divisible; possible to be disjoined from some- affairs you ought not, in conscience, to obey them.

South's Sermons. thing else; the noun substantive corresponding: separately, separateness, and separation,

Earths are opake, insipid, and, when dried, friafollow the sense of separate as an adjective: a

ble, or consisting of parts easy to separate, and soluseparatist is one who separates ; a sehismatic : ble in water ; not disposed to burn, flame, or take


Woodward. separator, one who divides or makes a separa

The infusions and decoctions of plants contain the tion : separatory, used in, or conducive to, sepa- most separable parts of the plants, and convey not ration.

only their nutritious but medicinal qualities into the Separate thyself from me : it thou wilt take the blood.

Arbuthnot. left, I will go to the right.

Gen. xiii. 9. The most conspicuous gland of an animal is the David separated to the service those who should system of the guts, where the lacteals are the emisprophesy. 1 Chron, xxv. I. sary vessels, or sepuratory ducts.

Cheyne's Philosophical Principles. Separate me Barnabas and Saul, for the work whereunto I have called them.

Acts xiii. 2.

SEPHARVAIM, or SEPHARVITES, a tribe of I'll to England.

the Samaritans, supposed by Calmet to be ori- To Ireland, I: our separated fortunes

ginally the Safpires on the north of Media ; but Shall keep us both the safer. Shakspeare. Macbeth. by Dr. Gill natives of Sipporhæ in Syro-PhaDid you not hear

nicia. They were partly cut off by the AssyA buzzing of a separation

rians; and the rest were transplanted into the Between the king and Catharine ? Shukspeare. land of Israel, after the overthrow of that king

It is of singular use to princes, if they take the dom, and the captivity of the ten tribes. opinions of their council both separately and together : SEPIA, the cuttle-fish, or ink-fish, a genus for private opinion is more free, but opinion before belonging to the order of vermes mollusca. others is more reserved.

Bacon. As the confusion of tongues was a mark of separa. rior side with little round serrated cups, by the

There are eight brachia interspersed on the intetion, so the being of one language was a mark of contraction of which the animal lays fast hold of union.

A fifteenth part of silver, incorporate with gold, any thing. Besides these eight arms, it has two will not be recovered by any matter of separation, un

tentacula longer than the arms, and frequently less you put a greater quantity of silver, which is the pendunculated. The mouth is situated in the last refuge in separations.

Id. centre of the arms, and is horny and hooked, The anabaptists', separatists”, and sectaries' tenets like the bill of a hawk. The eyes are below the are full of schisms, and inconsistent with monarchy. tentacula, towards the body of the animal. The

body is fleshy, and received into a sheath as far They have a dark opinion that the soul doth live as the breast. Their food are tunnies, sprats, after the separation from the body.

Abbot. lobsters, and other shell fish. With their arms Our modern separatists pronounce all those hereti- and trunks they fasten themselves, to resist the oal, or carnal, from whom they have withdrawn.

motion of the waves. Their beak is like that of

Decay of Piety. Death from sin no power can separate.


a parrot. The females are distinguished by two Eve separate he wished.


paps. They copulate as the polypi do, by a Separability is the greatest argument of real dis- mutual embrace, and lay their eggs upon seatinction.

Glanville. weed and plants, in parcels like bunches of Trials permit me not to doubt of the separableness grapes. Immediately after they are laid they of a yellow tincture from gold.

Boyle. are white, and the males pass over and impregCan a body be inflammable, from which it would nate them with a black liquor, after which they puzzle a chemist to separate an inflammable ingredi- grow larger. On opening the egg, the embryoent?

Id. cuttle is found alive. The males are very conIn a secret vale the Trojan sees A sep’rate grove.


stant, accompany their females every where, If you admit of many figures, conceive the whole them intrepidly at the hazard of their own

face every danger in their defence, and rescue together; and not every thing separately and in par. lives. ticular.

The timorous females fly as soon as Expansion and duration have this farther agree they see the males wounded. The noise of a ment, that though they are both considered by us as

cuttle-fish, on being dragged out of the water, having parts, yet their parts are not separable one resembles the grunting of a hog. When the from another.

Locke. male is pursued by the sea-wolf or other raveWhen there was not room enough for their herds nous fish, he shuns the danger by stratagem. to feed, they by consent separated, and enlarged their He squirts his black liquor, sometimes to the pasture.


quantity of a dram, by which the water becomes Whatever ideas the mind can receive and contem

black as ink, under shelter of which he baffles plate without the help of the body, it can retain the pursuit of his enemy. This ink or black without the help of the body too, or else the soul, or any separate spírit, will have but little advantage by æthiops animal, and is reserved in a particular

liquor has been denominated by M. le Cat thinking.

The greatest argument of real distinction is separa- gland. In its liquid state it resembles that of b'lity and.actual separation ; for nothing can be sepa

the choroid in man; and would then communiraled from itse'lf.

Norris. cate an indelible dye; when dry, it might be 'Twere harid to conceive an eternal watch whose taken for the product of the black liquor in de pieces were never separate one from another nor ever groes dried, and made a precipitate by spirit of in any other form. Burnet's Theory of the Earth. wine. This æthiops animal in negroes, as well as

Says the separatist, if those who have the rule over in the cuttle-fish, is more abundant after death you should command you any thing about church even during life It may serve either for

writing or printing; in the former of which ways side and two tentacula. They are taken off the Romans used it. It is said to be an in- Flintshire, but chiefly inhabit the Mediterranean. gredient in the composition of Indian ink mixed SEPIARIÆ (from sepes, a hedge), the name with rice. There are five species :- 1. S. loligo, of the forty-fourth order of Linnæus's Fragments the great cuttle, with short arms and long ten- of a Natural Method, consisting of a beautiful tacula; the lower part of the body rhomboid collection of woody plants, some of which, from and pindated, the upper thick and cylindric. their size and elegance, are very proper furniThey inhabit all our seas, where, having black- ture for hedges. See Botany, Index. aned the water by the effusion of their ink, they SEPIAS, in ancient geography, a cape of abscond, and with their tail leap out of the water. Thessaly, now called St. George. They are gregarious, and swift in their motions : SEPS, in zoology. See Lacerta. they take their prey by means of their arms, and, SEPT, n.s. Fr. cep ; Lat. septum. A clan; embracing it, bring it to their central mouth. race; family; generation. A word used chiefly They adhere to the rocks, when they wish to with regard or allusion to Ireland. be quiescent, by means of the concave discs

This judge, being the lord's brehon, adjudgeth a placed along their arms. 2. S. media, the better share unto the lord of the soil, or the head of middle cuttle, with a long slender cylindric that sept, and also unto himself for his judgment a body, tail finned, pointed, and carinated on each greater portion, than unto the plaintiffs. side; two long tentacula; the body almost

Spenser on Ireland. transparent green, but convertible into a dirty The English forces were ever too weak to sabdue brown; confirming the remark of Pliny, that so many warlike nations, or septs of the Irish, as did they change their color through fear, adapting possess this island.

Davies on Ireland. it, chamelion-like, to that of the place they are

The true and ancient Russians, a sept whom he in. The eyes are large and smaragdine. 3. S. had met with in one of the provinces of that vast emoctopodia, the eight-armed cuttle. The arms are

pire, were white like the Danes.

Boyle. connected at their bottom by a membrane. This SEPTARIÆ, in the old system of mineralogy, is the polypus of Pliny, which he distinguishes a large class of fossils, named also ludus Helfrom the loligo and sepia by the want of the tail montii and waxen veins. They were defined to and tentacula. They inhabit our seas, but be fossils not inflammable, nor soluble in water; abound most in the Mediterranean. In hot of a moderately firm texture and dusky hue, diclimates these are found of an enormous size. vided by several septa or thin partitions, and The Indians affirm that some have been seen composed of a sparry matter greatly debased two fathoms broad over their centre, and each by earth ; not giving fire with steel; fermenting arm nine fathoms long. When the Indians navi- with acids, and in great part dissolved by them; gate their little boats they go in dread of them; and calcining in a moderate fire. Of this class and, lest these animals should fing their arms were reckoned two distinct orders of bodies, and over and sink them, they never sail without an under these six genera. The first order were axe to cut them off. When used for food they those which are usually found in large masses, are served up red from their own liquor, which, of a simple uniform construction, but divided by from boiling with the addition of nitre, becomes large septa either into larger and more irregular red. Barthol says, upon cutting one of them portions, or into smaller and more equal ones open, so great a light broke forth, that at night, called talc. The genera of this order are four: upon taking away the candle, the whole house 1. Those divided by septa of spar, called secoseemed to be in a blaze. 4. S. officinalis, the miæ. 2. Those divided by septa of earthy matter, officinal cuttle, with an ovated body, has fins called gaiophragmia. 3. Those divided by septa along the whole of the sides, almost meeting at of the matter of the pyrites, caHed pyritercia. the bottom; and two long tentacula. The body And, 4. Those divided by septa of spar, with an contains the bone, the cuttle-bone of the shops, admixture of crystal, called diaugophragmia. which was formerly used as an absorbent. The Those of the second order are such as are usually bones are frequently Aung on all our shores ; the found in smaller masses, of crustated strucanimal very rarely. The conger eels bite off their ture, formed by various incrustations round a arms or feet; but they grow again, as does the central nucleus, and divided by a very thin lizard's tail (Plin. ix. 20). They are preyed septa. Of this order were only two genera : 1. upon by the plaise. This fish emits (in common Those with a short roundish nucleus, enclosed with the other species), when frightened or pur- within the body of the mass; and, 2. Those sued, the black liquor which the ancients sup- with a long nucleus, standing out beyond the posed darkened the circumambient wave, and ends of the mass. concealed it from the enemy. The ancients SEPTAS, in botany, a genus of plants belongsometimes made use of it instead of ink. Per- ing to the order of heptagynia, and the class of sius mentions this species in his description of heptandria; natural order thirteenth, succulentæ : the noble student. This animal was esteemed a cal. divided into seven parts; the petals are delicacy by the ancients, and is eaten even at seven; the germens seven : CAPs. also seven, and present by the Italians. Rondeletius gives us contain many seeds. There is only one species, two receipts for the dressing. Athenæus also viz. gives the method of making an antique cuttle-fish S. Capensis, which is a native of the Cape of sausage; and we learn from Aristotle that these Good Hope, is round-leaved, and flowers in Auanimals are in highest season when pregnant. gust and September. 5. S. sepiola, the small cuttle, with a short body SEPTEM (Lat.), seven, forms part of the rounded at the bottom, has a round fin on each names of some ancient places : as Septeni Aquæ,


a lake near Reate, in Italy. Cic. 1. Att. 15. that extreme wherent they were septentrionally ex.


Browne. Septem Aquæ Mariæ, the entrance of the seven mouths of the Po into the Adriatic. Septem

Steel and good iron, never excited by the loadFratres [q. d. Seven Brethren), a mountain of stone, septentrionate at one extreme, and australise ai


Id. Mauritania, with seven summits; now called

If the spring Gebel or Gebel Mousa.

Preceding should be destitute of rain, SEPTEM'BER, n. s. Fr. Septembre; Lat.

Or blast septentrional with brushing wings September. The ninth month of the year; the Sweep up the smoaky mists and vapours damp: seventh from March.

Then woe to mortals !

Phillips. September hath his name as being the seventh month from March : he is drawn with a

SEPTERION, a festival observed once in and

merry cheerful countenance in a purple robe.

nine years in honor of Apollo. It was a reprePeacham on Drawing.

sentation of his victory over Python. See PySEPTEMBER consists of only thirty days; it took its name as being the seventh month from

SEPTFOIL (from Lat. septem and folia, March, with which the Romans began their year. q. d. seven leaves), the English name of a speSEPTEMBRISERS (Fr. Septembriseurs), a

cies of tormentilla.

SEP'TICAL, adj. - Gr. OnATIKOS. name invented to stigmatise those bloody Pari

Having sians, who, in September 1792, went to the state power to promote or produce putrefaction. prisons, and, without trial by judges or juries,

As a septical medicine Galen commended the ashes massacred most of the prisoners who were con

of a salamander. Browne's Vulgar Errours. fined in them.

SEPTICS, substances which promote putreSEPTEN’NIAL, adj. Lat. septennis. Lasting faction, chiefly the calcareous earths, magnesia, seven years; happening once in seven years. and testaceous powders. From many curious

Being once dispensed with for his septennial visit, experiments made by Sir John Pringle, to ascerby a holy instrument from Petropolis, he resolved to tain the septic and antiseptic virtues of natural govern them by subaltern ministers.

bodies, it appears that there are very few subHouel's Vocal Forest.

Those comThe days of men are cast up by septenaries, and stances of a truly septic nature. every seventh year conceived to carry some altering monly reputed such by authors, as the alkalive character in temper of mind or body.

and volatile salts, he found to be no wise septic. Browne's Vulgar Errours. However, he discovered some, where it seemed These constitutions of Moses, that proceed so least likely to find any such quality; these were much upon a septenary, or number of seven, have no chalk, common salt, and testaceous powders. He reason in the nature of the thing.

Burnet. mixed twenty grains of crabs' 'eyes, prepared Every controversy has seven questions belonging with six drams of ox's gall, and an equal quanto it; though the order of nature seems too much tity of water. Into another phial he put an neglected by a confinement to this septenary number. equal quantity of gall and water, but no crabs'


eyes. Both these mixtures being placed in the SEPTENNIAL ELECTIONS. Blackstone, in his furnace, the putrefaction began much sooner Commentaries, vol. i. p. 189, says (after ob- where the powder was than in the other phial. serving that the utmost extent of time allowed On making a like experiment with chalk, its the same parliament to sit by the stat. 6 W. & septic virtue was found to be much greater than M. c. 2, was three years), But by the statute 1 that of the crabs' eyes : nay, what the doctor had Geo. I. st. 2. c. 38 (in order professedly to pre- never met with before, in a mixture of two

great and continued expenses of fre- drams of flesh with two ounces of water and quent elections, and the violent heats and ani- thirty grains of prepared chalk, the flesh was mosities consequent thereupon, and for the peace resolved into a perfect mucus in a few days. To and security of the government, just (then reco- try whether the testaceous powders would also vering from the late rebellion), this term was dissolve vegetable substances, the doctor mixed prolonged to seven years; and, what alone is an them with barley and water, and compared this instance of the vast authority of parliament, the mixture with another of barley and water alone. very same house that was chosen for three years After a long maceration by a fire, the plain water enacted its own continuance for seven.

was found to swell the barley, and turn mucilaSEPTENTRIO, in astronomy, a constellation ginous and sour; but that with the powder kept more usually called ursa minor.

the grain to its natural size, “though it softened SEPTENTRION, n. s. & adj. Fr. septen- it, yet made no mucilage and remained sweet. SEPTEN’TRIONALLY, adv.

Lat. Nothing could be more unexpected than to find SepteN'TRIONATE, v. N.

S septentrio.

sea salt a hastener of putrefaction; but the fact The north: northerly: to send northerly. is thus: one dram of salt preserves two drams Thou art as opposite to every good

of fresh beef, in two ounces of water, above thirty As the antipodes are unto us,

hours uncorrupted, in a heat equal to that of the Or as the south to the septentrion.

human body; or, which is the same thing, this Shakspeare. Henry VI. Backed with a ridge of hills,

quantity of salt keeps flesh sweet twenty hours That screened the fruits of the earth and seats of longer than pure water; but then half a dram of

salt does not preserve it above two hours longer; From cold septentrion blasts.

twenty-five grains have little or no antiseptic Milton's Paradise Regained. virtue, and ten, fifteen, or even twenty grains, maIf they be powerfully excited, and equally let fall, nifestly both hasten and heighten the corruption. they commonly sink down, and break the water, at The quantity which had the most putrefying


trion ;


quality, was found to be about ten grains to the loss of time, and finished it in seventy-two days, above proportion of flesh and water. Many in- and, the whole being read in the presence of the ferences might be drawn from this experiment: king, he admired the profound wisdom of the one is, that since salt is never taken in aliment laws of Moses, and sent back the deputies laden beyond the proportion of the corrupting, quan- with presents, for themselves, the high-priest, tities, it would appear that it is subservient to and the temple. Aristobulus, who was tutor to digestion chiefly by its septic virtue, that is, by Ptolemy Physcon; Philo, who lived in our softening and resolving meats; an action very Saviour's time, and was contemporary with the different from what is commonly believed. The apostles; and Josephus, sper k of this translation above experiments were made with the salt kept as made by seventy-two interpreters, by the care for domestic uses. See Pringle on the Diseases of Demetrius Phalareus, in the reign of Ptolemy of the Army, p. 348, et seq.

Philadelphus. All the Christian writers, during SEPTILATERAL, adj. Lat. septem and la- the first fifteen centuries of the Christian era, teris. Having seven sides.

have admitted this account of the Septuagint as By an equal interval they make seven triangles, an undoubted fact. But, since the Reformation, the bases whereof are the seven sides of a septilateral critics have boldly called it in question, because figure, described within a circle.

it was attended with circumstances which they Browne’s Vulgar Errours. thirik inconsistent or improbable. Du Pin has SEPTIMIUS (Titus), a Roman knight, cele- asked, why were seventy-two interpreters embrated for his poems, both tragic and lyric. He ployed, since twelve would have been sufficient? was intimate with the emperor Augustus, and Such an objection is trifling. We may as well the poet Horace, who addressed the sixth ode of ask, why did king James I. employ'fifty-four his second book to him.

translators in rendering the Bible into English, SEPTIZON, or SEPTIZONIUM, in Roman an since twelve, or even two, might have been suftiquity, a celebrated mausoleum, built by Septi- ficient? 1. Prideaux objects that the Septuagint mius Severus, in the tenth region of the city of is not written in the Jewish, but in the AlexRome: it was so called from septem and zona, andrian dialect, and could not therefore be the by reason it consisted of seven stories, each of work of natives of Palestine. But these dialects which was surrounded by a row of columns. were probably at that time the same; for both

Jews and Alexandrians had received the Greek SEPTUAGINT, n. s. Lat. septuaginta. The language from the Macedonians about fifty years old Greek version of the Old Testament, so cal- before. 2. Prideaux farther contends that all the led as being supposed the work of seventy-two books of the Old Testament could not be transinterpreters. See below.

lated at the same time; for they exhibit great The three hundred years of John of times, or Nes, difference of style. To this it is sufficient to retor

, cannot afford a reasonable encouragement beyond ply that they were the work of seventy-two men, Moses's septuagenary determination. Browne's Vulgar Errours.

each of whom had separate portions assigned In oui abridged and septuagesimal age, it is very Aristobulus, Philo, and Josepbus, all directly

him. 3. The dean also urges that Aristeas, rare to behold the fourth generation.

Which way soever you try you shall find the pro- tell us that the law was translated without menduct great enough for the extent of this earth ; and, tioning any of the other sacred books. But if you follow the Septuagint chronology, it will still nothing was more common among writers of the be far higher.

Burnet. Jewish nation than to give this name to the The SEPTUAGINT is said to be the work of Scriptures as a whole. În the New Testament seventy-two Jews, who are usually called the law is used as synonymous with what we call the seventy interpreters, because seventy is a round Old Testament.' Besides, it is expressly said by number. The history of this version was ex- Aristobulus, in a fragment quoted by Eusebius pressly written by Aristeas, an officer of the (Præp. Evan. I. 1), that the whole sacred Scripguards to Ptolemy Philadelphus. The substance ture was rightly translated through the means of of bis account is as follows :-Ptolemy having Demetrius Phalereus, and by the command of erected a fine library at Alexandria, which he Philadelphus. Josephus indeed, says the learned took care to fill with the most curious and dean, asserts, in the preface of his Antiquities, valuable books from all parts of the world, was that the Jewish interpreters did not translate for informed that the Jews had one containing the Ptolemy the whole Scriptures, but the law only. laws of Moses, and the history of that people; Here the evidence is contradictory, and we have and, being desirous of enriching his library with only to enquire whether Aristobulus or Josephus a Greek translation of it, applied to the high- had the best opportunity of knowing the truth. priest of the Jews; and, to engage him to com- Aristobulus was an Alexandrian Jew, tutor to an ply with his request, set at liberty all the Jews Egyptian king, and lived within 100 years after whom his father Ptolemy Soter had reduced to the translation was made, and certainly had acslavery. After such a step he easily obtained cess to see it in the royal library. Josephus was what he desired; Eleazar the Jewish high-priest a native of Palestine, and lived not until 300 sent back his ambassadors with an exact copy if years or more after the translation was made, the Mosaical law, written in letters of gold, and and many years after it was burnt, along with six elders of each tribe, in all seventy-two, who the whole library of Alexandria, in the wars of were received with marks of respect by the king, Julius Cæsar. Supposing the veracity of these and then conducted into the Isle of Pharos, two writers equal, as we have no proof of the where they were lodged in a house prepared for contrary, which of them ought we to consider as their reception, and supplied with every thing the best evidence? Aristobulus surely. If the necessary. They set about the translation without writings which have passed under his name were

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a forgery of the second century, it is surprising of the marquis of Argyle's death, in the reign of that they should have imposed upon Clemens Charles II., we have a very remarkable contraAlexandrinus, who lived in the same century, and diction. Lord Clarendon relates that he was was a man of abilities, learning, and well ac condemned to be hanged, which was performed quainted with the writings of the ancients. Eu- the same day: on the contrary, Burnet, Wood. sebius, too, in his Præp. Evan., quotes the com- row, Heath, and Echard, concur in stating that mentaries of Aristobulus. And in answer to the he was beheaded; and that he was condemned dean's objections, that neither Philo nor Josephus upon the Saturday and executed upon the Monhave quoted Aristobulus, it is sufficient to ob- day. Was any reader of English history ever serve that it was not the uniform practice of these sceptic enough to raise from hence a question, times to name the authors from whom they de- whether the marquis of Argyle was executed or rived their information. 4. Prideaux farther not? Yet this ought to be left in uncertainty, contends that the sum which Ptolemy is said to according to the way of reasoning in which the have given to the interpreters is too great to be facts respecting the translation of the Septuagint credible. If his computation were just, it cer- are attempted to be disproved. Such are the obtainly would be so. He makes it £2,000,000 jections which the learned and ingenious Prideaux sterling; but Dr. Blair reduces it to £85,421, has raised against the common account of the and others to £56,947; neither of which is a sum Septuagint translation, and such are the answers so very extraordinary in so great and magnificent which may be given to them. We support that a prince as Philadelphus, who spent, according opinion which is sanctioned by historical evito a passage in Athenæus, lib. v., no less than dence, in preference to the conjectures of modern 10,000 talents on the furniture of one tent; critics, however ingenious; being persuaded that which is six times more than what was spent in there are many things recorded in history which, the whole of the embassy and translation, which though perfectly true, yet, from our imperfect amounted only to 1552 talents. 5. Prideaux knowledge of the concomitant circumstances, says, that which convicts the whole story of may, at a distant period, seem liable to objecAristeas of falsity is, that he makes Demetrius tions. To those who require positive evidence, Phalereus to be the chief actor in it, and a great it may be stated thus: Aristeas, Aristobulus, favorite of the king; whereas Philadelphus, as Philo, and Josephus, assure us that the law was soon as his father was dead, cast him into prison, translated. Taking the law in the most restricted where he soon after died. But it is replied that sense, we have at least sufficient authority to asl'hiladelphus reigned two years jointly with his sert that the Pentateuch was rendered into father Lagus; and it is not said by Hermippus Greek under Ptolemy Philadelphus. Aristobuthat Demetrius was out of favor with Philadel- lus affirms that the whole Scriptures were transphus during his father's life. Now, if the Septua- lated by the seventy-two. Josephus confines gint was translated in the beginning of the reign their labors to the books of Moses. He therefore of Philadelphus, as Eusebius and Jerome think, who cannot determine which of the two is the the difficulty will be removed. Demetrius might most respectable, may suspend his opinion. It have been librarian during the reign of Philadel- is certain, however, that many of the other books phus, and yet imprisoned on the death of Lagus. were translated before the age of our Saviour; Indeed, as the cause of Philadelphus's displeasure for they are quoted both by him and his apostles; was the advice which Demetrius gave to his and, perhaps, by a minute examination of ancient father, to prefer the sons of Arsinoa before the authors, in the same way that Dr. Lardner has son of Berenice, he could scarcely show it till. examined the Christian fathers to prove the his father's death. The Septuagint translation antiquity of the New Testament, the precise might therefore be begun while Philadelphus period in which the whole books of the Septua. reigned jointly with his father, but not be finished gint were composed might, with considerable till after his father's death. 6. Besides the above accuracy, be ascertained. For 400 years this objections, there is only one more that deserves translation was in high estimation with the Jews. notice. The ancient Christians not only differ It was read in their synagogues in preference to from one another concerning the time in which the Hebrew; not only in those places where Aristobulus lived, but even contradict themselves Greek was the common language, but in many in different parts of their works. Sometimes synagogues of Jerusalem and Judea. But, when they tell us he dedicated his book to Ptolemy they saw that it was equally valued by the ChrisPhilometer, at other times they say it was ad- tians, they became jealous of it; and at length, dressed to Philadelphus and his father. Sometimes in the second century, Aquila, an apostate Christhey make him the same person who is men- tian, attempted to substitute another Greek tioned in 2 Maccabees, chap. i., and sometimes translation in its place. In this work he was one of the seventy-two interpreters, 152 years careful to give the ancient prophecies concerning before. It is difficult to explain how authors the Messiah a different turn from the Septuagint, fall into such inconsistencies; but it is probably that they might not be applicable to Christ. In occasioned by their quoting from memory. This the same design he was followed by Symmachus was certainly the practice of almost all the early and Theodotion, who also, as St. Jeruie informs Christian writers, and sometimes of the apostles us, wrote out of hatred to Christianity. In the themselves. Mistakes were therefore inevitable. mean time the Septuagint, from the ignorance, Josephus has varied in the circumstances of the boldness, and carelessness of transcribers, became same event, in his Antiquities and Wars of the full of errors. To correct these, Origen pubJews, probably from the same cause; but we do lished a new edition in the beginning of the third not hence conclude that every circumstance of century, in which he placed the translations of such a relation is entirely false. In the account Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion. This edi

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