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POPULAR EDUCATOR.

INTRODUCTION.

At no period in the history of our country was it less portant events in the history of his country, and to necessary to offer an apology for introducing a national place at the command of the student for the Civil Serwork on Education than at the present time. So keen is vice or University Examinations all the branches of the competitive spirit of the age, that the advantage of education necessary for his advancement, no effort knowledge in the struggle for advancement is apparent will be wanting. Our ambition is to place in every to all. The mighty power of steam applied to railways | English Home an Educational Encyclopædia, invaluable and vessels has developed national and international com as a manual of study and a work of reference, which, munication to a degree not dreamt of at the commence whilst simple, progressive, and interesting in its style, ment of the century. Telegraphy presents to our view shall be powerful for the improvement and the advancethe daily contemporaneous history of the world; and the ment of its students. .. Press, relieved from those shackles which impeded its In the three great departments of knowledge which action and fettered its influence, has become a powerful ! this Work will embrace-History, Science, and Lanmedium for the communication*of thought between the guages—the end of such instruction, viz., its practical leading minds of the age. In the political condition of our application to the affairs of life, will be kept steadily in own country a change has been wrought, the consequences view. Science will be taught not merely as abstract of which the boldest prophet avows his inability to predict, truth or an interesting intellectual exercise, but as but which all parties agree will be fraught with good or embodying in all its branches those principles, a knowevil, according to the degree in which the new recipients ledge of which will explain the various phenomena of of power may be possessed of the knowledge to use that the world, and enable us to avail ourselves more power aright. The necessity of Education, therefore, intelligently, and therefore more successfully, of all the which was fiercely combated when this work first saw varied material with which Nature has supplied us. the light, is now universally admitted, and the mode Instruction in Languages-whether living or deadand the system alone remain to be discussed. So patent will be so conveyed as to enable the student not only to is this, that the illustrious chief of the Conservative understand a given set of books in any particular tongue, Party has been pleased to accept the dedication of this but to make him master of the language itself by work to himself. Gratifying as is this complimentary gradual and easy, but yet real and tangible stages. recognition of the services which the original edition of The Historic Sketches, by means of which we shall the POPULAR EDUCATOR has rendered in the promotion teach History, will, we hope, render that study no longer of National Education, we feel that the basis of our | a mere record of battles, an obituary of kings, a mighty present claim upon the co-operation of all the friends of chaos of incident; but will illustrate how each nation has that great movement consists in this—that our system discharged its functions in the world's history-how each has been tested, its efficiency has been proved, whilst a epoch has played its part in the drama of a nation's life. sale of 500,000 copies has testified, on the part of those A reference to our list of contents will show that under for whom it was designed, their appreciation of the work | various heads will be included every branch of study and their estimate of its value.

which can possibly be useful in the varied walks of life. But some twenty years have elapsed since the POPULAR The great aim and object of this Work is to enable EDUCATOR first issued from the press, and during that the people to educate themselves. We have only to ask period considerable advances have been made in many of them to realise the magnitude and grandeur of the work the departments of knowledge. To perfect the work in in which they will be engaged if they determine to do accordance with all the discoveries up to the present so. Obstacles will be overcome by united resolution. day, we have found it necessary to introduce many new Every difficulty surmounted will be additional strength subjects, and to re-model many of our old lessons, and for further victories. A good education is the best we shall spare no expense in making these changes as legacy we can leave to our children. It is the best complete as possible. To amuse, to instruct, to elevate, investment we can make for ourselves. The educated will be our constant endeavour. To render the work. man in every walk of life carries with him his own man more perfect in his vocation, the soldier and sailor capital-a capital unaffected by monetary crisis-an better fitted for the higher positions of his profession, investment whose interest is not regulated by the the naturalist more conversant with the beauties of success of speculation-a legacy which none can dispute, Nature, the politician further acquainted with the im. and of which none can deprive.

VOL. I.

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The following ter combinations of tliree successive vowels are LESSONS IN FRENCH.-I.

| also called diphthongs, namely :IN commencing these Lessons in French, instead of beginning

iai aiu ieu 012 oue ouiuai uei with a long chapter exclusively devoted to the pronunciation of

uie words, and the variations which are caused in the sounds of vowels and consonants by changes in their relative position, we

These diphthongs are thus divided into syllables :have thought it best to enter at once into the construction i-ai i-au i-ou ou-a ou-e ou-i u-ai of the language, and endeavour, without unnecessary delay, in

u-ei

u-ie as plain a manner as possible, to make our readers familiar with

They must, however, be pronounced quickly, and as one syllable. its various idioms and peculiarities. The Section on French pronunciation will be divided into several portions, one of

Sometimes, also, we find four successive vowels in the same which will be given at the commencement of each lesson in

in word, namely: . French, until the subject is exhausted.

ouai
in the word

jou-ai,
oueu

jou-eur, SECTION 1.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION.

ouée

bou-ée. I. THE FRENCH ALPHABET.

The first example-ouai, is composed of two compound vowels, t. A tolerable pronunciation of any spoken language may be viz.: ou and ai. acquired by imitating the sounds of that language, as uttered by The second example-oueu, is also composed of two componnd a living teacher. But the reading and writing of any language vowels, viz.: ou and eu. cannot thus be learnt. The pupil must bring into requisi. In the last example-ouée, the final e is silent, and the three tion something else besides his imitative powers, if he would vowels are thus divided, viz. : ou and é. thoroughly comprehend any language. The alphabet of the 13. THE VOWEL Y.-The vowel y is frequently found comlanguage to be learnt must be exhibited and swamined, and bined with other vowels, but in such combinations it is never then mastered.

used as a diphthong. Its use in combination is peculiar, and 2. An alphabet is a collection of different characters called will be fully explained hereafter. letters, each of which represents its own peculiar sound. These 14. THE NASAL VOWEL SOUNDS.---There are certain sounds letters differ from each other in name, form, size, and sound. called nasal vowel sounds, produced by the combination of the Used as vehicles of thought, they must not only be familiar vowels with the consonants m and n, namely:to the eye, but their use, both singly and combined, must be

im om um ym understood.

an en in on u n yn. 3. Two objects are to be before the student whilst perusing these preliminary lessons on French pronunciation, namely :

These sounds will be explained hereafter. First.---The acquisition of the correct pronunciation of the

| 15. THE NASAL DIPHTHONGAL Sounds.—There are also various sounds of the letters of the French alphabet.

certain sounds called nasal diphthongal sounds, produced by Second.-To learn how to combine and use these sounds,

the combination of nasal vowel sounds with a vowel, not nasal, in order to read the French language easily, intelligibly, and

before them, namely:profitably.

ian ien ion uan uin ouan cain. 4. The first object will be accomplished by the aid of analogous These sounds will also be explained hereafter. English sounds; that is, every sound represented by a letter or

er or

16

16. THE LIQUIDS.---The following combinations of the concombination of letters of the French alphabet, will be unfolded,

sonants are called liquids, namely:analysed, and defined, as far as possible, by means of analogous sounds of a letter or combination of letters of the English

11 gn. alphabet.

The sounds of these liquids are very common in the French 5. The second object will be accomplished by learning a few language, and will be explained hereafter. brief and simple rules, illustrated and enforced by appropriate examples.

SECTION II.-THE ARTICLE. 6. Diligent attention, patient labour, and a determination to succeed, will enable the learner to overcome every obstacle, and 1. In French the article [$ 13 (2)]* has, in the singular, a thus make him master of a languago, not only exceedingly distinct form for each gender, as:difficult for foreigners to acquire, but beautiful in itself, and

Le fils, the son.

La fille, the daughter, the girl. co-existent with the triumphs of civilisation.

Lo frère, the brother. La scur, the sister. 7. The student's attention is next directed to the French 2. Before a word commencing with a vowel or an h mute, the alphabet. While the English alphabet contains twenty-six final e or a of the article le or la is cut off, and replaced by an letters, in the French alphabet there are only twenty-five. It apostrophe, leaving the article apparently the same for both has no letter which corresponds to the English w, though it is genders ($ 13 (7)], as :occasionally found in French books. It is used only in foreign

L'aïeul [1(e) aïeul], the grandfather. words, and then pronounced like the English v.

L'aieule ri(a) aienle, the grandmother. 8. The French alphabet is divided into vowels and consonants.

L'hôte [1(e) hôte], the landlord. 9. THE VOWELS.—The vowels aro six in number, namely:

L'hôtesse (1(a) hôtesse), the landlady. a 6 i 0 u y .

3. There are in French only two genders, the masculine and 10. THE CONSONANTS.—The remaining letters of the alpha

the feminine ($ 4]. Every noun, whether denoting an animato bet, nineteen in number, are called consonants, namely:

or inanimate object, belongs to one of these two genders.

Masc. L'homme, the man. FEM. La femme, the woman. b c d f g h j k l in

Le livre, the book.

La table, the talle. n p q r s t V X Z.

L'arbre, the tree.

La plume, the pon. 11. THE COMPOUND VOWELS.- There are seven compound

Le lion, the lion.

La lionne, the lioness. vowels, namely

4. AVOIR, TO HAVE, IN THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE. ai au eau ei eu oi ou.

Afirmatively. They are thus called because, being united together, each | SING. J'ai,

I have. | PLUR. Nous avons, We hare. vowel loses its own simple sound, and helps to form another

Tu as (8 33 (1) (2)]Thou hast. Vous avez,

You have. new sound. They form but one syllable, and are consequently

He has.

Ils ont, m., They hare, Elle a,

She has. I s the Elles ont, f., They have. pronounced by one emission of the voice. 12. THE DIPHTHONGS.-There are six diphthongs, namely:ia ie io ua ue ui.

References thus [$ 13 (2)] refer to Sections in Part II. of these

Lessons, but by references in Roman numerals, thus, [Sect. I. 30] the They are thus called because, though pronounced as one learner is directed to Sections in Part I., the portion of our " Lessons syllable, the sound of both vowels is distinctly heard.

in French” which we are now commencing.

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Interrogatively.

4. The name of the material of which an object is composed Sexy, Ai-je ?

Have I? PLUR. Avons-nous ? Have we? | always follows the name of the object; the two words being As-tu ?

Hast thou ? Avez-vous ? Have you? connected by the preposition de ($ 76 (11)], as :-
A-t-il ?
Has he?

Ont-ils? m. Have they?
A-t-elle ?

L'habit de drap,
Ont-elles ? f.
Has she ?
Have they?

The cloth coat,
La robe de soie,

The silk dress, 5. The e of the pronoun je is elided, when that pronoun comes

La montre d'or,

The gold watch, before a vowel or an h mute, and replaced by an apostrophe, as

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. J'ai J(e)ail, I have, as above ($ 146].

6. In interrogative sentences, when the third person singular of Le tailleur a l'habit de drap du The tailor has the plıysician's cloth 3 verb ends with a vowel, and is immediately followed by a pro

médecin.

coat. porn, the letter t, called euphonic [Sect. I. 30], must be placed be

Vous avez la lettre de la sceur du You have the baker's sister's letter boulanger.

(the letter of the sister of the baker). tween the verb and the pronoun, and joined by two hyphens, as:

A-t-il le livre de la dame ?

Has he tho lady's book ?
A-t-il? Has he ? I A-t-elle ? Has she?

VOCABULARY.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

| Argent, m., silver, ! Couteau, m., lenife. Porte-crayon, m., Le père a la viande, vous avez le The father has tho meat, you have the

1 money,
Cuir, m., leather,

pencil-case. café, et j'ai l'eau.

coffee, and I have the water.
Bas, m., stocking. Dame, f., lady.

Robe, f., dress. L'homme a le pain, l'enfant a le The man has the bread, the child has

Bois, m., wood.
Drap, m., cloth.

Satin, m., satin. sel, et nous avons le poivre. the salt, and we have the pepper,

Chapeau, m., hat. Foin, m., hay.

Sæur, f., sister.
VOCABULARY.
Charpentier, m., car Habit, m., coat.

Soie, f., silk.
penter.
Laine, 1., wool.

Soulier, m., shoe. Avoine, L., oats. Madame, Madam. Qui, who

Cordonnier, m., shoe Médecin,m.,physician. Table, f., table. Blé, m., theat. Mademoiselle, Miss. Sel, m., salt.

maker.

Montre, f., watch. Tailleur, m., tailor, Boucher, m., butcher. Meunier, m., miller, Seulement, only.

Coton, m., cotton. Or, m., gold.
Boulanger, m., baker. Monsieur, Mr., Sir. Table, f., table.
Cheval, m., horse. Non, no.
Thé, m., tea.

EXERCISE 3.
Et, end.
Oui, yes.
Viande, f., meat.

To be translated into English.
Farine, f., Rour. Pain, m., bread. Vin, m., wine.

1. Avez-vous la montre d'or ? 2. Oui, Madame, j'ai la Frère, m., brother. Plume, f., pen.

Vinaigre, m., vinegar.

montre d'or et le chapeau de soie. 3. Monsieur, avez-vous le Livre, m., book.

livre du tailleur ? 4. Non, Monsieur, j'ai le livre du médecin. Ors.--Note and remember that the noun livre, book, is masculine, but the Dours livre, a pound (in weight), and livre, a piece of money equiva

5. Ont-ils le pain du boulanger ? 6. Ils ont le pain du boulanlent to a franc, are feminine.

ger et la farine du meunier. 7. Avez-vous le porte-crayon EXERCISE 1.

d'argent ? 8. Oui, Monsieur, nous avons le porte-crayon To be translated into English.

d'argent. 9. Avons-nous l'avoine du cheval? 10. Vous avez

l'avoine et le foin du cheval. 1. Qui a le pain ?

11. Qui a l'habit de drap du 2. Le boulanger a le pain. 3. A-t-il la

charpentier ? faride : 4. Oni, Monsieur, il a la farine. 5. Avons-nous la

12. Le cordonnier a le chapeau de soie du tail.

leur. 13. Le tailleur a le soulier de cuir du cordonnier, rande? 6. Oai, Monsieur, vous avez la viande et le pain. 7. Le meunier a la farine. 8. Le boulanger a la farine et le

14. Avez-vous la table de bois ? 15. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai la

table de bois du charpentier. 16. Ont-ils le couteau d'argent ? blé. 9. Avons-nous le livre et la plume ? 10. Oui, Mademoi

17. Ils ont le couteau d'argent. 18. Le frère du médecin a la selle, vous avez le livre et la plume. 11. Le boucher a la riande. 12. Lo meunier a la viande et j'ai le café. 13. Avez

montre d'argent. 19. La scur du cordonnier a la robe de

soie. 20. A-t-elle le soulier de cuir? 21. Non, Madame, elle a vous l'eau et le sel ? 14. Oui, Monsieur, nous avons l'eau, le el, et l'avoine.

le soulier de satin. 22. Avons-nous le bas de laine ? 23. Non, 15. Avons-nous le thé ? 16. Non, Monsieur,

Monsieur, vous avez le bas de soie du tailleur. 24. Qui a le bas la fille & le thé, le vinaigre, et le sel. 17. Ai-je le vin ? 18.

de coton ? 25. Le médecin a le bas de coton. 26. La dame a Non, Madame, vous avez seulement le vinaigre et la viande.

| le soulier de satin de la seur du boulanger. 19. Avez-vous la table? 20. Oui, Madame, j'ai la table.

EXERCISE 4.
EXERCISE 2.

To be translated into French.
To be translated into French.

1. Have you the tailor's book? 2. No, Sir, I have the 1. Have you the wheat ? 2. Yes, Sir, I have the wheat. physician's watch. 3. Who has the cold watch ? 4. The lady 3. Who has the meat ? 4. The butcher has the meat and the

itcher has the meat and the has the gold watch and the silver pencil-case. 5. Have you salt. 5. Has he the oats P, 6. No, Madam, the horse has the the tailor's shoe ? 6. I have the tailor's cloth shoe. 7. Have oats. 7. Have we the wheat? 8. You have the wheat and the

we the wooden table? 8. Yes, Sir, you have the wooden table. four. 9. Who has the salt? 10. I have the salt and the meat.

9. Have they the silver knife ? 10. They have the silver knife. 11. Have we the vinegar, the tea, and the coffee ? 12. No,

11. The lady has the silver knife and the gold pencil-case. Sir, the brother has the vinegar. 13. Who has the horse ?

12. Has she the satin dress ? 13. The physician's sister has 14. The baker has the horse. 15. Have we the book and the these

the satin dress. 14. Who has the wood ? 15. The carpenter's pen? 16. No, Miss, the girl has the pen, and the miller has

brother has the wood. 16. Have you the woollen stockings ? the book. 17. Have you the table, Sir? 18. No, Sir, I have

17. No, Sir, I have the cotton stockings. 18. Who has the only the book. 19. Who has the table ? 20. We have the

baker's bread ? 19. We have the baker's bread and the mil. table, the pen, and the book.

ler's flour. 20. Have we the horse's hay? 21. You have the SECTION III.-THE ARTICLE (Continued).

horso's oats. 22. Have we the tailor's silk hat? 23. Yes, 1. The article le, with the preposition de preceding, must be

Sir, you have the tailor's silk hat and the shoemaker's leather can tracted into du, when it comes before a word in the mascu

shoe. 24. Have you the cloth shoe of the physician's sister? Cene singular, commencing with a consonant or an h aspirated | 25. No, Madam, I have the lady s silk dress. 13 (8) (9)], as :Du frère, of the brother,

Du château, of the castie.
Du héros, of the hero.
Du chemin, of the way.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-I. 2. Before feminine words, and before masculine words com. EARLY NOTIONS; THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE SCRIPTURES. Dedcing with a vowel or an h mute, the article is not blended

The term Geography is derived from two Greek words, wm, the with the preposition, as :

earth, and ypaon, a description (pronounced ghee and grá-phe), De la dampe, f., of the lady. I De l'amie, f., of the fomale friend. | and simply means a description of the earth's surface; it is thereDe l'argent, m., of the money. De l'honneur, m., of the honour. fore rightly applied to that science which treats of the natural

3. In French, the name of the possessor follows the name of outline and extent, the political division and constitution, the the object possessed [8 76 (10)], as :

eivil and social condition, and the industrial wealth and populaLa maison du médecin, The physician's house.

tion of the various countries, kingdoms, and states which have L'arbre du jardin, Tho tree of the garden,

appeared, or which now exist on the face of the globe. GeoLa lettre de la seur, The sister's letter.

| phy includes also the description of the form of the eart

motions, its place in the solar system, the great circles supposed possessing all those antiquated notions in science, particularly to be drawn on its surface, and its position in the heavens by in geography and astronomy, which the uninstructed tribos of which it is surrounded on all sides; the diversified nature of Asia, Australasia, and Polynesia possess at the present day. its surface, as seen in its mountains, valloys, plains, rivers, seas, “The Hebrews," says an eminent writer, “obviously never and oceans, and in the constitution and phenomena of the attempted to form any scientific theory respecting the structure atmosphere by which it is enveloped, as in a swaddling band; of the earth. The natural impression which represents it as a and the different races of animals, including man, and the flat surface, with the heaven as a firmament or curtain spread various kinds of vegetable and mineral productions which are over it, is found to be universally prevalent. Beneath was distributed over its surface.

conceived to be a deep pit, the abode of darkness and the It will be sufficient for our purpose, in this first lesson, to shadow of death. In one place we find the grand image of the state generally that the form or shape of the earth is that of a earth being hung upon nothing ; but elsewhere the pillars of the globe or ball, and that the height of the highest mountains on earth are repeatedly mentioned ; and sometimes the pillars of its surface is so small in comparison with the size of the earth, heaven. In short, it is evident that every writer eanght the and interfere so little with its rotundity, or roundness, that this idea impressed on his senses and imagination by the view of height has about the same proportion to the diameter of the these grand objects, without endeavouring to arrange them into earth, which the thickness of common writing-paper has to the any regular system.” We have quoted this passage as a diameter of a twelve-inch terrestrial globe. The ancients had specimen of the loose style of writing and thinking regarding

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no such knowledge of the earth as we now possess; and though the science of the sacred Scriptures. The style of these some of the most intellectual of the philosophers of Greece, such writings, in the places above referred to, is highly poetical; and as the famous Pythagoras, are supposed to have reached the who, we would ask, expects to find didactic theories in a poem ? notion of its globular form, it was buried under a cloud of errors The poet seizes the phenomena of nature as they appear to the and extravagances.

eye, and enlarges, magnifies, or arranges them at pleasure ; he To the most extended view which the human eye can take of is not tied to rules, nor confined to the language of the any part of the surface of the earth, even from the highest schools. To do so, would destroy his poetry, and reduce his eminence found on that surface, it appears to be one vast and imagination to an automaton. The book of Job, in which these illimitable plain, diversified by hill and dale, land and water, grand expressions are found, is the oldest book in the world. mountain and valley. The heavens appear to be a luminous It was written long before the time of Moses ; and though found dome above the head of the observer, bespangled with stars at in the Hebrew language, it was evidently not written by a night, and they seem to rest on the surface of the earth at an Hebrew. It is curious, however, that the writer of this book immense and immeasurable distance. He feels as if he would should have lighted upon such a striking fact, as that the earth be afraid to travel so far, either on land or sea, as to reach the hangs upon nothing! Had this been found in a Chinese or a limit which he supposes must ultimately be found to this Hindoo book, possessing such claims to antiquity as the Hebrew surface, lest he fall over into an interminable abyss; and he book, it would have been lauded to the skies as a proof of supposes that the phenomena of the heavens are confined to the superior knowledge, and would have been held as an infallible upper and visible concave which he beholds, while his imagina- proof that the Chinese or the Hindoos, ages ago, were actually tion dooms all beneath his feet to death and everlasting oblivion. acquainted with the facts of modern science. Such were the limited notions which prevailed at an early period. The game writer looks to Phænicia for the origin of geograin the history of the world; and it is one great proof of the phical knowledge; and there can be no doubt that, being somo antiquity and authenticity of the sacred Scriptures, that they of the earliest merchants and traders both by sea and land, the describe men as they really were in ancient times, and as Phænicians must have been among the first nations of the world

who acquired some knowledge of its surface, and of the countries The River meant the great river, the river Euphrates. On it then contained. It is admitted that the tenth chapter of its banks stood tho mighty capitals of Assyria and Babylon, Genesis contains a view of the known divisions of the earth at and there flourished the most renowned empires of antiquity. an early period, and that it agreos in some striking particulars Hero also was supposed to have been the seat of Paradise, or with the records of profane history! It is also acknowledged the garden of Eden. Thus saith the poet:that Ezekiel visited Tyre, as Herodotus did Babylon, with the “Seek not for Paradise, with curions eye, ere of an intelligent observer; and it is considered probable

In Asiatic climes, where Tigris' wave, that he held intercourse with the best-informed men in that

Mixed with Euphrates in tumultuous joy, great school of commerce and navigation. The geographical

Doth the broad plains of Babylonia lave. boundaries to which he alludes are considered as placed at the

'Tis gone with all its charms, and, like a dream,

Like Babylon itself, is swept away; farthest limits of their knowledge--viz. Tarshish, Ophir, the Isles,

Bestow one tear upon the mournful theme, Sheba and Dedan, the River, Gog and Magog, and the North.

But let it not thy gentle heart dismay. Tarshish is deemed, with very great probability, to have been

For know, wherever love and virtue guide, the name used in Scripture for Africa. It appears to havo

They lead us to a state of heavenly peace; belonged originally to a great African city, called Carthage in

Where bliss, unknown to guilt and shame, preside, later times, and well known from its rivalry to Rome; it was

And pleasures walloyed each hour increase." afterwards extended to the whole continent of which that | Along the countries situated between the Euphrates and the city might be considered the metropolis ; but especially to that Tigris, and on both sides of these rivers, Ezekiel mentions a division of it, now known by the name of Northern Africa, ex- ! number of cities, as Haran, Canneh, Eden, Asshur, etc., from clusive of Egypt and tho countries adjacent to the Arabian Gulf. which great caravans proceeded to Tyre with cloths and other This division was called by the Romans Africa Propria, that is, valuable commodities. These appear to have been brought Africa Proper, and included Carthage; and Jerome calls al overland across the countries of Asia, and probably by interior voyage to Tarshish an “ African voyage.” This also solves a caravans from Hindostan and the borders of China, the native difficulty which has been found in the Scriptural accounts of country of silk. two different voyages to Tarshish; the one up the Mediter! The North, and Gog and Magog, described by Ezekiel, have ranean Sea, from the Strait of Gibraltar, bringing iron, silver, been considered as denoting the Scythian hordes of warriors lead, and tin, the produce of Spain and Britain (Ezek. xxvii. who invaded the south, and carried away "silver and gold and 12); and the other, up the Red Sca, or Arabian Gulf, from tho a great spoil." But tho passages in which the North is menStrait of Bab-el-mandeb, bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, tioned are, with more reason, supposed to refer to the high and peacocks, the produce of Central Africa (1 Kings x. 22). table-lands in the interior and the north of Asia Minor, Phrygia,

Ophir, as being connected with Tarshish and Sheba in the Galatia, Cappadocia, and Paphlagonia. The imports from theso voyages of Solomon's ships for gold and other produce, is rightly regions were "vessels of brass and persons of men.” These considered as a part of Africa, which indeed appears highly pro- countries are famous for their produce in copper, iron, and steel bable from the similarity of the name. The eastern coast is to this day; and their trade in slaves for the supply of harems the quarter to which all the indications seem evidently to point. is equally notorious. Horses and mules are also mentioned as In the voyage to Tarshish by the Red Sea, the name of Ophir brought from the same quarter; and this trade also has been is also mentioned, and in one case the latter is substituted for found a branch of the traffic carried on in the upland tracts the former (2 Chron. ix. 10). But we have seen that Tarshish of Paphlagonia. Thus we have given a succinct view of the is a name for one part of Africa; now, Ophir is a name for ancient geography recognised in the Scriptures. another part of the same continent. As gold is the produce of Ophir, we must look to that part where it is to be found. This, for the sake of consistency in the history of the voyage, can

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-I. only be Sofala, where abundance of gold is said to exist, and

INTRODUCTION. whence it could easily be brought in ships through the Red Sea ABOUT to write a series of lessons in English, I think it desirable to Sheba in Arabia ; from the Strait of Bab-el-mandeb it could to let the readers of the POPULAR EDUCATor know what they either be carried overland through this country to Jerusalem, may expect. In general, then, I intend to exhibit the facts of or it could be transported up the gulf to the place now called the language and the productions of the language. The facts Snez, whence it could readily be brought into the palace of of the language, if systematically presented, will involve the Solomon the king.

laws of the language; and the productions of the language, hisThe Isles, the isles of the Gentiles, the isles of the sea, the torically treated, will comprise the literature of the language. isles of Chittim and of Elishah, all point out the islands which the facts of the language and the productions of the language abound in the Mediterranean, which is called “the sea" and thus regarded, will obviously lead the careful student to a know** the great sea" in Scripture. These are acknowledged to be ledge of the language. Nor without both the facts and the Sicily and the other islands belonging to Italy and Spain; the productions can any one possess an acquaintance with the lani-lands of Greece, a country almost wholly insular and penin-guage. A knowledge of any language implies a familiarity with sular; and the islands of Cyprus and Crete (Candia), with its literature, and a familiarity with the facts or laws of its various other smaller islands scattered through the Archipelago, construction. You cannot have the one without the other, any and lying on the west of Asia Minor.

more than you can know the principles of Grecian art, unless Arabia Felix, or Arabia the Happy, is considered to be the you have studied its masterpieces. Apart from the literature country anciently called Sheba or Sabæa. Its trade was in gold of a language, you cannot know its grammar; apart from the and incense; and it was carried on by caravans which came grammar of a language, you cannot know its literature. The from the coast, where they had been imported from Ophir. The literature of a language is the organic life, whose laws grammar * companies of Sheba” are mentioned in Job-a fact which has to learn and expound. The grammar of a language is shows the antiquity of its commerce; and the "multitude of merely a systematic exposition of the laws observed in the comits camels" are spoken of in Isaialı-another fact which shows position of its literature. Henco you see that an acquaintanco ita value and long continuance. The commerce of Dedan rivalled with the literature of a language should precede the study of that of Sheba. It came up the Persian Gulf from the Strait of its grammar. Indeed, the productions of a language are earlier Ormuz. The imports were ivory and cbony, and“ precious than its grammar. Men pronounced sentences, delivered clothes” for chariots. These were the commodities of India, speeches, composed and sang poems, long before they had any and they were carried across the desert of Arabia, or Arabia idea of the rules of which grammar is made up. First was the Descrta, into Petra, the capital of Arabia Petræa, or Arabia the thought; then came the utterance, and out of many utterances Stony, which consisted chiefly of the ancient country of Idumea, at last grow the science of grammar. Grammar has no other or Edom. The inhabitants of Dedan were only the merchants function than to learn and set forth the laws of a language, who brought the produce of India to the capital of Edom, as a which have been already observed by some great writer or great depót for the supply of the countries lying to the north and the writers. Long posterior to Homer was the criticism which in west of it, and "the travelling companies of Dedanim" might Greece gave birth to grammar. consist of native Hindoo or Asiatic traders, whose home was on The knowledge of the grammar of a language, then, does not the deep.

involve a knowledge of the language itself. Still less are the

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