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at the same moment, but neither of them adequate to the support of a growing family. The short-sighted prudence of most men would have made choice of the best of them. His larger sagacity led him to precisely the opposite conclusion, foreseeing that when a near, inevitable separation should take place, as it soon did by his removal to Bristol, it would be much easier to bring about a dissolution of his connection, and with far less likelihood of being exposed to censure, or suspected of unworthy motives.

The morning of the last day of their common journey, found them, for a special reason, under the necessity, in order to reach a certain place, of making a circuitous journey of sixtyfive or seventy miles, upon river-bottoms and over a level road; or of selecting a much shorter route of about forty-five miles, but across a country more hilly and abrupt than any other since travelled, except amongst the mountains of Eastern Kentucky, on horseback. It is believed that, to relieve the horse, the Bishop walked that day, up-hill and down-bill, not less than twenty miles. Out of the carriage the horse could not well be managed, and he continued to insist upon it, that the lightest person should do all the driving, and himself all the walking. Mercy to the dumb beast-consideration for the convenience and comfort of others, were ever uppermost in his unselfish nature.

On another occasion, being obliged to make a melancholy journey from Rhode Island into Connecticut, on account of some great domestic sorrow, in mid-winter, and over bad roads, he was so unfortunate in his hired horse, as to have been detained on the way several days longer than he expected, greatly to his own discomfort and exposure ; but when asked why he did not urge his horse forward, his only reply was the quiet remark: "If a horse will not go fast without whipping, he must go slow for all me.”

Either during this visit or some time after, whilst staying at the humble parsonage in Middlebury, Vt., and attempting some necessary official writing, owing to the narrow quarters, great fears were entertained lest he should be annoyed and interrupted by the slight disturbance made by the children at play. As soon as it was observed, he exclaimed: “Oh! never mind, to me the noise of children is like the music of birds !"

The appearance and bearing of our good Bishop when presiding in his own conventions, were about the farthest possible from severe and commanding. It was by no means wanting in a certain quiet dignity, which always commanded respect, and repressed familiarity or rudeness. It was not positive enough to aid much in facilitating the dispatch of business, but then it was so perfectly firm and self-possessed, and marked with so much candor and forbearance towards those who differed from him, and with such uniform consideration of the rights, interests, and feelings of all classes of persons, that it effectually secured all the desirable ends of a more efficient presidence. To the few who were favored with the opportunity of watching his course, through a great number of years, from the conventions of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, when they consisted of but a mere handful of earnest yet inexperienced men, (inexperienced, it is meant, not in affairs, but in church business,) until he was called upon to preside in the Honse of Bishops, it was delightful to observe how exactly alike the good and great man always appeared ; pursuing the even tenor of his quiet way, undisturbed by confusion, undismayed by opposition, unmoved by demonstrations of growing reverence and respect. There were a few who never could rise superior to the depreciating estimate which they had attached to him, simply because he had not been called from some great city parish, to preside over the important and growing interests of several confederate dioceses. But during the whole period that he acted as Presiding Bishop, a vast majority of those whose good opinion in the councils of the Church was worth having, had come to understand his extraordinary endowments of mind, his wonderful acquirements (considering his limited opportunities) in scientific knowledge and theological lore, and his still more exalted moral worth.

In the old time there were some men of one generation “who stoned the prophets ;" and some of another generation « who built their sepulchres.” In the case of our good Bishop there were some of the same generation who did both. It was not until after he ceased to walk amongst men, that all began to be sensible that they had been "entertaining an angel unawares.” Living, all were ready to pronounce him a good man; now that he is dead, few will deny that he was equally great.

After enjoying somewhat enlarged opportunities of compar

ing the maxims of administration of several of the most distinguished of our first class of Bishops, in their respective dioceses, the writer feels no hesitation, as far as he is capable of judging, in pronouncing in favor of those which the sound common-sense, upright mind, and kind feeling of Bishop Griswold very early laid down for the guidance of his own conduct; and what is more, he strictly and conscientiously adhered to the maxims thus self-imposed, for to a great extent they were self-imposed, since they grew out of the exigencies of a branch of the Church placed under new, peculiar, and most difficult and trying circumstances. All previous experience of Bishops, whether in the Cyprianic or subsequent ages ; whether of the Church of England, or amongst the Non-Jurors, was of very limited applicability here. And few acquainted with all the facts in the case will doubt that the interests of the Church through all New-England, would best be promoted by a careful observance of these maxims.

Reference to a single trait more will close this sketch. “He was indeed a man, who had seen affliction at the rod of His mouth !” “The Almighty,” for a long period, seemed to have assailed him with “all his storms." Of a large and remarkably fine family of children, most had passed away before he removed from Bristol. The wife of his youth was taken from his side, in a moment, by almost instantaneous death. Though not a demonstrative man, he was well known to be a person of very deep, tender, and abiding sensibilities. “But he was damb; he opened not his mouth, his God had done it;" and he that had long preached that the afflicted should not murmur, should he complain? It entered into his very soul and served to mould his whole character. He was uniformly as patient and submissive as a little child. As a passing stranger remarked, who knew him well, but had never heard the particulars of his domestic affliction, as he looked over into the narrow burial-ground in the rear of the little church in Bristol, and asked whose were those eight uniform white marble head-stones all in a row, and was told that they were in memory of eight grown children of the Bishop, “Ah !” he exclaimed, “I now understand why he is so much better than other men !"

B. B. S. September 16th, 1858.

Art. II.-BISHOP WHITE ON EPISCOPACY AND

THE SUCCESSION.

[The following pamphlet, now almost out of print, was printed by Bishop White in 1782, and, although not under his name, the first in the catalogue of publications “compiled almost entirely from lists left by him,” given to us by Dr. Wilson in his Memoirs. (Mem. of Bp. White, by Dr. Wilson, p. 304.)

Of this pamphlet Bishop A. Potter, in his sketch of Bp. White, (Potter's Discourses and Charges, p. 289,) thus speaks:

"The peace of 1783 had not been concluded before he had sketched out, in a pamphlet entitled 'The Case of the Episcopal Churches considered,' a plan for the organization of our infant communion, which shows the comprehensive skill of a statesman, and which ultimately commended itself to general acceptance. The essential unity of the whole American Church as a national Church, its independ. ence of any foreign jurisdiction, the entire separation of the spiritual and temporal authority, the participation of the laity in the legislation and government of the Church, and the election of its ministers of every grade, the equality of all parishes, and a threefold organization, (diocesan, provincial, and general,) were fundamental principles in his plan, as they were in that which was finally adopted.

"To conceive such a plan, however, was much easier than to secure its adoption. The difficulties which had to be encountered were such as might well have appalled any spirit less calm and patient, less resolute and trustful than his own. This is not the place, nor is now the time, in which to set forth the unyielding serenity of soul, the unfailing courtesy and kindness, the true modesty and self-forgetfulness, the calm sobriety of judgment, the independence of personal considerations, and the straightforward honesty and zeal which gradually won to him the confidence of all hearts, and which enabled him at length to secure the cordial acceptance of every important feature in his original plan. To develop these services in full will be the duty of the future historian; and upon that historian will devolve the grateful task of showing how his steady hand guided the system as it went into operation; and how, through the gracious goodness of God, for more than forty years to be in every emergency its most honored and trusted administrator."

On what fundamental principles this system rests, our readers will now see.-Ed. Ep. Rev.]

THE CASE OF THE EPISCOPAL CHURCHES.

CHAPTER I.

To form an idea of the situation of the Episcopal* Churches in the preSent crisis, we must observe the change their religious system has undergone in the late Revolution.

On whatever principles the independence of the United States may be supposed to rest; whether merely on establishments which have very probable appearances of being permanent, or on withdrawing the protection of the former sovereign, or (as the author of these sheets believes) on the inherent right of the community to resist and effectually to exclude unconstitutional and oppressive claims, there result from it the reciprocal duties of protection and allegiance, enforced by the most powerful sanctions of natural and reFealed religion.

It may reasonably be presumed that, in general, the members of the Episcopal Churches are friendly to the principles, on which the present governments were formed; a fact particularly obvious in the Southern States, where the Episcopalians, who are a majority of the citizens, have engaged and persevered in the war, with as much ardor and constancy as their neighbors. Many even of those whose sentiments were at first unfavorable to the Revolution, now wish for its final establishment as a most happy event; some from an earnest desire of peace, and others from the undistinguishing oppressions and ravages of the British armies. Such persons accordingly acknowledge allegiance, and pay obedience to the sovereignty of the States.

Inconsistent with the duties resulting from this allegiance, would be their subjection to any spiritual jurisdiction, connected with the temporal authority of a foreign state. Such a dependence is contrary to the fundamental principles of civil society, and therefore can not be required by the Scriptures; which, being accommodated to the civil policy of the world at large, neither interfered with the constitution of states, as found established at the time of their promulgation, nor handed down to succeeding ages any injunction of such a tendency.

* The GENERAL term " Episcopal " is usually applied, among as, to the Churches professing the religious principles of the Church of England. It is thought by the author to be sufficiently descriptive, because the other Episcopal Churches in America are known by names PEOULIAR TO THEMSELVES.

VOL. VI.—7

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