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POST OFFICE BRIGHTON AND HOVE
The borough of Brighton, in the county of Sussex, comprises the parishes of Brighton and Hove. It is distant from London by railway 50and by road 51 miles. The borough consists of about 300 streets and squares, extending from east to west next the sea about 3 miles, and contained, at the census in 1841, 49,170 inhabitants, viz., Brighton 46,661, and Hove 2,509. The assessment to the Property and Assessed Taxes is nearly £300,000, and in its contribution to the Window-tax the town ranks third in the kingdom. The Income-tax assessment for real property in 1842 was Brighton £257,967, Hove £29,651. Some idea of its extent and importance inay be gathered from the fact that the lodging houses are computed to afford accommodation for above 30,000 visitors; the average number of whom, from the 1st May to the 1st February, is calculated as varying from 20,000 to 25,000. The borough of Brighton returns two members to Parliament.
The town of Brighton, which is co-extensive with the parish, is in the hundred of Whalesbone. It is governed by a body of commissioners, 112 in number, chosen under a local act for lighting, watching, and other municipal purposes, passed on the 22nd June, 1825 (6 Geo. IV.), by the £20 householders, one-seventh' being elected annually, and the vacancies occasioned by death, non-attendance for six months, &c., being filled up at times directed by the body. The police consists of a chief officer, Mr. Thos. H. Chase, three superintendents, an inspector of hackney coaches, here called “ flys," three inspectors, a night constable, and 50 men, appointed by and under the control of the commissioners. They are regulated by a police committee, chosen from the body of the commissioners, and the general control of the whole force is yested in the clerk to the commissioners (Lewis Slight, esq.) in cases of emergency, subject to the reyision of the body of commissioners at their meetings. The high constable of the hundred of Whalesbone, and eight headboroughs appointed on Easter Tuesday at a Court Leet of the lord of the manor, the Earl of Abergavenny, also act oceasionally for the preservation of the peace, in keeping public-houses in order, and on special occasions.
The parish of Hove, containing 720 acres and a population of 2,509, forms the western portion of the borough of Brighton. It is in the hundred of Preston; with Brunswick square, and the terraces adjoining the westernmost part of the town of Brighton, is governed by commissioners appointed by the £20 householders. The commissioners appoint their police for the square and terraces, independently of Brighton.
The parish of Brighton is only partially under the jarisdiction of the Poor Law Commissioners. The vicar of
e one churchwarden, and the ratepayers elect two in vestry on Easter Monday. There are four overseers appointed by the magistrates. The parish funds are disbursed by a board of guardians, consisting of 30, elected by the ratepayers, with the vicar of the parish, the high constable of the hundred of Whalesbone, and the churchwardens and overseers as ex-officio members. The parish ot Hove is in the Steyning union for Poor-law purposes. The magistrates of Brighton are the county magistrates of the Brighton petty sessional district, who hold petty sessions on Monday and Thursday, and one or more of whom sit daily. The petty sessional district comprises Brighton, Hove, Preston, and a few other adjacent parishes, and cases arising between seamen in Shoreham harbour, and requiring prompt magisterial interference, are taken by the Brighton bench, although the harbour is in the Steyning petty sessions district.
The town is built on the coast of a large bay formed by Beachey Head eastward, and Worthing Point westward. The Steyne, the Steyne Inclosures, St. Peters Inclosure, and the Level, are in a valley running north and south, up to the centre of the town. Hills rise east and west of this valley, forming portions of the South Downs, which also shelter the town on the north. From all these fine views are obtained of the English Channel and the low country westward, towards Shoreham and Worthing. In clear weather the Isle of Wight is also seen. The Steyne, which was formerly a piece of waste land used by the inhabitants for boat building, net making, and by the fishermen for drying their nets, has for many years been surrounded by handsome buildings, and is now a spacious and noble promenade. Through the spirited exertions of J. Cordy Burrows, Esq., a magnificent fountain has been erected here, and the Steyne also planted with trees and shrubs, much to the improvement of the centre of the town.
On the eastern side of the Steyne, the Inclosures, St. Peter's Church and the Level, aré Pavilion Parade, Grand Parade, Richmond place, Waterloo place, Richmond terrace & Hanover crescent, forming contiuuously the Lewes road; and Marlborough place, Gloucester place, St. Georges' place, York place, and London road are on the west. _ The principal streets west of the Steyne are Castle square, East street, North street, New road, Ship street, Middle street, West street, Preston street, Montpelier road, Western street, Western road, and King's road. The latter fronts the sea, and extends to the western limits of the town, and in continuation of which runs Brunswick terrace with its adjacent square. This terrace is a magnificent range of buildings in the Corinthian style, 2,800 feet in length, erected in 1826. The square which opens into the terrace on the the south contains equally good houses. In front, on the sea side of the road, is a fine promenade, which also extends eastward in front of the King's road as far as the battery. To the extreme west is Adelaide terrace, an unfinished range of first rate houses. Between the King's road and the Western road, which runs parallel with it, are Norfolk square and Russell square, and, on the upper part of the Montpelier road, a new crescent, built during the past summer: it is a beautiful range of buildings, commanding a view of the hills and low land to the west and north-west, and is called Montpelier crescent. The principal streets and squares eastward of the Steyne, are St. James's street, Manchester street, German place, New Steyne, Lower Rock gardens, Upper Rock gardens, Royal crescent, Portland place, Marine square, Eastern terrace, Marine parade, and Kemp town. The latter is at the eastern extremity of the town, near Blackrock. It was built in 1821, and stands on a cliff nearly 200 feet in height on the estate of Thomas Read Kemp, Esq., formerly M.P. for Lewes. The principal feature is an extensive crescent, called Lewes crescent, the opening in the centre of which (Sussex square) is 840 feet, and the wings (Chichester terrace and Arundel terrace), each 350 feet in extent, present a sea front of 1,540 feet, The glacis is terminated by an esplanade, commanding a beautiful and sheltered prospect of the ocean. Beneath this, at the base of the cliff on which Kemp town stands, a walk is carried to the west end of the Marine parade, and is united with the gardens and lawn in the centre of the crescent by a tunnel.
The Pavilion, the chief marine palace of her Majesty, was built by George IV., who contributed greatly to raise this town to importance by making it his residence when Prince of Wales. It was built from designs by Nash, in 1819. It has numerous cupolas, spires and minarets, in the Chinese style, and the interior is richly decorated. The banquetting room is 60 feet by 42, the music room the same size, the rotunda 55 feet in diameter. The Chinese gallery is 162 feet in length, decorated with Chinese paintings. The stables are in the Moorish style..
The Chain Pier, at once an fobject of great utility and ornament, was commenced in October 1822, and opened to the public in November of the ensuing year. This light and elegant structure was erected after the design and under the superintendence of Capt. Sir Samuel Brown, R.N., at an expense of £30,000. The length of the Chain pier is 1,130 feet, and width 13 feet; the platform is supported by the chains, which, at the south end, pass 54 feet into the cliff, and are there strongly bolted; from thence passing, with alternate dips, over the towers, they descend
the sea at the furthest extremity, and are imbedded in the rock. The rods by which the platform is hung on the chains are 362 in number, and each division of the chain, of which there are four on each side, formed by the intervention of the towers, has 117 links, each weighing about 112 lbs. The clumps of piles are four in number, at a distance of 258 feet. The towers are of cast iron, each weighing 15 tons, and are 25 feet high from the platform, which is itself 13 feet above high water mark. The steam packets to Dieppe, which is 81 miles distant, leave the pier-head daily during the summer, and to Havre twice a week, which renders this town a desirable route to Paris from the metropolis, since by way of Dieppe and Rouen, the two capitals are nearer by 90 miles than through Dover and Calais.
The Custom house is situated on the King's road, between Middle street and West street, but for the convenience of passengers, some of the officers of the customs attend at the Chain 'pier on the arrival of the packets.
The Town hall in Market street and Bartholomews is a large building, and, with the market, cost the town £30,000. It contains offices for the magistrates and parish authorities, Court of Requests, and the Police station. The upper story also contains handsome Assembly rooms, and the great room below is used on Saturdays as a market. The Market house, opposite to the Town hall, is both lofty and spacious, and is built in the form of the letter T; the principal entrances are in Market street and Black Lion street; it is open daily for the sale of meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables. The Corn market is held every Thursday at the King and Queen inn, in Marlborough place, where grain is disposed of by sample. The wholesale fish market is held on the beach, near the end of Market street, and the mode of effecting sales is by Dutch auction. About 400 persons and 120 boats are employed in fishing for mackerel and herrings; of the latter upwards of 100,000 have been deposited on the beach from one boat, and the average number of persons is four to each vessel. The chain of nets used for taking mackerel is of almost incredible length, varying from two to three miles, and thousands of fish are sometimes captured at a single draught, large quantities of which are despatched by railway for the London market. The town also is well supplied with every kind of fish.
The parish of Brighton is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Bishop of Chichester; its value, with the rectory of West Blatchington annexed, is £1,041. The church,