora man; einem Kinde, to, for a child ; not known.
A. Ginen Mann, a man; ein Kind, a child. The eyes of reptiles are so different from one another, ranging in structure between the eye of the bird and that of the fish, OF THE COMPOUNDING OF NOUNS IN GERMAN. that it is better at once to pass on to a description of an eye 1. Nouns are more frequently compounded in German than adapted to sight in water.
in English ; and accordingly one word in German often requires A fish, living as it does in an atmosphere which is many hun. for its full translation several in English, as :dred times denser than air, and by no means so transparent, Wirfungefreis, sphere of action (action sphere); must have an eye suited to look at near objects. It must
Swimmvogel, web-footed bird (swimming fowl); therefore be able to concentrate the rays of light rapidly; yet
Lastthier, beast of burden (burden animal); it is under this disadvantage, that as it is only when passing Zugtbier, draught animal ($ 2. 7); from a rare into a dense transparent convex substance that
Haustbier, domestic animal (house animal). diverging rays are bent towards one another, and the original rays pass through a dense medium, the cornea and aqueous
VOCABULARY. humours can play no part in the bending of the rays towards
Bant, n. ribbon. | Kaufmann, m. mer. Schmied, m. blackone another, for they are of about the same density as water.
Ein, a, an.
smith. The whole duty of refraction must thus be done by the lens. Giren
Eisen, n. iron.
Lastthier, n. beast of Sowert, n. sword. This is very dense, and of the sheets of which it is made up the Gipfeb Yunadbrief. m. burden.
Stoc, m. stick, cane. inside are denser than the outside, while it is so convex both
letter of recom. Oberhof'richter, m. Tuch, n. cloth. before and behind as to become a perfect globe.
judge of the supe. Tuch'bantler, m. dra. Both the consistence and shape of the round lens may be Feind, m. enemy. rior court.
per. seen by squeezing it out of the eye of a cooked fish, even by Geset'buc, n. law. Papier'händler, m. pa- Wagner, m. carriage. those whose taste for comparative anatomy is only stimulated
maker. at the dinner-table.
Gewehr', n. gun. Pflug, m. plough. Zugthier, n. draught In connection with this kind of lens we have a shallow eye.
ye. Kameel', n, camel.
animal. In other words, if the cornea, through which light enters, be turned upwards, the back of the eye on which the retina is
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. spread resembles a saucer, and not a cup as it does in animals Der Wolf ist ein Raubthier. The wolf is a beast of prey. and birds.
Der Zimmermann ist ein Gant. The carpenter is a mechanic. This is so much the case, that even though the hard capsule werfer. is shallower than in brutes, there is still left a large space Der Hammer ist ein Werfzeug. The hammer is a tool (an is. between this and the choroid, and even this latter has between
strument). two of its layers a horse-shoe shaped "gland” composed of Das Bin'dewort ist ein Rebctheil. The conjunction is a part of blood vessels, something like the pecten of a bird, though in a
speech. different place, and with exactly a converse function.
Der Name eines Dinges ist ein The name of a thing (substance) The hard outer coat is strengthened and held to its form by Dingwort.
is a substantive. a cup-shaped bone or cartilage, which occupies the parts which Das Kind liebt den Großvater. The child loves the grandfather. are left unoccupied by the bird's eye-bones; because while the latter are used to elongate the eye this maintains a shortened
EXERCISE 9. axis.
1. Hat ein Mann, oder ein Kind ben Stoc dieses Freuntes? 2. Diciet The cornea, or window, and the watery fluid behind it being Mann hat ein Schwert eines Feindes, und dieses Kind hat den Stoc cines uselewa to collect the rays, are left, the one flat and the other Freundes. 3. Was hat der Jäger ? 4. Er hat einen Hund und ein
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.–V.
. It is needful, therefore, for the learner to become acquainted
with a third elementary stroke before he can proceed to the HITHERTO the attention of the learner has been confined to formation of any new letters, and this he will find in the top letters based on the elementary stroke called the “pot-hook" and bottom-turn shown in Copy-slip No. 12. This stroke enters or bottom-turn." He may now proceed to copy the next into the composition of six letters of the writing alphabet, as elementary stroke, called the top-turn” or “hanger," as shown the learner will find in future lessons. It consists of a fine in Copy-slip No. 11.
hair-stroke, commenced at the central line c c, brought upwards This stroke will be found to enter into the composition of towards the right in a gentle curve, and turned at the apper three letters only, and therefore plays by no means so important line a a into a broad down-stroke, which is again narrowed as it a part in the formation of the wziting alphabet as the bottom- approaches the lower line b b into a fine hair-stroke that is turn, which, as it has been already said, enters into the turned and carried upwards towards the right. It may be decomposition of no less than nine. It consists of a fine hair. scribed as being formed of the upper half of the top-turn and stroke, commenced on the central line cc, and carried upwards the lower half of the bottom-turn, joined together on the in a direction bending gradually towards the right, as far line c c. as the upper line a a, where it is turned and changed into When the learner can make these strokes with ease, he will a broad down-stroke, which is brought downwards, with an find that he is in a position to form two more letters of the equal pressure of the pen throughout, as far as the lower writing alphabet without any difficulty whatever, while he has line .
also advanced more than half-way towards the formation of the The top-turn may be described as being precisely the reverse seven other letters that are partly made by the aid of these of the bottom-turn; or, in other words, the bottom-turn reversed, strokes. He may now proceed to copy the letters n and m, as ns may be seen by turning the page upsido down, and examin shown in Copy-slips Nos. 13 and 14, observing that the letter ing the stroko in i tion. It is only used in combination n consists of a combination of these two strokes only, the topwith other la
in forming lottore, for unlike the turn being made first, and the top-and-bottom-turn added to bottom-tum
of the writing alphabet which is it, while in the letter m the top-turn is repeated twice, and formod
even by its repetition or any the letter is then completed by the addition of the top-andmodif
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-V.
is contained 3 times and 1 over. Write the quotient 3
under the second figure in the dividend, and prefixing the re. DIVISION.
maining 1 to the 5, say, 4 in 15 is contained 3 times and 3 over. 1. The process of finding how many times one number is con- Write the quotient 3 under the third figure in the dividend, and tained in another is called Division.
prefixing the remaining 3 to the 6, say, 4 in 36 is contained 9 The number to be divided is called the Dividend.
times, with no remainder, and write down the 9 under the last The number by which we divide is called the Divisor.
or unit's figure of the dividend. The result-viz., the number of times which the Dividend It will be seen that when, to get the first figure of the contains the Divisoris called the Quotient (Latin quoties, quotient, we say 4 in 5 is contained once, with remainder 1, we "how often").
really indicate that 4 is contained in 5000 1000 times, with re. The sign placed between two numbers means that the first mainder 1000, which 1000 we carry on to add to the next three is to be divided by the second. Thus, 19 = 5 means 19 divided of the dividend, which really indicates 300, and so on; as will by 5.
be seen by comparing the process with the analysis of the method If the Dividend does not contain the Divisor an exact number in Article 4. of times, it will contain it & certain number of times (the 6. To divide 7499 by 9. Quotient) with a number left over, which will be less than the
9) 7499 Divisor. The number left over in this case is called the Remainder.
833–2 Thus, when we say that 5 is contained in 19 3 times and 4 over, 19 is the dividend, 5 the divisor, 3 the quotient, and 4 the
| Here, since 7, the first figure of the dividend, is less than the
divisor, 9, we take two figures of the dividend, and say, 9 in 74 remainder. This fact may be exhibited in the following form :
is contained 8 times, with a remainder 2, and put down the 8
under the second figure of the dividend (reckoning from the left 19 = 3 × 5 + 4
hand). Then, proceeding as in the previous example, we say, 2. It will readily be perceived that division is, in reality, only | 9 in 29 is contained 3 times and 2 over: and again. 9 in 29 is & short method of performing a series of subtractions, in the
contained 3 times and 2 over. This last 2 is 2 units, and is same way as multiplication is a convenient method of perform
therefore the remainder left after dividing 7499 by 9. It is Îng a series of additions. For instance, to find how many times
generally written after the quotient, as above. 5 is contained in 19, subtract 5 (the divisor) continually from
This method, which is only conveniently applicable when the 19 (the dividend), until the number is exhausted, or a number I divisor is a small number (generally one figure), is called Short less than 5 is left; then, counting the number of these subtrac- Division tions, we shall get the quotient. Thus, 5 from 19 leaves 14, 5
EXERCISE 8. from 14 leaves 9, 5 from 9 leaves 4. Since 5 has been subtracted 3 times from 19, leaving 4 as a remainder, we see that (1.) Divide 658 by 2; 537 by 3; and 7891011 by 6. 19 divided by 5 has 3 for its quotient, leaving 4 as a remainder. (2.) Divide 4389127 by 8; 407792 by 11 ; and 5349279 by 9.
N.B.- It is evident, from the nature of division, that the (3.) Divide 41239789 by 12; and 54937862 by 5. product of the quotient and divisor, added to the remainder, is (4.) Divide each of the numbers contained in the square in equal to the dividend.
Ex. 4, page 23, successively by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 3. Method of Division. The method we are about to explain (5.) Divide each of the numbers contained in the square in depends upon the truth of the following principle :
Ex. 4, pago 23, successively by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. If the dividend be split up into any number of parts, of (6.) Divide each of the numbers 1010421690, 7689768432134, which the sum is equal to the dividend, then, if we divide each 54932684736856, and 428571428571496, by all the numbers part separately by the divisor, the sum of all the quotients so from 2 to 12 inclusive. obtained will be the quotient required.
7. To divide 9298 by 35. For instance, 18 is equal to the sum of 9 and 6 and 3. The quotients of these, divided respectively by 3, are 3, 2, and 1,
Arrange the figures as in the margin; then say, the largest which, added together, make 6, the quotient of 18 divided by 3.
number of times which 35 is contained in 92 is 2
times. Write the 2 on the right, to form the first Similarly, 36 is 28 + 8, and therefore 36 divided by 4 is the
figure of the quotient, and subtract 2 X 35--i.e., sum of the separate quotients of 28 and 8 by 4, which are 7 and
70—from 92, leaving 22. Annex to this remainder 229 2 respectively. Hence 7 + 2, or 9, is the required quotient.
the next figure (9) in the dividend, thus making It must be observed that if, the quotient of a given dividend
it 229. and divisor being known, the dividend be increased by annexing
198 any number of ciphers to it, the new quotient is obtained by
Then say, the greatest number of times that 35 is | contained in 229 is 6 (which must be found by trial).
175 annexing tho same number of ciphers to the quotient. Thus, 28 divided by 4 has the quotient 7; and 28000 divided by 7
| Put down the 6 to form the next figure in the
23 Is 4000.
quotient, and subtract 6 times 35-i.e., 210-from
229, leaving a remainder 19. To this annex the last figure (8) 4. To divide 5356 bg 4.
of the dividend, making it 198. 5356 = 5 thousands + 3 hundreds + 5 tens + 6 units.
Then say, the greatest number of times which 35 is contained Now 5 contains 4 opce, with remainder l; therefore 5 thousands lin 198 is 5. Write down the 5 to form the next figure in the contain 4 one thousand times, with remainder 1 thousand.
quotient, and subtract 5 times 35-i.e., 175—from 298, leaving Add this remaining 1 thousand to the 3 hundreds, thus making 13 hundreds.
23. 265 is the required quotient, and 23 is the remainder. Now 13 contains + three times, with remainder 1: therefore 13 hun. Hence 9298 = 265 X 35 + 23. dreds contain three hundred times, with remainder 1 hundred.
8. A careful examination of the above process will show that Add this remaining 1 hundred to the 5 tens, thus making 15 tens. what we have really done is equivalent to saying: 35 is con. Now 15 contains 4 three times, with remainder 3: therefore 15 tens tained in 92 hundreds tuo hundred times, with a remainder 22 contain 4 thirty times, with remainder 3 tens, or 30.
hundred; then, subtracting 200 times 35--- .e., 7 thousand Add this remaining 30 to the 6 units, thus making 36 units.
from 9298, we have 2298 left. Now $6 units contains 4 nine times,
Next we say: 35 is contained in 229 tens sixty times, with a Therefore 1 thousand, 3 hundreds, three tens, and 9 units are the number of times the parts into which 5356 has been divided contain
remainder of 19 tens; then subtracting 60 times 35.-1.e., 2100 tho divisor 4 respectively. Their sum, therefore, is the required
--from 2298, we have 198 left. quotient: this is
Next we say: 35 is contained five times in 198, with a re1 thousand + 3 hundreds + 3 tens + 9 units, i.c. 1339.
mainder 23. 5. The above is the analysis of the following shorter process,
Hence we see that after taking away 35, first, 200 times from and will be seen fully to explain it:
the dividend, again, 60 times from what is left, and again, 5 times Write down the dividend and divigor as in the margin; 4)5356
from what is left, we have 23 units over, a number which is less then say 4 in 5 is contained 1 time, with 1 over. Write
than 35. the quotient 1 under the 5, and placing the remaining
1339 | Hence we see that 35 is contained in 92981 before the next figare of the dividend 3, say, 4 in 13 |
200 + 60 + 5-i.e., 265 times—with a remainder 23.
We might have written down the process thus :
PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE. PRESENT PASSIVE INDICATIVE.
1st per. Moneo, I remind 1st per. Montor, I am reminded 7000
2nd , Monës, thou remindest 2nd , Monēris, thou art reminded
3rd , Mondt, he reminds. 3rd , Monitur, he is reminded. 35) 2298 (60
1st per. Monimus, we remind 1st per, Moněmur, we are reminded 35) 198(5
2nd , Monētis, you remind 2nd , Monēmini, you are reminded 175
3rd Monent, they remind. 3rd , Monëntur, they are reminded
Deběo, 2 I owe. Mordéo, 2 I bite. | Terrčo, 2 I frighten. The quotient is therefore 200 + 60 + 5, or 265, and the Docěo, 2 I teach. Mověo, 2 I move. Timčo, 2 I fear,
Exercèo, 2 I exercise. Parěo, 2 I obey. remainder 23.
Et (conj.) and.
Florèo, 2 I flourish. | Tacěo, 2 I am silont. 9. The above explanations will sufficiently elucidate the
Si (conj.) if.
Gaudčo, 2 I rejoice. Teněo, 2 I hold. following
EXERCISE 5.—LATIN-ENGLISH. Rules for Division :
1. Debes. 2. Dooet. 3. Exercétar. 4. Florémur. 5. Gandémini. (1.) When the divisor contains only one figure, write the 6. Mordentur. 7. Movémus. 8. Movétis. 9. Movent. 10. Times, divisor on the left of the dividend, with a curved line between 11. Timet. 12. Terrétur. 13. Terremini. 14. Debeo parére. 15. Si them. Beginning at the left hand, divide successively each paretis laudamini. 16. Si tacemus laudámur. 17. Docéris et edu. figure of the dividend by the divisor, and place each quotient ciris. 18. Tacent et laudántur. 19. Mórdeor et vulneror. 20. Si
mainder vulneras vituperáris. 21. Tenentur. figure directly under the figure divided. If there be a remainder after dividing any figure, prefix it to the next figure of the
EXERCISE 6.-ENGLISH-LATIN. dividend, and divide the number so formed as before. If there 1. Thou fearest and art frightened. 2. If I am silent I am blamed. occur any figure which does not contain the divisor, place a 3. He rejoices. 4. We rejoice. 5. They rejoice. 6. He tries to bite. cipher in the quotient, and prefix this figure to the next one of 7. We try to educate. 8. Thou obeyest and art praised. 9. We bite, the dividend, as if it were a remainder, and proceed in the same 10. If we bite we are blamed. 11. They exercise. 12. You are moved. manner to the last figure.
13. He dances. 14. They are delighted. 15. You are adorned. (2.) When the divisor contains more than one figure, beginning N.B.-In this exercise, and in those which follow, words and on the left of the dividend, find how many times the divisor is forms previously given are repeated for the sake of practice. contained in the first fewest figures of the dividend which will
THIRD CONJUGATION. contain it, and place the quotient figure on the right hand of the dividend, with a curved line between them; then multiply the
PRESENT INDICATIVE. divisor by this figure, and subtract the product from the figures
PERSON-ENDINGS. divided. To the right of the remainder bring down the next
Plural. figure of the dividend, and divide the number so formed as
Plural. -Imus, we -or, I
mur, we before. If this number be less than the divisor, annex a cipher
thou -itis, ye
-eris, thou -imini, ye to the quotient, and bring down the next figure continuing this
-it, he unt, they. Atur, he untur, they. process until the number thus obtained be equal to or greater than the divisor. Proceed in this manner until all the figures
EXAMPLE.—Rěgěre, to rule or guide: stem, reg. of the dividend are exhausted.
PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE. PRESENT PASSIVE INDICATIVE.
Singular. 10. Tests of Correctness of Dirision :
1st per. Rego, I rule
1st per. Regor, I am ruled (1.) Multiply the divisor by the quotient, and add the re
2nd Regis, thou rulest' And Regeris, thou art ruled mainder to the product. This should, as already explained, give
3rd Regit, he rules. 3rd , Regitur, he is ruled. the dividend.
Plural, (2.) Subtract the remainder, if any, from the dividend, and
1st per. Regimus, ne rule 1st per. Regimur, ve are ruled
2nd , Regitis, you rale 2nd » Regimini, you are ruled divide the difference so obtained by the quotient. The result
3rd , Regunt, they rule. Srd , Reguntur, they are ruled. should be equal to the divisor, if the working be correct.
Cedo, 3 I yield. | Lego, 3 I read. Scribo, 3 rrite.
Defendo, 3 I defend. (1.) Divide 47839 by 42; 75043 by 52; and 93840 by 63.
Diligo, 3 I love. Decido, 3 I fall. Bene (adv.) Well. (2.) Divide 325000 by 85; 421645 by 74; and 999999 by 47.
Fallo, 3 I deceive. Pingo, 3 I paint, I ale (adv.) ni. (3.) Divide 145260 by 1345; and 1912500 by 425.
Lædo, 3 I injure. Pungo, 3 I prick. Valde (adv.) Vuch. (4.) Divide 8893810 by 37846; and 9302688 by 14356. (5.) Divide 9749320 by 365 ; 65358547823 by 2789; and
EXERCISE 7.-LATIN-ENGLISH. 908070605040 by 654321.
1. Fallis. 2. Falhitur. 3. Fallimur. 4. Pallo et vituperor. 5, (6.) Divide 10000000000000000 by 111: 100000000000 by Cedit. 6. Legis. 7. Seribit. & Bene legit. 9. Valde fallis. 10. Si 333; and 10000000000000000 by 111ll.
diligitur gandet. 11. Pangimur. 12. Vincis. 13. Vincim 17.) Divide the product of 12345 multiplied by 67890 by 97,
cuntur. 15. Decidit. 16. Decidis. 17. Si cecidis vituperáris.
18. Bene monet. 19. Male edacáris. 20. Novémur valde. 21. Sal. 213, 4351, 59, 847, and 6939.
támus et gandémus. 22. Leditar. 23. Lædimini. 24. Defenditis.
1. I obey. 2. If I obey I am loved. 3. He is loved much. 4. He PRELIHTSARY INSTRUCTIONS IN THE VERBS OF THE FOUR writes well. 5. They paint ill & They dance well. 7. I rejoice if he
reads mueb. & Thou paintest. 9. They obey and are praised. 10. CONJUGATIONS (continued).
If you rule well you are lored. 11. They defend. 12. You are defended.
13. He is deceirel 14. They are pricked.
- , we thod ise
Emini, yə tur,
ye he sets, they.
bentur, thes. LE-Monere, to remind : stem, mon
EXAMPLE.- Andire, to hear : stem, oud.