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purpose a writer may have clear ideas himself, if he be not poffefsed of a preciseness of expression, capable of conveying them
Reports of the Humane Society, instituted in the year 1774, for the
recovery of persons apparently drowned. For the year 1776. 8vo. Printed for the Society.
In these reports for the year 1776, the worthy editors have; in some respects, adhered to their former plan; they have first given those successful cases which have fallen under the immediate inspection of the Society; together with a summary view of the unsuccessful ones; by which the reader will plainly fee how much they have gained over the preceding years : they have afterwards given the cases which have been communicated to them from individuals, or from other Societies. To these they have subjoined a second part; containing a general account of the proceedings of the Society, and of other estab. lishments which have originated from theirs; and also some fingular cases, chiefly selected from the publications of the Dutch and French, in order to demonstrate ftill further the afsertion, that persons are equally recoverable in sudden suspenfons of the vital powers from various other causes, and to animate to ftill greater perfeverance in the most desperate and alarming accidents.
In the introduction we are also made acquainted with a cire cumstance, that does not appear from the perusal of their reports, v.ž. that of the number of objects, for whom the promised rewards were paid, no less than cleven out of fourteea have been preserved froin committing an act of suicide : that all of them are reconciled to life; nor have they indicated the Icast inclination to repeat their horrid purposes.
Success to the humane and pious endeavours of so truly laudable an institution !
Infructions of a Dutchefs to her Son; translated into Englife from
the original Italian. By a young Lady, 450. 2s 6d. Becket.
A tolerable translation of a tract, consisting of coinmonplace observations on trite topics ; published by the translator's Italian master, as a speciinen of his fair pupil's proficiency in the language.
şhe History of America, By William Robertson, D. D. Prin.
cipal of the University of Edinburg, and Historiographer ta bis Majesty for Scotland. 2 Vols. 4to. 21. 2s. Cadell, London. Balfour, Edinburgh.
(Continued from Page 7.) In the eighth and last book of this valuable and entertaining hiftory, the ingenious author enters on the confideration of the Spanish fyftem.of colonization, a subject peculiarly interesting at the present juncture. In doing this he gives a general idea of the policy of Spain in the original settlement of its American provinces,
“ But the establishments of the Spaniards in the New World, says he, though fatal to its ancient inhabitants, were made at a period when that monarchy was capable of forming them to best advantage. By the union of all its petty kingdoms, Spain was become a powerful state, equal to fo great an undertaking. Its monarchs, having ex tended their prerogative far beyond the limits which once circumferibed the regal power in every kingdom of Europe, were hardly subject to coutroul, either in exerting, or in executing their measures. In every wide extended empire, the form of government must be fimple, and the authority of the sovereign absolute; that his resolutions may he taken with promptitude, and pervade the whole with undiminished force. Such was the power of the Spanish monarchs, when they were called to deliberate concerning the mode of establishing their dominion over the most remote provinces, that had ever been subjected to any European state. In this deliberation, they felt themselves under no constitutional restraint, and that as independent masters of their own resolves, they might issue the edi&ts requisite for modelling the go. vernment of the new colonies, by a mere act of prerogative.
“ This early interposition of the Spanish crown, in order to regulate the policy and trade of its colonies, is a peculiarity which distinguishes their progress from that of the colonies of any other European nation. When the Portuguese, the English, and French, took poffeffion of those regions in America which they now occupy, the ad: yantages which they promised to yield were so remote and uncertain, that they were suffered to struggle through a hard infancy, almost with out guidance and protection from the parent state. But gold and filver, the first productions of the Spadith settlements in the New World, were more alluring, and ioninediately attracted the attention of their monarchs. Though they had contribured little to the discovery, and almost nothing to the conquest of the New World, they in. ftantly afsuined the function of its legillators ; and having acquired species of dominios formerly unknown, they formed a plan for exercising it, to which nothing fimilar occurs in the history of human atfairs."
Our Historian proceeds to trace the outline of the system of government, adopted by Old Spain, for the subjection of Yol. VI, N
her Colonies ; expatiating on the political motives for such adoption.
“ The first object, says he, of the Spanish monarchs was to secure the productions of the colonies to the parent state, by an absolute prohibition of any intercourse with foreign nations. They took pofletion of America by right of congueit ; and, conscious of the feebleness of their infant fettlements, and aware of the difficulty in establishing their dominion oser luch vaft regions, or of retaining so many reluctant nations under the yoks, they dreaded the intrusion of strangers ; they even hunned their inspection, and endeavoured to keep them at a distance from their coaits. This spirit of jealousy and exclusion, which at fint was natural, and perhaps neceflary, augmented as their poffeffions in America extended, and the value of the came to be niore fully understood. In contequence of it, a system of colonizing was introduced, to which there had hitherto been nothing similar among mankind. In the ancient world, it was not uncommon to send forth colonies. But they were of two kinds only. They were either migrations, which served to disburden a state of its fuperfluous subjects, when they multiplied too fait for the territory which they cccupied : or they were military detachmenis stationed, as garrisons, in a con. quered province. The colonies of fo:ne Greek republics, and the swarms or northern barbarians which fettled in different parts of Europe, were of the fiuft fjrecies. The Roman colonies were of the second. In the former, the connection with the mother country quickly ceased, and they became independent states. In the latter, as the disjunction was not complete, the dependence continued. In their Ainerican settlements, the Spanish monarchs took what was peculiar to each, and ftudieti.to unite them. By sending colonies to regions to remuie, by establishing in each a form of interior policy and adminiitration, under diitinct governors, and with peculiar laus, they disjoined them from the mother country. By retaining in their own hands the rights of legitlation, as well as that of impainy taxes, together with the power of nominating the persons wlotilled every department, civilor military, they fecured iheir dependene. Tiappily tor Spain, the situation or her colonies was such, as rendered if poulible to reduce this new idea into practice. Almost all the countries which the bad discovered and occupied, lay within the tropics. The productions of that large por. tion of the globe, are different fiom those of Europe, even in iis most fouthern provinces. The qualities of the climate and of the soil natu.. rally Tom the induitry of those who feuile there into new channels. When the Spaniuris dirt took poilellion of their domains in America, the precious metals which they yielded, were the only whject that attracted their attention. Even when their efforts began to take a better direction, they employed thentelves alınoit wholly in rearing such peculiar productions of the climate, as, fiom their rarity or value, were of chiet demand in the mother.country. Allured by vatt prof. pečis of immediate wealth, they dildained io waste their induitry on what was less lucrative, but of superior moment. In order to render it impoffible to correct this error, and to prevent them from making any efforts that might interfere with those ot Spain, the establihment of
feveral species of manufa&tures, and even the culture of the vine, or olive, are prohibited in the colonies, under severe penalties. They must truit entirely to the mother country for the objects of primary necesity. Their cloths, their furniture, their initruments of labour, their luxuries, and even a considerable part of the provisions which they confume, were imported from Sprin. During a great part of the hxreenth century, Spain poflelling an extensive commerce and flourishing manufactures, could supply with great eate the growing demands other colonies, from her own stores. The projuce of their mines and plantacions was given in exchanye for these. But all that the colonies received, as well as all that they gave, was conveyed in Spanish bottoms. No vellel bel nying to the colonies was ever pero, mitted to carry the commodities of America to Europe. Even the commercial intercourse of one colony with another, was either abfi:lutely prohibited, or limited by many jealous reftrictions. All that America vields flows into the ports of Spain; ail that it consumes muit illue from them. No foreigner can enter one of its colonies without expreis permision ; no veííel of any foreig'i nation is received into their hare bours ; and ihe pains of death, with confiliation of moveables, are denounced againit every inhabitant who prefumes to trade with them. Thus the colonies are kept in a flate of perpetual pupillage ; and by the introduction of this commercial dependence, a refinement in policy of which Spain fet the first example to the European nations, the supremacy of the parent state hath been maintained over remote colonies during two centuries and a halt."
Such, according to our historian, were the capital maxims, to which the Spanish monarchs attended in forming their new settlements in America. They could not plant, however, he observes, with the same rapidity that they had destroyed; while, from many concurring causes, their progress was to extremely flow, in filling up the immense void their devastations had occasioned.
“ As soon as the rage for discovers and adventure began to alvate, the Spaniards opened their eyes to dangers and distrefies, which at first they did not perceive, or had despited. The numerous hardthip, with which the inembers of infant colonies have to itruggle, the dileales of unwholesome climales, fatal to the conftitution of Europeans; the difficulty of bringing a country, covered with foreits, into culture ; the want of hands neceílary for labour in fome provinces, and the flow reward of industry in all, unlets where the accidental discovery of mines enriched a few fortunate adventurers, were evils univerfally felt and magnified. Discouraged by the view of these, the spirit of migration was so much damped, that fixty years after the discovery of the New World, the number of Spaniards in all its provinces is computed not to have exceeded fifteen thousand.”
This computation, indeed!, was made by Benzoni ; who, writing with the spirit of a malcontent, probably calculated rather too low. Be this as it may, it is pretty certain, that when Benzoni wrote, viz. in the year 1550, the number of
emigrants from Old Spain, with their immediate descendants; formed but a very inconsiderable body of people, in comparison with their number in present state of increased population ; which our author thus describes.
“So fertile and inviting are the regions of America, which the Spaniards have occupied, that notwith itanding all the circumttances, which have checked and retarded population, it has gradually increased, and filled the colonies of Spain with citizens of various orders. Among these, the Spaniards, who arrive from Europe, diftinguished by the name of Chapetones, are of the first rank and power. From the jealous attention of the Spanish court to secure the dependence of the colonies, every department of consequence is filled by perfons sent from Europe; and in order to prevent any of dubious fidelity from being employed, each must bring proof of a clear descent from a family of Old Christians, untainted with any mixture of Jewish or Mahometan blood, and never disgraced by any cenfure of the inquisition. In such pure hands; power is deemed to be safely lodged, and almost every public function, from the viceroyalty downwards, is committed to them alone. Every perfon, who by his birth, or residence in Alnerica, may be suspected of any attachment or interest adverse to the mother-country, is the object of distruit to such a degree, as amounts nearly to an exclusion from all oflices of confidence or authority. By this conspicuous predisection of the court, the Chapetones are raised to such pre-eminence in America; that they look down with disdain on every other order of men. ,
1. The character and state of the Crooles, or descendants of Europeans settled in Americ.1, the second class of subjects in the Spanish colonies, has enabled the Chapetones to acquire other advantages, hardly less considerable than those which they derive from the partial favour of government. Though some of the Creolian race are descended from the conquerors of the New World; though others can trace up their pedigree to the noblett families in Spain; though many are pofletled of ample fortunes, yet, by the enervating in Huence of a fultry climate, by the rigour of a jealous government, and by their despair of ataining that distinction to which mankind naturally aspire, the vigour of their minds is so entirely broken, that a great part of them waste lite in luxurious indulgences, mingled with an illiberal superstition itill more debating. Languid and unenterprising, the operations of an active extended commerce would be to them fo cumbersome and oppreslive, that in almost every part of America they decline engaging it it. The interior traffic of every colony, as well as its trade with the neighbouring provinces, and with Spain itself, are carried on chiefly by the Chapetones; who, as the recompence of their industry, amais immense wealih, while the Creoles, funk in floth, are satisfied with the revenues of their parernal estates.
á From this stated competition for power and wealth, between those tiro orders of citizens, and the various paffions excited by a rivalship fo intereiting, their hatred is violent and implacable. On every occalion, symptoms of this aversion break out, and the common appellations which each bestows on the other, are as conteinptuous as thote which