clear, and filled with the substance of the history. It serves as an admirable manual and guide, but from its very peculiarity as such, must be wanting in details. It is, by itself, insufficient as a history.

Dr. Schaff's work, the one last named at the head of this article, is the most recent. The author began a history a few years ago on a larger scale, and published (in 185A) an octavo volume on the " History of the Apostolic Church," which was intended to be an introduction to a history of the Church to the present time. The original plan would have made the work quite voluminous; would have required many years for ts completion—too many, perhaps, for the life of one man— and would not, from its extent, have answered well as a textbook. The author has, therefore, in this new volume, given the substance of the original one, and embraced the history of the Church to the time of Constantine's obtaining the crown of the Roman Empire. We trust he will have health and time to finish what he has so well begun. We think this volume, s0 far as it goes, better fitted to the wants of American readers of Church History than any other to which we have access. We do not pledge ourselves to all of the authors statements and opinions. But his Catholic spirit and candor prevent all occasion of offense. He writes more like an AngloSaxon than Neander or Hase or almost any other German author of Church History. We could wish he had referred more frequently to great British authors on some of the topics of his history. His German (German-Swiss) birth and German education inclined him, of course, to familiarity with writers in his own tongue. To some of these, as Baur, because perhaps of personal acquaintance and early association, he may give unnecessary attention. Having been a pupil of Neander, he would naturally defer much to that great master in Church History, and fall in with his mode of viewing important questions. And with all his veneration for the modern Father of Church History, he sees faults in his great work, both in the positions taken in regard to important questions, and in the style. Professor Schaff is far enough removed from the rationalizing temper which has distinguished great German theologians. He has no sympathy with those who would in any degree impair the authority of the text of the Bible, or get rid of the creeds of the Church Universal. But our present concern is not with theological questions. Dr. Schaff's history is the work of an author who loves his subject, enters into it with all his heart, and so is prepared to write with liveliness of style, and to bring to view the great features of the times to which he refers. His style shows at times the glow of a mind fully engaged upon the subject before him, and bent on imparting to others the life and fervor with which he himself pursues his object. We shall not stay to note points in which we are not prepared to hold with him. His honesty and candor and genial spirit are such as to win our respect, even while we depart from him. The excellences of his work are to be found in its bringing before us the full fruits of the labors of the best previous explorers; in testing all things by an application of the original authorities; in the systematic arrangement of the material according to the most approved method; in perspicuity of style; and preeminently in the liveliness and heartiness and full sympathy with the subject which distinguish this production.

There are other important German works on Church History which have been brought out in an English dress, such especially as that of Hase, which is of much value as a manual, but which, as we think, crowds too much material within the compass of one volume. The work of Guericke we consider to be well worth the translation undertaken by Professor Shedd, of Andover. We hope the translator will complete his undertaking. Guericke is a very strict Lutheran, and takes side very warmly in the contest between the Lutherans and the Reformed in Germany. But this hardly appears in the early portions of his work. Late years have given birth in Germany to yet other volumes of ecclesiastical history, which have acquired much reputation, as those of Dr. Kurtz, of Dorpat, Dr. Bitter, (a Roman Catholic,) and others. To the class of writings called monograms, the Germans have given much attention. They are most valuable contributions to the history of particular times of the Church, especially when their subjects are the men who have stamped their own character on their ages. The Lives of Chrysostom and of Bernard by Neander, and of Chrysostom by Perthes, of Anselm by Hase, and of Gregory of Nazianzum by Ullman, and of Angustin by Schaff, belong to this class. Wigger's "Angustinism and Pelagianism" is virtually a life of Augnstin, so far at least as his doctrines are concerned. Such works, properly executed, are among the most valuable contributions to the history of Christianity. Chrysostom in the East, and Angustin in the West, (he was, in style of thought and in tongue, of the Latin Church, though a North-African,) represented in their times the features of the respective portions of Christendom to which they belonged. The former, by his brilliant eloquence and his high tone of Christian duty, stirred especially his own age, without leaving much to shape the doctrinal views of later times. The latter, by his profounder thinking on the mysteries of the fall of man and of the sovereignty of God in salvation through grace, and by his transcendent earnestness and energy, left the stamp of his own mind not only on the men of his own times, but on some of the most devout, gifted, and vigorous spirits of all ages. The influence of Anselm, whose theology was of the type of Augnstin, may be seen in the systematic divinity of our own days. When going out as the defender of the Pope, he was on troubled waters, where we see not much else than the Komish Churchman, battling with refractory monarchs, and with hardly less refractory priests. But within the quiet shelter of his own study, he finds time and repose for some of the profoundest inquiries which have ever employed the thoughts of the greatest divines. He can write his Cur Deus homo, setting the current of systematic thought on the Incarnation of the Son of God and on the question of redemption, for all following ages, his Monologium and Proslogium anticipating the studies of all later writers on the Ontological argument for the existence of God; and can calmly survey the field of "Logic in Theology" in regard to the question of the "Freedom of the Will," hardly leaving room for an original view by Jonathan Edwards himself. The lives of such men must then be of highest moment for illustrating great stages of ecclesiastical and doctrinal history,

and the most accomplished scholars in the Church do well to employ their pens on this kind of composition.

The work which shall endure as the model and standard history of the Church, has not yet been written. The materials for it have been most industriously brought together. The ponderous tomes, beginning with the thirteen folios of the Madgeburg centuries on the Protestant side, and the thirtyeight of Baronius and his successors on the Romish side, followed by the sixteen quartos of Tillemont, the twenty quartos of Fleury, (extended by Fabre to six more, and by La Croix to other six more, making in all forty-two,) and the forty-five Tolumes of Schroeck and Tschirner, together with the immense stores in other and later writings, lay at the feet of the proper student and competent author materials enough for a work that shall satisfy all reasonable demands. It is trne the writer who would give us a proper history of the Church, must not be a mere compiler from other authors; but those who have gone before him in the same path may be used as guides, or it may be in some cases as beacons. What, it may be asked, would satisfy us? Probably the answer would be an ideal not likely to be made a reality. We should like to have a Church History in our own tongue, distinguished by the genius and learning of Neander, without his diffuseness and laxity; the system (and learning, too) of Gieseler, without his rationalistic temper; the heartiness [con amore purpose) of Dr. Schaff; the ecclesiastical position of Hooker; and the love of the Gospel in its doctrines and spirit found in Milner. We ask a hard thing. We could wish, at times, that Church History were only what Milner would have it, a history of evangelical piety. We wish we could throw back within the lines of secular history the lives of men who, in spirit, were only of the world. But we can not pull up the tares without uprooting wheat also. We have often heard honest Christians regretting the records in the Bible of Abraham's failings, of Jacob's offenses and his sons' outrages, especially of the scandals of David's fall and Solomon's. And then, as we have said, a great writer remarks, that the reading of Church History might endanger the steadiness of a faith not before

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hand deeply founded. But "offenses must come," and history must be faithful. Christianity is not to answer for the faultiness of the material with which it works, as the sculptor is not to blame for the defects of the marble on which he exercises a perfect art. Outside of all human opinions, of human weaknesses and crimes, even though seen in the Church, and of human hostility to the truth, there lies a foundation for faith which the babe in Christ can build and rest on with a confidence as reasonable and sober and fixed as that which we have in the testimony of eyes and ears. Of the problems given ns in Providence, we must not look for a solution in an age, nor in more ages than one. "With the Lord a thousand years are as one day." The mystery which is in germ in one age shall be opened in its ripeness in after ages. The call of our Master and Leader sounds through all time: "Have faith in God."


1. Das Allgemeine Gebeibuch, etc. The Book of Common Prayer, according to the United Church of England and Irelandin German. London Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1845.

2. Das Buch des gemeinshaftlichen Gebets, etc. The Book of Common Prayer according to the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of Americain German. NewYork: 1847 and 1852.

The desire of bringing about a fusion of the two Evangelical Confessions in Germany, is as old as the Reformation itself. Although guarded against by official declarations and documents, it was nearly accomplished by the first King of Prussia, at the beginning of the last century, when the infant kingdom had to look for aid and sympathy to England and its people.

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