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manhood. Ignominiously expelled from College as an apostle of Atheism, he won the love of a beautiful girl only to betray and desert her, and become in every sense the author of her misery and ruin. Atheistic in principle, and libertine in life, he set at defiance, not only the first principles of religion and morality, but equally those of social order and happiness. That he was a man of undoubted poetic talent, only increased his responsibility both to God and man. But the theory of his admirers is, that we should smooth over his faults in consideration of his genius. In these Memorials this whitewashing process is carried on with considerable dexterity, but does not entirely cover up the filth which festers beneath. It is principally objectionable as reproducing the most subtle and infidel of his opinions and writings in such an order and relation as to insinuate their poison into youthful minds. We therefore condemn the book as pernicious, and question the moral right of publishers who call themselves Christians, to lend their influence to its circulation in a Christian community.
Prof. Haven's Moral Philosophy* is a valuable contribution to our literature on that important subject. Hitherto, the work of Dr. Wayland has been by far the most popular in this country, since the decline of Paley's influence. It has been used as a text-book in most of our seminaries, and no doubt has given general satisfaction. It has, however, serious defects, several of which are conspicuous. Endowed with superior powers of analysis, Dr. Wayland is yet deficient in metaphysical acuteness. His definitions are frequently faulty, as, for example, that of “law” in the opening chapter. His work is also wanting in a scientific spirit, and the author gives little or no evidence of familiarity with the great ethical writers of the Continent. On the contrary, in the speculative portions of his treatise, he is confessedly indebted largely to Bishop Butler, and in the practical to Paley. Nearly all recent writers
* Moral Philosophy: including Theoretical and Practical Ethics. By Joseph Haven, D.D., Prof. in Chicago Theological Seminary, etc. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1859.
on Morals, mention Paley only to disparage him. It is, indeed, easy to criticise his definition of virtue, but it would require considerable candor in his successors to confess the extent of their indebtedness to him.
Whewell's Elements of Morality is a work of greater ability and research than this of Prof. Haven's, or Pres. Wayland's. It is a clear, learned, and summary statement of the whole subject, so far as it can be expounded in such brief limits as are allowed to a text-book.
Though far inferior to Whewell in precision, learning, and thoroughness of discussion, Dr. Haven has prepared a book in some respects better adapted to American schools, since it discusses questions of social and political morality chiefly from the American standpoint.
The book is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. We find the first part less satisfactory than the second. Not to mention other points, we dissent from the author's theory of the source and ground of our ideas of Morality-of the law of right and obligation. He makes “the nature of things” the ground of right, as distinguished from the nature and will of God. We object to this conclusion, and as we think for suffi. cient reasons. We oppose to it metaphysical objections. There can be no "nature of things" above, beyond, or back of the nature of God. All entities derive their existence from Him, and all relations and actions are traceable to beings and constitutions of which He is the Author. In the last analysis, then, we are led to God as the great First Cause, and not to the “nature” or “fitness" of things in any possible definition of these terms.
We oppose to it religious considerations. Deny that God is the Author and Source of moral truths and duties, and morality ceases to be religious. You divorce morality from religion, and placing it on a different basis, render it both independent and superior.
We oppose to it moral objections. For prove that our idea of right is not derived from the Deity, or a moral constitution given us by Him, and you will weaken our sense of obligation
and deprive us of the most weighty consideration in favor of moral duties.
Our notice of this book is written at the last moment before going to press. This circumstances allows neither space nor time for a further and more minute account of the work.
This particular subject of the relation of morality or right to the will of God, we shall resume in our next issue in connection with a notice of another work, where it will be discussed at greater length.
For the rest, we remark that Prof. Haven's work is in several respects superior to Pres. Wayland's, while in others it is inferior. It evinces more metaphysical acuteness, gives more attention to the history of ethical questions, and indicates a greater intimacy with the literature of the subject. The style is clear, but comparatively dry, is deficient in a certain mellowness which characterizes Wayland. On the whole, it would be considered less interesting to read, and we fancy less impressive in its teachings to the heart. But a better book on the subject was a desideratum, and time will disclose whether Prof. Haven is the man to supply the want.
ART. I.-GENERAL CONVENTION.
We present to our readers in this number of the REVIEW a summary of the principal doings of the General Convention at Richmond, as a basis for future discussion.
A Digest of the Canons of the Church, One of the most important of these measures is a Digest of the Canons of the Church. The Committee appointed for this purpose at the last General Convention reported a digest of the Canons of the Church under appropriate titles, canons, and sections. The canons are classed under four general heads. First, those which relate to the orders in the ministry, or to the worship or doctrine of the Church. Second, those which concern its discipline. Third, those relating to its organized bodies. And fourth, a few of a miscellaneous character. Each title is divided into canons, and the latter into sections. The sections are sometimes broken into subdivisions.
The Joint Committee to whom this digest was referred, re. ported as follows:
" The Joint Committee appointed to prepare and lay before the General Convention a Digest of the Canons of this Church, under appropriate titles, Canons, and sections, respectfully report in part:
" That they have compared the said Digest with the text of the existing Canons, in every word, and have confined themselves to alterations of the following nature in such Digest: verbal and clerical corrections; omissions of portions of existing Canons which occasionally occurred, and the restitution of the original language in instances in which it had been changed; the substitution of a somewhat different phraseology in some cases in which it appeared clearly to the Committee that the sense and intent of the law would be more clearly expressed and carried out; the introduction of the word 'Holy' before the word 'Orders,' where the ministry is designated, which in some cases had been omitted, both in the original text and in the Digest; a variation of the collocation of sections or portions of sections in a few instances; some changes in the titles of Canons, better calculated to indicate the subjects of the provisions.
"The Committee have also, from a minute comparison, satisfied themselves tha no part of the existing Canons has been omitted.
“ The Committee are now engaged in executing the other part of the duty assigned them, namely, in relation to the modifications of, or additions to, the existing law, upon which they are not now prepared to report.
"The Committee submit the following resolutions :
"1. Resolved, That the Digest of the Canons of this Church now submitted, be approved and adopted
"2. Resolved, That a committee of two be appointed to print such Digest, in such form, and with such reference to previous Canons on the same subjects by way of note, or otherwise, as they shall see fit. "3. Resolved, That the following be prefixed to said Digest:
"A CANON OF RATIFICATION. “The following are declared and adopted as the Canons for the government of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Passed in General Convention, in Richmond, Va., October, 1859.'” Jas. H. OTEY.
Which report was adopted.
Resolutions upon the Resignation of Bishop Kemper. The following message was received from the House of Bishops :
"The House of Bishops informs the House of Clerical and Lay Deputies, that it has unanimously passed the following resolutions :
" Whereas, The venerable Bishop of the Northwest has resigned his missionary jurisdiction, which has been under his charge for twenty-four years. Therefore
" Resolved, That in accepting the resignation of the Missionary Bishop of the Northwest (Rt. Rev. Dr. Kemper,) this House hereby expresses its deep sense of the faithful manner in which the Missionary Bishop has performed his arduous work; and they also feel it to be their duty and their privilege to assure him of the gratitude of the whole Church for his correct, self-denying, and apostolic labors.
“ Resolved, That this resolution be transmitted to the House of Clerical and Lay Deputies.”
The House of Clerical and Lay Deputies passed unanimously the following preamble and resolution :
* Whereas, This House is informed by message from the House of Bishops, that the venerable Bishop of the Northwest bas resigned his missionary jurisdiction, which has been under his charge for twenty-four years; therefore,
"Resolved, That in accepting this resignation of the Missionary Bishop of the Northwest, (Right Rev. Dr, Kemper,) this House hereby expresses its deep sense of the faithful manner in which he has performed his arduous work; and they also