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jectors indeed began to build but were unable to finish; and Newcastle, instead of an edifice of which any capital might have been proud, has only the disgrace of a mutilated monument to show how

vaulting ambition doth o'erleap itself." Before sketching, fancying, or even supposing a single line towards design, there is always an immense mass of work to be done, which ought to be done with the minds of all concerned free from every preconceived plan; and ought to embrace far more than it usually does. If we could but ascertain completely what is to be done, before beginning to consider how, and then settle completely how it is to be done, before beginning to do it, we are convinced we should not so continually miscarry.

XV.-CHRONICLE OF OCCURRENCES..
From October 1849 to November 1850.

Correction. Under the date of September 15 in last year's Chronicle of Occurrences it is stated that the sum 6,000,0001. in gold dust from California and dollars from Valparaiso was lodged in the Bank of England. This statement, taken with many misgivings from a paragraph which went the round of the town and country papers, has been contradicted by a gentleman connected with the Bank, who in a note to the editor of the British Almanac and Companion states that the total amount of specie from America lodged in the Bank on the day in question was 2,600,000 dollars, including 130,000l. worth of Californian gold.

Oct. 20, 1849. A united British and Chinese force attacks the pirate chief Shap-ng-tsai in the Bay of Tonquin, and destroys 58 piratical junks, manned by 3,000 men, and mounting 1,200 guns.

28. The British fleet under Sir W. Parker anchors in Basika Bay. Nov. 3. The Hungarian and Polish refugees leave Widdin for Shumla.-The Sultan presents M. de Lamartine with a large estate (above 8,000 acres), within a few leagues of Smyrna.

5. Russia demands the expulsion of the Hungarian refugees from Turkey; Austria asks for their imprisonment; the British fleet enters the Dardanelles.

7. Inauguration of Queen's College, Cork.

12. Austria protests against the confederate alliance of Prussia with some of the smaller German States; and against the convocation of a par. liament of these states at Erfurt.

13. The British fleet leaves its anchorage below the inner castle of the Dardanelles, and retires to Basika Bay.

14. The American mail brings news of the transference of the Canadian seat of government from Montreal to Toronto.

15. This day, by royal proclamation, observed throughout the United Kingdom as a day of thanksgiving for the cessation of cholera; collections made in all the churches in aid of various charitable institutions.

The

16. The Turin chambers adopt a proposal to postpone the debate on the treaty of peace with Austria in opposition to the government. chambers were consequently dissolved on the 21st instant.

19. A great parliamentary and financial reform meeting held in the Music Hall, Edinburgh, to receive a deputation from the National Parliamentary and Financial Reform Association.-A deficit of above 50,0007.

in the Rochdale savings' bank discovered on the death of Mr. G. Haworth, who had been actuary to the bank for 20 years.

20. The Cape Town papers received this day announce the arrival in September of the convict-ship Neptune,' from Bermuda, the organization of the inhabitants to prevent the convicts being landed, or any provi sions being supplied to the vessel, and the application of the colonial leaders to the governor to send the ship away.

21. The Indian mail announces the arrest of the Sikh chiefs, who were brought to Lahore on a charge of treason.

22. The King of Prussia protests against the constitution granted by the Grand Duke of Mecklenburgh-Schwerin.

24. A convention for re-establishing friendly relations between Great Britain and the Argentine Republic signed.

26. A large meeting of the Metropolitan and National Freehold Land Society held in the London Tavern, London, to take measures for carrying into active and immediate operation the principles of the freehold land movement. Mr. Cobden addressed the meeting at great length.-Cape Town papers of September 28 announce that the Anti-Convict Association were carrying out their resolution to "starve" the governor into compliance with the demand to send away the convicts from the shores of that colony. A numerous meeting held in Glasgow City Hall to hear a deputation from the National Parliamentary and Financial Reform Association. A committee was appointed to co-operate with the association.-Zaatcha stormed by the French; the Arab garrison refusing to surrender were all put to the sword.

29. Advices from the Sandwich Islands, of the date August 27, state that the French admiral demanded of the Hawaiian government to admit French brandy, according to the treaty of March 26, 1346; that the demand was not complied with; and that in consequence the French landed, seized the fort, and spiked the guns.

Dec. 1. The Irish Grand Orange Lodge issues a report relating to the armament of the orangemen by the government in 1848.

2. Death of the Queen Dowager Adelaide, relict of William IV., at Bentley Priory, Stanmore; she was born Aug. 13, 1792, and married to the Duke of Clarence July 11, 1818.

5. A convention for the establishment of a customs union signed at Venice between Austria, Modena, Lucca, and Parma.-At the Newport Pagnell Protectionist meeting, Mr. D'Israeli develops his plan for the relief of the agriculturalists by the establishment of a sinking fund to be maintained by a duty on foreign imports.

11. A committee of the Boulogne and Amiens railway directors left London at 4 o'clock, a.m., and reached Paris at half-past 12. Copies of the Times newspaper of this morning were distributed all over Paris by half-past one o'clock. The aim of this journey was to prove the superiority of the route through Boulogne, which had lately been abandoned by the English mail steamers in favour of Calais.-The arguments on an appeal from the Arches Court in the case of Gorham v. the Bishop of Exeter opened before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

12. Death of Sir Marc Isambert Brunel, the distinguished engineer, in his 81st year.

16. A vast assemblage of tenant farmers and others, numbering not less than 20,000, meet at Mullinahone, in the Irish county cf Tipperary, to demand "lower rent, determined by a fair valuation, compensation for permanent improvements, and a lease," and to protest against

"the

abominable system of land jobbing, and the reckless competition for land" that had hitherto prevailed.

18. Amsterdam papers state that the Dutch government had laid before parliament a bill to repeal the restrictions on navigation in Holland, and likewise to abolish all dues on the Dutch part of the Rhine.

20. The Archduke Johann resigns at Frankfort his office as Reichsverweser of Germany to the plenipotentiaries of Austria and Prussia, appointed by the treaty of Sept. 30, to form an ad interim central power.

22. At the 64th ballot for the Speakership of the House of Representatives of the United States, Mr. Cobb, the democrat member for Georgia, was elected, not by an absolute majority of the house, but by a plurality of votes. President Taylor delivered his first message, which was dated Dec. 4, but could not be delivered till a speaker was chosen.

28. A letter appears in the Times from Sir Robert Peel to his tenantfarmers "on the present state and prospects of agriculture," and on our relations as landlord and tenants."-The Westminster Palace Court sits for the last time for the despatch of business.

30. Date of a memorial addressed by Austria to the several governments of Germany for the formation of a commercial and customs union. It was copied into the London papers about Feb. 13, 1850.

31. Diplomatic relations resumed between Russia and the Porte-the latter sends the Hungarian and Polish refugees to Koniah in Asia Minor.

Jan. 1, 1850. The total amount of the corn duties from 1828 to 1848 both inclusive, was 12,024,5781., giving an average of 572,5997. a year for the 21 years that the sliding scale lasted. Under the new law imposing a ls. duty, which came into operation Feb. 1, 1849, the duties received during the year amounted to 615,8147.-the importations giving an average of a million quarters a month.

3. A proclamation issued by the Queen, appointing a commission for the promotion of the exhibition of the works of industry of all nations, to be holden in 1851.

4. A strong Protectionist agitation, originated by Lord Glengall, was carried on about this time throughout Ireland, but in almost every instance resolutions approving of free trade were passed.

6. The Journal of St. Petersburgh of this date gives an account of the detection and punishment of a conspiracy against the life and policy of the Emperor.

7. The Parliamentary and Financial Reform Association holds a great meeting in the London Tavern, London, under the presidency of Sir J. Walmesley, to make a statement of accounts and an explanation of the plans of the association for this year.

9. A numerous meeting held at Aylesbury to hear Mr. Cobden's opinion respecting agricultural prospects. The upshot was a resolution carried unanimously denouncing all attempts to reimpose a tax on the people's bread.-Mr. D'Israeli addressed a large Protectionist meeting the day before at Great Marlow.-The King of Prussia's message relating to certain alterations in the constitution presented to the Chambers in Berlin. The most important articles, relating to the formation of an hereditary Upper Chamber, and to the creation of a special court for the trial of political offenders, were, after a long discussion, agreed to with slight alterations, on the 30th instant.-An attempt to form a Protectionist society for the Irish county Down, at a public meeting in Downpatrick signally defeated.-The Turin Chambers vote the ratification of the treaty of peace with Austria by 112 to 17.

10. The Enterprise and Investigator leave Woolwich to proceed in quest of Sir John Franklin and his party in the Arctic Seas.

17. An influential meeting of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce to consider the question of a more certain and steady supply of cotton.Aggregate meeting of the Irish Protectionists held in the Rotundo, Dublin, on the requisition of Lord Glengall to prepare an address to the Queen, petitions to parliament, and to pass resolutions in favour of protection to native industry, and against the oppressive system of the poor laws.

18. A public meeting held in the London Tavern, London, at the instance of Mr. Cobden, to consider the proposal for lending 5 millions to Russia.-Admiral Sir W. Parker in command of the British Mediterranean squadron blockades the harbour of the Piræus, the Greek government having refused his demand for the payment of all moneys due to British subjects, and for the surrender of the islands Sapienza aud Cabrera.

25. A very numerous meeting held in the Egyptian Hall, Mansion House, London, in furtherance of the Industrial Exhibition of all Nations. 28. A great free trade meeting held in the Rotundo, Dublin, on the requisition of the Lord Mayor.

Feb. 1. The customs boundary between Austria and her Italian provinces abolished.

4. Rioting in the St. Martin district of Paris, caused by the Socialists endeavouring to prevent the police from cutting down the dead trees of liberty; an attack was made on General Lamoricière, who had a narrow escape. The riots were renewed next day with some loss of life; but the troops were called out and dispersed the mobs.

6. The King of Prussia and the two chambers take the oath required by the constitution in the royal palace of Berlin.

7. A meeting of the Church of England National Education Society held in Willis's Rooms, London, to separate the church establishment from its educational relations to the State, and to renounce all share in the educational grant.

8. Mr. Baron Parke gives judgment in the case of Ryder v. Mills, involving the question whether factory owners were liable to penalty for working women and young persons under 18 on the "shift or relay system." The learned Baron pronounced the system to be not illegal.

12. A deputation of the publishers, paper-makers, and printers of England and Scotland wait upon Lord J. Russell to urge the repeal of the duties on paper.

14. The news of the revocation of the Order in Council making the Cape of Good Hope a penal colony received in Cape Town. The Anticonvict Association met and voted a general illumination and public dinner to celebrate their victory over the Colonial Office.

16. Date of Sir C. J. Napier's account of the chastisement of the Afredis. On the 2nd of February about 1000 of the Afredis attacked the camp of the Sappers employed in making a road through the hills between Peshawur and Kohat, killed 12, wounded 6, and plundered the camp. To avenge this massacre a strong force under Col. Bradshaw, with Sir C. J. Napier and Sir C. Campbell, marched from Peshawur on the 9th, and destroyed 6 villages and a great number of the enemy.

18. The Earl of Dalhousie, Governor-general of India, visits Singapore. 19. Date of an important note from Count Nesselrode, relating to the affairs of Greece. It appeared in the Times of March 11.

21. The first public sale of an estate by the Irish Encumbered Estates Commissioners brings 23 years' purchase.

24. Arrival of Lord Gough at Southampton from India.

25. The withdrawal of Hanover from the Prussian Union officially announced at Berlin.- Death of his Celestial Highness Taou-Kwang, em. peror of China, in the 60th year of his age and 30th of his reign. He nominated as his successor his fourth son, who commenced his reign in his 19th year, under the title of Sze-hing.

27. In a general order of this date, Sir C. J. Napier disbands the 66th Bengal Native Infantry for mutiny.-A treaty signed at Munich between Austria, Bavaria, Saxony, and Wurtemberg, to effect a German Union under a federal directory of 7 members, a federal representative assembly of 300 members, and a federal tribunal.

March 1. The blockade of Greece discontinued on the acceptance of the 66 good offices" of France.

4. Commander Lockyer, of her Majesty's steam vessel Medea, destroys a piratical fleet of 13 junks in the Chinese waters, near Hong-Kong.

7. An article in the Times of this day states the determination of the government to abolish the office of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.—A reward of 20,000l. offered by the British Admiralty to any party of any country who shall render assistance to the crews of the discovery ships in the Arctic seas under Sir J. Franklin.

8. Judgment of the judicial committee of the Privy Council in the appeal of Gorham v. the Bishop of Exeter delivered by Lord Langdale, who pronounced the all-but unanimous opinion of the committee that "the doctrine held by Mr. Gorham is not contrary or repuguant to the declared doctrine of the Church of England, and that Mr. Gorham ought not, by reason of the doctrine held by him, to have been refused admission to the vicarage of Brampford Speke." The sentence of the Court of Arches was accordingly reversed. The Vice-Chancellor Knight Bruce, and the Bishop of London, were the only dissentients from the judgment.

15. The King of Wurtemberg opens his States with a remarkable speech, in which he denounces the insidious ambition of Prussia, and announces the formation of a league between Wurtemberg, Bavaria, and Saxony, under the sanction of Austria.

20. Lord Gough entertained by the United Service Club in Pall Mall. -Baron von Radowitz, in the name of the united governments, opens the North German parliament in Erfurt.-Dr. Healy, of the Bengal army, and his attendants, murdered by the Affredis.

21. A public meeting held in Dublin under the requisition of the high sheriff, to petition against the abolition of the Irish Viceroyalty. A grand banquet given by the lord mayor of London to Prince Albert and a distinguished company, including the mayors of most of the boroughs of the United Kingdom, in honour of the project of the Great International Industrial Exhibition to be held in 1851.

22. The Bishop of Exeter, in a letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, protests against the judgment of the judicial committee of Privy Council and against the consequences of the judgment; and further refuses to institute Mr. Gorham into the vicarage of Brampford Speke.-The Wurtemberg and Prussian ambassadors withdrew respectively from Berlin and Stuttgardt.

23. Lord Gough entertained by the East India Company at the London Tavern, London.

31. Death of Mr. Calhoun, the American statesman: he was born in 1782.

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