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By comparing the number of grains in | rally divided decimally into 10ths, 100ths,

the Avoirdupois and Troy pound and ounce respectively, it appears that the Troy pound is less than the Avoirdupois, in the proportion of 14 to 17 nearly; but the Troy ounce is greater than the Avoirdupois, in the proportion of 72 to 79 nearly.

The carat, used for weighing diamonds, is 3 grains. The term, however, when used to express the fineness of gold, has a relative meaning only. Every mass of alloyed gold is supposed to be divided into 24 equal parts; thus the standard for coin is 22 carats fine, that is, it consists of 22 parts of pure gold, and 2 parts of alloy. What is called the new standard, used for watch-cases, &c., is 18 carats fine.

5. ANGULAR MEASURE;
OR, DIVISIONS OF THE CIRCLE.
= 1 Minute

60 Seconds

&c. The degree is frequently so divided. 6. MEASURE OF TIME.

60 Seconds
60 Minutes
24 Hours
7 Days

28 Days

28, 29, 30, or 31 Days 12 Calendar Months 365 Days

366 Days

=1 Minute

1 Hour

= 1 Day

= 1 Week

1 Lunar Month

1 Calendar Month 1 Year

=1 Common Year = 1 Leap Year In 400 Years, 97 are leap years, and 303

common.

The same remark as in the case of angular measure applies to the mode of subdividing the second of time.

WEIGHT OF ENGLISH COINS.
Gold.

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dwt. gr.

Sovereign

5

Half Sovereign

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Crown
Half Crown
Shilling
Sixpence
Fourpence

MEMORANDA FOR NEXT YEAR, 1852.

N.B. As towards the end of each year, or even earlier, information concerning the ensuing year is often wanted, we intend in future to add to the current Almanac a synopsis of that which is to succeed it, as follows:

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London: Printed by A. SWEETING, Bartlett's Buildings, Holborn.

h. m.

Sept. 13, New
28, Full

h. m.
10 38 aft.

6 24 morn. 7 14 morn. 11 54 aft. 4 40 aft. 6 41 aft. 331 morn.

THE

Companion to the Almanac;

OR,

YEAR-BOOK

OF

GENERAL INFORMATION

FOR

1851.

CONTAINING,

I. GENERAL INFORMATION ON SUBJECTS

OF

MATHEMATICS, NATURAL HISTORY,

AND

PHILOSOPHY,

CHRONOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, &c.

II. THE LEGISLATION, STATISTICS, PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS, AND CHRONICLE OF 1850.

PRIC

LONDON:

CHARLES KNIGHT, 90, FLEET STREET.

TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE; OR, FOUR SHILLINGS
BOUND WITH THE BRITISH ALMANAC.

CONTENTS.

PART I.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON SUBJECTS OF MATHEMATICS, NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY, CHRONOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, &c.

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THE LEGISLATION, STATISTICS, PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS, AND CHRONICLE

OF 1849-50.

VIII. Abstracts of important Public Acts passed in the Third Session of the Fifteenth Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland :

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Page

IX. Abstracts of Parliamentary Documents, &c. :

1.-Finance

:

137

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XI. Private Bills of the Session of Parliament, 1850...

209

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XVI. Necrological Table of Literary Men, Artists, &c.

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