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sphere is agitated by violent gusts of wind, (called tomadoes,) accome panied with thunder and rain. These usher in what is denominated the rainy seasons which continues until the month of November, During this time, the diurnal rains are very heavy; and the prevail. ing winds are from the south-west. The termination of the rainy season is likewise attended with violent tornadoes ; after which the wind shifts to the north-east, and continues to blow from that quarter, during the rest of the year.
When the wind sets in from the north-east, it produces a Wonderful change in the face of the country. The grass soon becomes dry and withered; the rivers subside very rapidly, and many of the trees shed their leaves. About this period is commonly felt the harmattan, a dry and parching wind, blowing from the north-east, and accompanied by a thick smoaky haze ; through which the sun appears of a dull red colour. This wind, in passing over the great desert of Sahara, acquires a very strong attraction for humidity, and parches up every thing exposed to its current. It is, however, reckoned very salutary, particularly to Europeans, who generally recover their health during its continuance. I experienced immediate relief from sickness, both at Dr. Laidley's, and at Kamalia, during the harmattan. Indeed, the air during the rainy season is so loaded with moisture, that cloths, shoes, trunks, and every thing that is not close to the fire, become damp and mnouldy; and the inhabitants may be said to live in a sort of vapour bath: but this dry wind braces up the solids, which were before relaxed, gives a cheerful flow of spirits, and is even pleasant to respiration. Its ill effects are, that it produces chaps in the lips, and amicts many of the natives with sore eyes.
• Whenever the grass is sufficiently dry, the Negroes set it on fire ; but in Ludamar, and other Moorish countries, this practice is not allowed; for it is upon the withered stubble that the Moors feed their cattle, until the return of the rains. The burning the grass in Manding exhibits a scene of terrific grandeur. In the middle of the night, I could see the plains and mountains, as far as my eye could reach, variegated with lines of fire ; and the light reflected on the sky, made the heavens appear in a blaze. In the day time, pillars of smoke were seen in every direction ; while the birds of prey were observed hovering round the conflagration, and pouncing down upon the snakes, lizards, and other reptiles, which attempted to escape from the flames. This annual burning is soon followed by a fresh and sweet verdure, and the country is thereby rendered more healthful and pleasant.
Of the most remarkable and important of the vegetable pro, ductions, mention has already been made; and they are nearly the same in all the districts through which I passed. It is observable, however, that although many species of the cdible roots, which grow in the West-India Islands, are found in Africa, yet I never saw, in any part of my journey, either the sugar.cane, the coffee, or the cacao tree; nor could I learn, on inquiry, that they were known to the natives. The pine-apple, and the thousand other delicious fruits, which the industry of civilized man (improving the
bounties bounties of nature), has brought to so great perfection in the tropical climates of America, are here equally unknown. I observed, indeed, a few orange and banana trees, near the mouth of the Gambia ; but whether they were indigenous, or were formerly planted there by some of the white traders, I could not positively learn. I suspect, that they were originally introduced by the Portuguese.
Concerning property in the soil ; it appeared to me that the lands in native woods, were considered as belonging to the king, or (where the government was not monarchical) to the state. When any individual of free condition, had the means of cultivating more land than he actually possessed, he applied to the chief man of the district, who allowed him an extension of territory, on condition of forfeiture if the lands were not brought into cultivation by a given period. The condition being fulfilled, the soil became vested in the possessor ; and, for aught that appeared to me, descended to his heirs.
• The population, however, considering the extent and fertility of the soil, and the ease with which lands are obtained, is not very great, in the countries which I visited. I found many extensive and beautiful districts, entirely destitute of inhabitants; and in general, the borders of the different kingdoms, were either very thinly. peopled, or entirely deserted. Many places are likewis? unfavourable to population, from being unhealthful. The swampy banks of the Gambia, the Senegal, and other rivers towards the Coast, are of this description. Perhaps, it is on this account chiefly, that the interior countries abound more with inhabitants, than the maritime districts; for all the Negro nations that fell under my observation, though divided into a number of petty independent states, subsist chiefly by the same means, "live nearly in the same temperature, and possess a wonderful similarity of disposition. The Mandingoes, in particular, are a very gentle race; cheerful in their dispositions, in. quisitive, credulous, simple, and fond of Aattery. Perhaps, the most prominent defect in their character, is that insurmountable propens sity, which the reader must have observed to prevail in all classes of them, to steal from me the few effects I was possessed of.'
Concerning the disposition of the women, Mr. Park's testimony agrees with that of Mr. Ledyard. They are uniformly' benevolent.
Among the Negroes, plurality of wives is allowed. Although the African husbands possess unlimited authority, they are not cruel, and rarely jealous : instances of conjugal infidelity are not common.
The Africans have no astronomical knowlege ; and the little which they pretend to know of geography is false : they imagine that the earth is an extended plain, beyond which is the sea; or river of salt water; and on the farther shores of which are situated two countries called Tobaudo doo and Joag sang doo, 'the land of the white people,' and 'the land where slaves are sold.'
Rey. JULI, 1799.
In a chapter on the state and sources of slavery in Africa, Mr. P. declines the discussion of the question how far the system of slavery is promoted by the slave traffic carried on by the nations of Europe, and merely expresses his belief that, in the present unenlightened state of the minds of the Africans, "a discontinuance of the slave trade would not be attended with so (such] beneficial effects as many wise and worthy persons expect.' · The length of our extracts and observations prevents as from noticing the inanner of collecting gold dust, and the process observed in washing it. We must go back to Kamalia, and hasten Mr. Park's return to England.
On the 19th of April, Mr.P. with Karfa, four slatees, and the caravan of 27 slaves, left Kamalia, and on the 23d they entered the Jallonka Wilderness; which was traversed on foot, and with great expedition, in five days: the distance across the Wilderness is an hundred miles. After having crossed the black river, a principal branch of the Senegal, the caravan arrived on May 3d at Malacotta ; where Mr. P. obtained information of a war which had happened between the Kings of Foota Torra and of Jaloff. The account of this war is singular and curious; it reminds us of the story of Tamerlane and Bajazet *.
• The King of Foota Torra, inftamed with a zeal for propagating his religion, had sent an embassy to Damel, similar to that which he had sent to Kasson, as related in page 79. The ambassador, on the present occasion, was accompanied by two of the principal Bushreens, who carried each a large knife, fixed on the top of a long pole. As soon as he had procured admission into the presence of Damel, and announced the pleasure of his sovereign, he ordered the Bushreens to present the emblems of his mission. The two knives were accordingly laid before Damel, and the ambassador explained himself as follows: “ With this knife, (said he,) Abdul. kader will condescend to shave the head of Damel, if Damel will embrace the Mahomedarfaith; and with this other knife, Abdulkader will cut the throat of Damel, if Damel refuses to embrace it :-take your choice.” Damel coolly told the ambassador that he had no choice to inake: he neither chose to have his head shaved, nor his throat cut; and with this answer the ambassador was civilly dismissed. Abdulkader took his measures accordingly, and with a powerful army invaded Damel's country. The inhabitants of the towns and villages filled up their wells, destroyed their provisions, carried off their effects, and abandoned their dwellings, as he approached. By this means he was led on from place to place, until he had advanced three day's journey into the country of the Jaloffs. He had, indeed, met with no opposition ; but his army had suffered so much from the *. Gibbon, vol. vi. 4to.
scarcity of water, that several of his men had died by the way. This induced him to direct his march towards a watering place in the woods, where his men, having quenched their thirst, and being overcome with fatigue, lay down carelessly to sleep among the bushes. In this situation they were attacked by Damel before daybreak, and completely routed. Many of them were trampled to death as they lay asleep, by the Jaloff horses ; others were killed in attempte ing to make their escape ; and a still greater · number were taken prisoners. Among the latter, was Abdulkader himself. This ambitious, or rather frantic prince, who, but a month before, had sent the threatening message to Damel, was now himself led into his presence as a miserable captive. The behaviour of Damel, on this occasion, is never mentioned by the singing men, but in terms of the highest approbation ; and it was, indeed, so extraordinary, in an African prince, that the reader may find it difficult to give credit to the recital. When his royal prisoner was brought before him in irons, and thrown upon the ground, the magnanimous Damel, instead of setting his foot upon his neck, and stabbing him with his spear, according to custom in such cases, addressed him as follows. " Abdulkader, answer më this question. If the chance of war had placed me in your situation, and you in mine, how would you have treated me ?" "I would have thrust my spear into your heart ;" returned Abdulkader with great firmness, 6 and I know that a similar fate awaits me.” “ Not so, (said Damel), my spear is indeed red with the blood of your subjects killed in battle, and I could now give it a deeper stain, by dipping it in your own.; but this would not build up my towns, nor bring to life the thousands who fell in the woods. I will not therefore kill you in cold blood, but I will retain you as my slave, until I perceive that your presence in your vwn kingdom will be no longer dangerous to your neighbours ; and then I will consider of the proper way of disposing of you." Abdulkader was accordingly retained, and worked as a slave, for three months ; at the end of which period, Damel listened to the solicitations of the inhabitants of Foota Torra, and restored to them their king. Strange as this story may appear, I have no doubt of the truth of it; it was told me at Malacotta by the Negroes; it was afterwards related to me by the Europeans on the Gambia : by some of the French at Goree ; and confirmed by nine slaves, who were taken prisoners along with Abdulkader, by the watering place in the woods, and carried in the same ship with me to the West Indies.'
Without experiencing any extraordinary hardships, or remarkable accidents, the caravan, after a journey of 500 miles, on the 4th of June 1797, arrived at Medina, the capital of the King of Woolli's dominions, which Mr. P. had left in December 1795. He proceeded hence to Pisania, and there met with his friend Dr. Laidley, who received him with great joy and satisfaction as one risen from the dead. He had now an opportunity of recompensing his benefactor Karfa, the kind slave-merchant, who parted from him with great regret. - On
. the 17th of June, Mr.P. took his passage on board an America ship which had entered the river Gambia in order to purchase slaves, and in 35 days arrived at Antigua ; which port they were obliged to make on account of the leakiness of the vessel. On the 24th of November Mr. P. took his passage in the Chesterfield packet, and arrived in England on the 22d of December 1797, after an absence of two years and seven months.
The volume concludes with the insertion, entire, of the Geographical Illustrations and Maps of Major Rennell, before mentioned, and noticed in our 26th volume. A portrait of Mr. Park, and several other plates, are also introduced.
Art. II. The Natural and Political History of the State of Vermont,
one of the United States of America. To which is added, an Ap. pendix, containing Answers to sundry Queries, addressed to the Author. By Ira Allen, Esquire, Major-General of the Militia in the State of Vermont. . 8vo. pp. 300. 68. Boards. West.
1798. THE author of these memoirs was an active agent in .. most of the political measures which have been pursued by the inhabitants of Vermont, towards their establishment as a free and independent state. The professed design of this publication is to lay open the source of contention between Vermont and New York, and the reasons which induced the former to repudiate both the jurisdiction and claim of the latter, before and during the American revolution, and also to point out the embarrassments which the people met with in founding and establishing the independence of the State against the intrigues and claims of New York, New Hampshire, and Massachusett's.'
While Canada was subject to France, very few settlements had been made in the neighbourhood of the Green Mountains, (whence the country derives its present name, Vermont,) bui, on the reduction of Canada by the British forces, the few French who had formed settlements to the east of Lake Champlain abandoned their plantations, and removed to Canada, with the Indians who had inhabited thereabout, and who had been a heavy scourge to the frontiers of New England, from the first settlement in 1620.
In the year 1759, the Governor of New Hampshire, in pur. suance of orders and instructions from his Majesty and the Privy Council in Great Britain, made grants of lands on the west side of Connecticut river, north of the Massachusett line of boundary. On the conclusion of the war with France, the counrry, before almost a wilderness, having no longer any enemies
setele scourgead inhabis