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but on the whole of the facts of atmospheric illusion there is certainly much room for speculation and research.
On the cold Winds which issue out of the Earth. Professor De Saussure, M. Chaptal, and others, have given an account of caves in various countries, out of which a cold stream of wind issues during the hot season; which is more rapid and of a lower temperature, the hotter the external air is : but which in the winter changes its course, and is directed into the earth. In the present memoir, we find an account of a consi.. derable number of these caves, by that accurate observer M. De Saussure ; who has given a theory designed to account for the effect. On this theory, Mr. Nicholson makes several remarks which shew that it does not agree with the known facts. He himself thinks that this effect is simply the consequence of the slow heating and cooling of the materials of a porous hill. If these materials be supposed to require the greatest part of the summer to cool them, there will be a descending current within the hill, which will flow out at the base ; and, on the contrary, when the external air becomes colder than the internal porous mass, the air in the interstices being less dense will ascend, and be followed by a converging current round the foot of the mountain. He directs his reasoning to the Mont Testaceo near Rome, which is intirely artificial, being composed of broken pottery; and he points out various familiar incidents in common dwelling-houses, in which currents of the same nature are produced.
We have now gone through nearly the first half of this curious and entertaining volume ; and here we must stop. If we have opportunity, we may perhaps return to the latter por tion of it: but various accidents have so long delayed this ar. ticle, that more than an additional volume has since been presented by Mr. Nicholson to the public; and what we have already said will afford our readers an adequate idea of the nature and value of his very commendable labours.
Art. IX. ETPINIAOY EKABH. Euripidis Hecuba, ad fidem Manu
scriptorum emendata, &c. Art. X. In Euripidis HECUBAM Londini nuper publicatam Dia
tribe extemporalis. Composuit Gilbertus Wakefield.
Manuscriptorum emendata, &c.
Vol xxvi18. THERE now remains, it is believed, only one of Mr. Wake
field's manifold charges against Mr. Porson's Hecuba, which demands examination. This is an objection, indeed, on
which he appears to lay great stress, as may be conjectured from its having been frequently repeated in the Diatribe. The rule itself, on which the charge is founded, was originally laid down by Mr. W. in his Silva Critica, has been adopted in his philological writings, and is practically exemplified in his Tragædiarum Delectus. The following are the passages in the Diatribe :
P. 5. ! Primum mirari subit, V. D. qui summo jure MSS. et editionis Aldine testimonia tanti fecerit, auctoritates gravissimas passim contempo tui habere, toties appingendo finalem », si litera consonans sequatur ; quam, vis manifestissimum sit, et multis exemplis evincendum, librarios, qui istud additamentum invenissent, nusquam fuisse omissuros ; sed omissum, propter inanem de metro timorem, multo facilius invecturos. Probant MSS. probant editiones auctorum velustissima, hoc figmentum a Græcorum priscorum consue! udine prorsus esse alienissimum, ac scribis recentioribus unice deberi : biatui solummodo occludendo serviens, non autem producendis syllabis. Exemplo sit ver. 236. hujusce dramatis :
oud whac ev ya Zius Ita V. D. edidit; Aldus autem et MS. Harl. luculentissime exhibent w10t: neque aliter fere passim. Si quis quærat, quomodo versum irgan bujuscemodi, cum interrogem vicissim, qua ratione ver. 9. legendus sit :
- Φιλιππον λαών ενθυνων ΑΟΡΙ: qut Lucretii consimilis, iv. 271.
certe penitus remota videtur : nam libri veteres MSS. literam non geminant. Hinc nimirum voci scienter. modulatæ nullum negotium facessitur; net, nisi suo periculo, miramque per inconstantiam, prudens editor has leges violat, quas grammatici, scholiasta, MSS. cum scriptoribus antiquis, citantibus poëtas, cumulate sanciunt. Nobismetipsis saltem nihil antiquius est, quam ineptias qualescunque, ret bene multis etiamnum procul dubio obsidemur) aliis quibusvis dedocentibus, dimittere, atque ablegare ; nemo rursus, nobis hanc inscitiam plus seme damnantibus et irridentibus, videtur aut refutare uelle, aut relinquere, Pergant igitur, si velint, in errore longe crassissimo, nimiun amantes sui; vere doctis et aquis judicibus tamen, sat scio, sponte abjudicando, librisque veterum serius ocyus, cum unanimi consensu literatorum, expellendo.'
P. 25. • Editi de solito ayey: at enim te, finalis N ! cum tua importunitate magnus perdat Jupiter !
P. 27. OLJE is thus proposed by G.W. for OIAEN ; ' et odio. sum illum N finalem,
Εχθεος γαρ μοι κεινος ομως αιδα πυλησι, me hortatore rejice, secutus Aldum scilicet.?
P. 33. EKINHLE Tod, for fxívnt av 7.
P. 35. EIPHKEX. ' Ad ingenium redit heic quoque V. D. of am putidan, N finalem dico lectoribus ingerens ; auctoritates licet tam Ald. ed. quam Stobæi, simul inde, prout centies, conculcentur. Nobis non licet esse tam disertis.'
Thus far the Diatribe. The passages from the Silva Critica, which relate so the rejection of the N final, shall also be produced in the words of their author.
· SILVA CRITICA, I. p. 81. where Mr. W. is examining this line of Sophocles, ed. Tyr. 1280.
ΟΜΒΡΟΣ χαλαζης ΑΙΜΟΝΟΣ ελεγχείο, as he is pleased to read it, and we have not time at present to state our objections; he adds these observations: “ Metrum certè in tuto est. Ultimam enim pedis lambei syllabam, quamvis sit natura brevis, non dubitant tragici passim producere, quoties cum illa finiatur verbum." .
Mr. W. then quotes from the Aldine edition of the Phoen nisse four examples of the omitted N final : “ 288. speolari douoss. 290. dwuzoi mena[éle. 933. Ilov ’oli Mevoixeus. 1446. Elonyaye copiowa." He next censures Musgrave, “qui non semper, ut sæpe, hanc scripturam servaverit ;' and recommends all future editors of the Greek Tragic and Epic Poets to banish this final N, as it is passim omitted in the passages which are quoted by the Grammarians and others. He then proceeds,
“ Ultima vocis ao ovo; syllaba ob pausam in Sophocle [l. c. ex Oed. T.] producitur pari jure quo giaos in Homero.
Αυλαρ επείλ' αυλοισι ΒΕΛΟΣ εχεπευκες εφιεις. Nec mihi videntur de metro cruciari merito Valckenarius et Musgravius ad Eur. Hipp. 234. ob hanc ipsam causam, vim scilicet pausæ in syllaba postrema vocis, si pedem finiat in anapæsticis et iambicis, aut incipiat in heroicis ; quâ syllabâ, si modo consonans sequatur, semper debet exulare finalis N.
Τι τοδ' αυ παραφρον ερριψας επος ;” Such is the Metrical Canon which Mr. Wakefield has pro. mulgated in his Silva Critica ; and which, as was mentioned, he has exemplified in his philological disquisitions, and in his annotations on some of the Greek Tragedies. It has not, however, been followed, nor even mentioned, by Mr. Porson in his Notes on the Hecuba; and to this neglect, or silence, may be attributed the censures conveyed in those passages which have been just quotes from the Diatribe.- In the Professor's remarks on Orestes, indeed, there is an observation which must be considered as referring to this new law of prosody. As we gave the reader an opportunity of perusing Mr. W's statement of the rule in his own words, we shall now let the Professor also speak for himself.
Orest. 64. - mapidumiy Tpépes.
• Cur N finalem in inixawor, V. 12. (slep.penice Šavco" émértwory dea] et similibus addiderim, nemo nisi qui communi sensu plane careat, requiret. Sed erunt fortasse nonnulli, qui minus necessario hoc factum arbitraturi sint In T edWxty Rationes igitur semel exponam, nunquam posthac moniturus. Quanquam enim sæpe syllabas natura breves positione producunt Tragici, longe libentius corripiunt, adeo ut tria prope exempla correptarum invenias, ubi unum modo exstet productarum. Sed hoc genus licentie, in verbis scificet non compositis, qualia Téxvov;'llareos ceteris longe frequentius est. Rerius multo syllaba producitur in verbo composito; si in ipsam juncturam cadit, ut in monóxquoos Andr. 2. Eadem parsimonia in augmentis produ. cendis utuntur, ut in ééxawoes sup. 12. zoxanir.Az* Sophocł. Elect. 366. Rarior adhuc licentin est, ubi prapositio verbo jungitur, ut in unótoTO! Phæn. 600. Sed ubi verbum in brevem vocalem desinit, eamque due consonantes excipiunt qua brevem manere patiantur, vix credo exempla indubie fidei inveniri posse, in quibus syllaba ista producatur. Inepius esset, quicunque ad MSS. in tali causa provocaret, cum nulla sit eorum auctoritas ; id solum deprecor, ne quis contra hanc regulam eorum testimonio abutatur; MSS. enim neque alter alteri consentiunt, neque idem MS. sibi ipse per omnia constat. Quod si ea, quæ disputavi, vera sunt, planum est, is fine vocis addendam esse literam, quam addidi.'
This note is worthy of its learned writer; and from the laws which it lays down, and from Dawes's Canons respecte ing the power of the Tenues, Adspirata, and Mediæ consonantes, when followed by the liquids and preceded by short vowels, a certain rule for the insertion of the N final might be derived, As to the omission of it in the last syllable of an Iambic foot, when a simple consonant follows, the voice of the Professor declares, ex cathedrá, that it is not to be allowed ; and that no one would ask the reason, nisi qui sensu communi planè careat.
It is to be lamented that Mr. Porson did not probe this canon of Mr. Wakefield “even to the quick.” Our readers probably expect that an examination of it should be attempted in the Review: yet, in following the Professor, our feelings, we confess, resemble those which Plato attributes to Socrates, when he is detained by Callias in order to dispute with Protagoras, and allows that he is inclined to grant the desired gratification. “In the present instance, however, (he subjoins,) you might as well request me to follow the vigorous steps of Criso, or to enter the course with any other racer. I should then exclaim : Πολυ σου μάλλον έχω εμαύλου δέομαι θέoυσι τόνοις ακολουθείν 'Αλλ' ivyoep devaman." Plato. Protagor. vol. i. 336. A.
The canon of Mr. Wakefield, we believe, may be thus stated : “ The last syllable of a word, though naturally shorty may be considered as long, by the influence of the pause, if it terminate a foot in Anapestics or lambics; or if it begin a foot in Heroics. From this concluding syllable, if a consonant folJow it, the final N ought always to be banished.”
This canon is evidently founded on a rule which has been adopted by some of the later editors of the Greek Heroic Poets: with what propriety, we shall not attempt, on the present occasion, even to examine. It is thus mentioned by Er. nesti, in his Note on Homer. Iliad. A. V. 2. (@Onus.]
“ Edd. Vett. iOrxer. Recte. In litera N vel addenda, vel demenda, parum diligens Clarkius fuit, et constans, non satis consultis libris. In MSS, et Edd. vett. melioribus, ut Flor. et Ald. pr. in fine versus fere
additur : in medio versu, ubi syllaba ultima est in cæsura, plerumque omit. titur. Igitur accuratus Editor hanc legem debebat sequi constanter."*
It is very certain that the genuine and antient mode of writing ought to be preserved uniformly when it is once discovered. No manuscript, however, either of Homer, or of the Tragedies and Comedies, has yet been collated, in which the N Peanuolinov is constantly and according to rule either inserted or neglected. The famous Codex Paullinus Lipsiensis itself, which contains from Iliad A. to Iliad P. and appears to have given rise, in a great measure, to Ernesti's rule, is not perfectly consistent in its omissions. We are, indeed, firmly persuaded that Mr. Porson's opinion is correct, when he states that this is a point which cannot be determined by the written copies of the Poets: “MSS. enim neque alter alteri consentiunt, neque idem MS. sibi ipse per omnia constat."
Mr. Wakefield asserts that the Tragic and Epic writers are every where quoted by the Grammarians and other authors, without the insertion of the N. He produces, however, no instances; and if such as may be found were accurately and nicely weighed, they would not, we are persuaded, tend much to the defender of this canon. Mr. Wakefield's chief reliance seems to be on the copy of Euripides edited by Aldus. He refers to this in his Silva Critica, and he cites from this in his Diatribe. It will be proper, then, carefully to examine how far it really tends to confirm or destroy Mr. W.'s opinion.
We shall present to our readers, therefore, a list of the passages in which the N is added, or omitted, collected from four of the Tragedies, in the Aldine edition,
NT omitted. 363. — nepxiowy perlavello 232. — Oud Gaspé de Zɛhs. 389. — RECEV Tétous Banww. 266. Kévn yapürécé viv. — 546. — Tóvo tonunuev dóyov. 427. - palpi dóun šole xapá. 003. — võuç ÉTÓĆEVOEV Pctry. 494. — não' a véolnxe dopí. 1043: _ Tewcown te oudejaa ! 509. ép. Tours de les XoUS.
554. "E17€ que fiveu Tapfévor 1052. ágíolais Tpurcos diriny 574. - ó de tangtuos augév. deuolo
576. Todo (noue xaná. 1 670. - židoco de créidioas.
* This remark of Ernesti has been recorded in the Acta Eruditorum for July 1760, in which there is a review of his Homer.
+ The verses are numbered from Musgrave's edition. The Choral Odes are wholly omitted in this catalogue, which comprehends only examples from Iambics and Trochaics.