yellow fever with the plague. Not' to insist on the difference of the symptoms, we would only remind him that many respectable writers have of late denied that the yellow fever is communicable by infection. Respecting the plague, this was never doubted. The only difficulty consisted in limiting the sphere of its contagion.-Had this opinion related to a subject merely speculative, we should not have returned to it: but, as the dread of infection from America might produce serious evils, if the translator's assertions were admitted, it is proper to object to them before an alarm be excited, which might preclude accuracy of reasoning at a time when discrimination would be most necessary.


Art. XV. A Defence of the Cesárean Operation, with Observations.

on Embryulcia, and the Section of the Symphysis Pubis, ad.
dressed to Mr. W. Simmons, of Manchester, Author of Reflections
on the Propriety of performing the Cesarean Operation. By John
Hull, M. D. Secretary of the Literary and Philosophical Society
of Manchester. 8vo. pp. 229. and Six Plates. 35. 6d. Boards.

Bickerstaff. 1799. .
W HEN Mr. Simmons's “ Reflections were noticed in our

Review for February last, it did not appear that they
were levelled against any particular instance of the Cæsarean
operation :--but we now find that the author of this Defence
had lately performed it unsuccessfully in Manchester, and that
he thinks himself highly aggrieved by Mr. Simmons's publica-
tion. What previous differences might have fomented the ani.
mosity displayed in the present letter, it is impossible for us
to conjecture : but we regret to see a controversy, on a question
of great importance to the community, debased by so much
personal asperity. Whether so painful and dangerous an ope.
ration as the Cæsarean Section ought or ought not to be per-
formed, in certain circumstances, is a problem about the solu.
tion of which two medical men may fairly and candidly differ;
and their readers 'would willingly compare the arguments pro-
duced by each, in support of his opinion. We took up the
volume before us with the expectation of seeing new light
thrown on the subject, from the cases promised by the Author,
and from the different sources of information to which he
seems to have resorted :-but he occupies so large a portion' of
his book with attempts to prove that his antagonist is ignorant
of Greek and Latin, and shews so much anxiety to give an
odious turn to every passage that is capable of misconstruction,
that we were tempted to close his performance in disgust, be-
fore we arrived at the argumentative part.
REY, MAY5, 1799


: We shall not hazard an opinion, whether the operation be in all cases inadmissible : but we must own that Dr. Hull has not furnished any additional strength to its supporters. His own experience is unfavourable to the cause which he espouses, for he informs us that he has twice performed it without saving his patients; and the synoptical table, which he has drawn up, exhibiting a brief view of the cases of this operation on record, presents, only melancholy proofs of its fatal consequences. : Qut of seyenteen patients who underwent the section in these kingdoms, only two appear to have recovered ; and one of these cases Dr. Hull acknowleges to have been a y case of gastrotomy; the child having.escaped into the cavity of

the abdomen, through a laceration of the uterus, previously to the operation.

The inference which Dr. Hull draws from the want of success in these cases, compared with the frequent success of the operation on the Continent, is, that surgeons in this country have delayed the performance of it too long; and that, if it were earlier practised, it would prove less fatal to the mo. ther. On this subject, he will perhaps form more accurate distinctions, in the larger work which he promises : but we cannot suppose that he would perform it, as he informs us (p. 99) that Professor Sandifort of Leyden has done, in a case in which the delivery might have been effected by the crotchet, without much difficulty; though an adversary might draw such an inference from his expressions. Since the publication of Dr. Osborne's Cases, we had understood that the minds of practitioners in this country had received a very different im. pression; and that they now hoped to deliver by the crotchet, and to save the mother, in cases which were formerly supposed to require the Cæsarean Operation, and in which the parent's life must probably have been sacrificed.

We think that this author would have obtained a more fa. vourable audience from the public, if his defence had been offered with more diffidence. The severity of his personal reflections is still more reprehensible. It is an implied disrespect for the public; who, in every contest of this nature, are interested only in the strength of the arguments, and must be to. tally unconcerned respecting the private character of the disputants; excepting in those cascs in which the evidence of facts depends on their veracity. · The plates accompanying this volume exhibit views and sections of the pelvis, in some deformed patients mentioned in the letter. They are but indifferently executed. A pamphlet in reply, by Mr. Simmons, is just published.

Fer... Art.

Art. XVI. Substance of the Speech of the Right Honourable Henry

Addington, Speaker of the House of Commons, on the 12th of February 1799, in the Committee of the whole House, to whom his Majesty's most gracious Message of the 22d January, relative to Ireland, was referred. 2d Edition. 8vo. 18. Wright. The information which this speech manifests and conveys, 1 the fairness of its arguments, and the considerate atten. tion which it displays towards the interests of both countries, entitle it to a superior degree of public notice. Of the many orations in favour of the measure, we do not recollect to have seen any more temperate, or, within an equal compass, more comprehensive.-The Right Honourable Speaker, remarking on the state of Ireland, observes that even at a period of apparent tranquillity, it was impossible not to discover those seeds of animosity, which have unhappily been matured by circumstances into insurrection and rebellion.' In considering the different plans which have been proposed for restoring tranquillity to Ireland, and for . perpetuating her connection with Great Britain, Catholic emancipation; the re-enacting of the Popery laws, in the whole or in part; and an incorporation of the legis. latures of the two countries, are selected as those measures which have been most strongly recommended.

Agreeing, we believe, in the opinion that Catholic emancipa. tion is coupled with parliamentary reform, Mr. Addington adopts the objection of Mr. Foster, (the Speaker of the Irish House,) “ that it has the tendency to give the influence to numbers, and to take it from property; and to overwhelm the rights of the protestants of Ireland.” The re-enactment of the penal laws against the Catholics he likewise condemns, as being ill adapted to heal the divisions of Ireland; 'nor could it have the effect of conveying to the Protestants a greater degree of con fidence and security, by allaying the irritation of the Catholics.' Both the foregoing plans being rejected, the measure of a Legis. - lative Union comes next under consideration.

Here we wish to observe that Catholic emancipation would in itself be a partial reform of parliament. Whether, beyond that, it is necessarily connected with parliamentary reform, we cannot pretend to determine. The restrictions on the Roman Catholics of Ireland are justifiable only on the principles of self-defence, as being necessary to the safety of the Protestants. It is on all hands acknowleged that the influ. ence of the Catholics, supposing them to be restored to their political rights, would be much less, and of course less dangerous, in an united legislature, than in the present separate legislature of Ireland. If, then, consistently with safety, CaG 2


Both the nion comish to vtial reforconnected.

Here we be in necessarily dete beyond, we cannholics of Dis being menowleg

tholic emancipation might be coupled with a legislative union, (against which the arguments that we have seen do not appear $0 strong as those which have been offered in favour of such a measure, the number of those who would be justly gratified would be out of all proportion greater, than of those who would thereby have reasonable cause of dissatisfaction..

The project of an Union, the Right Hon. Speaker shews, was countenanced by some of the most distinguished and able statesmen of the last century: Sir Matthew Decker, Sir William Petty, Mr. Molineux, and Sir Josiah.Child. In speaking of the effect of the union with Scotland, it is remarked that

• The animosity between the two nations, immediately previous to the Union, was such, as to have led them to the verge of hostilities ; and that the grounds of distrust, and complaint, were thereby en. tirely done away. He also observed, that there were circumstances tending to facilitate an intimate connexion between this country and Ireland, and to incorporate the people of those kingdoms, which did not belong to the relation in which England and Scotland stood to cach other. It would be recollected, amongst other illustrations of this observation, that here, and in Ireland, there was the same code of civil and criminal law; the same forms for the administration of justice, and for the purposes of legislation; the same succession to the crown; and the same established religion. · Other arguments are advanced to prove that, besides contributing to the general safety of the empire by leading to a co. incidence of views and sentiments in the great body of the people, an Union would, in many more respects, be beneficial to the people of Ireland, both of the Protestant and of the Roman Catholic persuasion. The sentiments in the following part of this speech, nearly at its close, cannot fail of being ada. mired for the just respect which they shew for the rights and the feelings of other men:

Some Gentlemen had entertained an opinion which, he acknow. ledged, was entitled to serious attention and consideration'; that, as the proposed measure had been discountenanced by the House of Commons in Ireland, to persist in the discussion of it here, would be to add to the irritation which unhappily prevails in that country. Such an effect he should sincerely lament, and should be sorry to have any share in producing. There were other consequences, how: ever, which it was of the utmost importance to avert. If the parlia. ment of this country were to abstain from declaring the conditions upon which it would be disposed to incorporate itself with the par, liament of Ireland, it was impossible not to be aware of the opportunity and scope which would be afforded for misconception, suspicion, and misrepresentation. .• He trusted that we should adopt such résolutions as would rather tend to appease; than to inflame ; such as would be a pledge of our 13

liberality, liberality, and our justice: that we should manifest the earnestness and sincerity of our wishes to communicate to Ireland a full participation of all the advantages we enjoy ; that we should prove our. selves desirous of considering the inhabitants of the two countries as one people, connected together by the closest ties under the same Constitution, the same Parliament, and the same King.

• He had understood that, if the Resolutions which had been opened should be agreed to, it would be proposed that they should be carried to the foot of the Throne, accompanied by an Address to his Majesty. In that Address he hoped, and was persuaded, that no sentiments or expressions would be introduced which jealousy might misinterpret, or malice pervert : that there would be no indication of a wish on our part to press the consideration of the question upon the Legislature of Ireland ; and that no impulse would be given to it, but what it might derive from the free and unbiassed opinions, and dispassionate judgment of the Parliament and People of that kingdom.'

We have never heard the character of Mr. Speaker Addington mentioned without respect; and we never contemplate his conduct without feeling that respect justified and strengthened.


For MAY, 1799.

Art. 17. Observations and Experiments on the Broad-leaded Willow

Bark, illustrated with Cases. By W. White, Apothecary to the
Bath City Infirmary and Dispensary. 8vo. pp. 59. Is. 6d.

Vernor and Hood.
Since the introduction of this bark into practice at the Bath City

Infirmary and Dispensary, as a substitute for the Peruvian bark, we are told, not less than twenty pounds á-year have been saved to the Charity. If an equal degree of good can be effected by the willow-bark, its cheapness certainly renders it an object of attention to the governors of similar institutions. It has long been recommended in agues, instead of bark: but its use has never been generally adopted by the faculty.

The common dose, Mr. White tells us, is tipo table-spoons full of the decoction, three or four times in a day : but, in intermittents, it is necessary to give one or two ounces every three hours. The form of the decoction consists of two ounces of broad-leaved willow bark, boiled in two pints of water to one pint, with the addition of a drachm of pimento.

Mr. W. conceives this remedy to be little inferior in efficacy to the Peruvian bark. The willow bark he has hardly ever found to disagree with the stomach or bowels; a circumstance greatly in its fayour. The superior bitter quality of the Peruvian bark seems to be its chief claim to a preference before the willow bark. G 3


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