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Topham's Address to Mr. Burke. may be gathered from the following passage ; which we select as a speciinen of this author's stile and manner of declamation.
" It is painful to a generous mind to observe how that rancour of Party which I have described, can banish every common sentiment of humanity, and lead a man to encourage animosities between those whose interests ought to be firmly united, whose diffentions must be fatal to this country. Can any thing but this spirit induce the conciliating Mr. Burke to excite divisions between the English and German Troops, because the latter are Foreigners, and have behaved in a manner deserving every commendation? Is it worthy of your character to insult over the memory of those that are fallen in fighting our battles, and who have sacrificed their best blood to gain us advantages, which never could affect themselves? Were it probable to suppose that a language so unbecoming a man of honour could ever reach them, and that they could be weak enough to be affected by it, how fatally might it operate against the interests of this Country! Were they, resentful of this usage, to forfake us in the day of battle, and, deserting their standards, leave us to the enemy_would it have charms for Mr. Burke, that his Countrymen should pay the forfeiture of his misrepresentations in sufferings and captivity? For the honour of this Nation, I will hope that such sentiments will be forgotten ; but, should they be so unfortunate as to be remembered, I trust, Sir, that these Germans, however contemptibly you may think of them, will disregard such language: that there is a spirit of real valour amongst them that will lead them to discharge their duty as soldiers, to acquit themselves like men of honour in the cause in which they are embarked, and to spread the dignity of the English name over the rebellious Continent of America.
I hall not take notice of your predicted triumphs over us.- If the behaviour of the Americans has satisfied you, I am silent.--If you think they have fought like men who are fighting for every thing that is dear to them--if you think they have never been ashamed of, or renounced, their cause--if you think they have preferred death to submission-be it fo. I shall never reproach them with cowardice ; I am too much a friend to this Country to wish that they may behave better.
You make it a subject of complaint, Sir, that with these unfortunate, these brave Americans, we war not only with the Sword, but with Laws recently made, and fabricated for the purpose. Could we indeed have foretold' that such a Rebellion would have existed; that America, forgetting her dependance on this Country, would have raised her arm against the Parent that supported her ; we might then have been prepared in every way either to prevent or chastise her ingratitude. Laws can only be made when occalion calls them forth.
The unsuspecting confidence of England with some reason imagined, that such a criine would never have been perpetrated : Like the Law-givers of old, they flattered themselves that an offence so enormous as that of Parricide would never have existed in Society. The rapid progress, however, of human wickedness convinced them of their iniltake ;-and it was then found neceflary to enact punishments adequate to the crime. But violent, Sir, as these laws against the Colonies may be in your opinion, their violence will cease, when they cease to deserve them. The
gentle current of Government will soon return to its ferenity. It was the torrent of American Rebellion that forced us to erect banks to refiit its impetuofity.
I pass over your occasional abuses of the present Ministry, because, Sir, they are natural to your situation. It is, however, somewhat unfortunate that Mr. Burke should reprobate all abuse of men merely as Ministers, and then be guilty of what he condemns. It shews to what we are to attribute thote affected effufions of Patriotism, which seem to breathe the very fpirit of Philanthropy. But so hard is the temper of these tiines, that we liiten to profellions of this fort with fufpicion ; and when once we detect a man deviating from his words, we deem that “ POLITICAL truth is not in bim,"
Letters from the Ipand of Teneriffe, Brazil, the Cape of Good
Hope, and the East Indies. By Mrs. Kindersley. 8vo. 38. 60. Nourse.
These letters, in number fixty-eight, appear to have been written during a voyage to India, a short residence there, and a return to England, within the space of five years ; the first bearing date from Santa Cruz, in the Isle of Teneriffe, June, 1764, and the last from the island of St. Helena, in February, 1769. As the subjects of them are but little enlivened with personal adventure, the reader, who is already acquainted with the relations of the voyagers that have made the same tour, will find but little novelty in them, and of course the less entertainment. To others they will be both instructive and entertaining; having greatly the advantage of accounts, compiled from books; which, however authentic, do not carry with them the internal evidence of veracity, that seems to flow from the pen of the actual voyager.-This advantage the correspondence, before us, undoubtedly has; and, tho' we cannot compliment the writer with having displayed the epiftolary talents of a Lady Mary Wortley Montague, her letters are in general not only written with ease and spirit, but abound with observations that display the good sense, ingenuity, and judicious reflection of the author.
Of the circumstances and customs, of the Spaniards at Teneriffe, and the Portuguese at Brazil, Mrs. Kindersley gives the fame unfavourable account as hath before been given by other writers; and which we can very easily conclude to be true, from the known suspicious, gloomy character of a people, cursed in ignorance and subjected to the impofitions and cruelty of state-tyranny and ecclesiastical inquisition. Our female voyager, however, seems to think a little favourably of the pageantry of popery from its apparent and presumed effects on the lowest of the vulgar. Speaking of the Brazils, she says,
“ All the servants both men and women are slaves, brought from Africa, of the negro kind; by nature disagreeable, but often rendered still more fo, by frightful marks on their faces, made by their parents when they are young; they are all made christians as 1oon as bought, and it is amazing to see the effect the pageantry of the Roman Catholic religion has upon their uninformed minds; they are as devout as the common people in our cities are prophane; constant at their worship, obedient to their preceptors without fcruple, and inspired with all the enthusiasm of devotion; the gilded pomp, the folemnity of processions, the mysterious rites, the fear as well as admiration of their ghostly fathers, all conspire to render them fo.
" From the warm and steady devotion of the common people here, it has often occurred to me, that the plain good sense of the protestant worship, so well calculated for those who can distinguish the fubitance from the shadow, is much wanting in that glare and shew, which catches the eye, and leads the imagination of the vulgar. Confeffion itself, was it not abused, is an excellent institution; and were the Ro. man Catholic priests to take as much care of the morals of their flock, as they do to attach them to the church, they would be the most virtuous common people in the world."
From the Cape of Good Hope, Mrs. Kindersley gives the following account of the Dutch inhabitants, their iervants and the natives.
“ Nothing can be more agreeable to the people of this place, than the arrival of an English ship, as it causes a circulation of money, and indeed it is chiefly by the English that most people in the town are supported; not only by taking the Captains, Pafiengers, &c. to board at their houses, but by furnishing the ships with provision. A great many French ships likewise stop here, and all the Dutch pafling to and from India; but for the last they are obliged to provide according to certain prices, ftipulated by the Dutch company; and as neither the Dutch or French spend their money so freely as the English, of course they are not so desirable guests.
". The custom is to pay a rix-dollar daily for each person's board and lodging, for which they are provided with every thing, the tables are plentiful, the houses are clean, and the people obliging, and what makes it extremely comfortable, is, that most of them speak English ; French is likewise spoken by many; so that foreigners find themselves more at home in this port than can be imagined.”
“ The servants of the Dutch, except a very few Hottentots, are all slaves, brought originally from different parts of the East Indies. What seems extraordinary is, that they do not learn to talk Dutch, but the Dutch people learn their dialect, which is called Portuguese; and is a corruption of that language. Some of them are called Malays or Maloy. nese, brought from the country of Malacca, and the islands to the eart. ward of India, subject to the Dutch company. These flaves differ from the others in the flatnels of their faces, the length of their eyes, and the distance of the eyes from each other; they are likewise leis black, but more of a pale yellow. This cast of people are remarkable for the violence of their passions, and are to the utmost degree revenge
ful; a melancholy instance of their violence has happened lately. One of them, being offended with his master, gave himself up to she fury of his paffion, and as the term is, run a muck, a thing which is not unusual. The first step he took was to intoxicate himself with opium, then, letting his long hair loose about him, he fallied out with a knife in his hand, running strait forward, to stab every man, woman, child, or animal, which he met with. Fortunately, only one person was killed before he was taken ; but the execution which followed, was the most cruel that could be invented by the art of man: a lingering death upon the sack, with the application of burning instruments in a manner too shocking to repeat.
“ I have purposely deferred giving you any account of the natives of this country, the Hottentots, till I could be assured that the strange accounts I heard of them were true; my eyes have convinced me, that some of them are, and others I have from good authority.
" They are by nature tolerably white, and not unhandsome ; but as soon as a child is born, they rub it all all over with oil, and lay it in the fun; this they repeat till it becomes brown: and always break the intane's nose, so that it lies close to its face; as they grow up, they continue constantly to rub themselves with oil or greate, and by de. grees become almost a jet black; this it seems they do to strengthen themselves.
“ Their dress is the skins of beasts quite undressed, one they tie over their shoulders, and another round their waste by way of an apron; their wrists, ankles, and wastes, are ornamented with glass-beads, bits of tobacco pipes, pieces of brass, and such kind of truimpery, and sometimes even the dried entrails of beasts.
“ Their only riches is in cattle, and their employment feeding them; except the hunting of wild beasts, at which they are exceedingly expert; the skins they constantly bring to the town, and barter with the Dutch for trumpery beads,'&c. &c. or fpirituous liquors, of which they are excessively fond.
“ Drunkenness and gluttony are the vices to which they are most addi&ted; having no inoderation in either eating or drinking, but, whenever it is in their power, indulge themselves in either to the greatest excess, devouring as much at a meal, as would be sufficient for days, seldom leaving off while there is any thing left to eat or drink : they then lay down in their hovels till pinched again by hunger.
“ They have no superiority amongst them but the chiefs which are chosen when they make war, which one nation of Hottentots oftea does against another, though never against the Dutch; but these chiers have no distinction in their manner of living, for they have not the least idea of the grandeur, or what all other people esteein the ne. cetiaries, of life.
“ It is a doubtful point whether they have any notion of a deity, as nothing like a religious ceremony is ever observed amongst them but most of the Dutch are of opinion that they worship the fun; a very patural conjecture, for although they appear hardly a degree above the brute creation, still one must allow they have the faculty of thinking, confequently must attribute the earth, the sky, and all about them, to some iuperior power. The sun is the most glorious object we behold,
and the most likely to inspire awe and reverence into those who are not informed, that it is only one, of the many wonderful works of the Almighty.
“ They have no books or letters of any kind, their language confisting chiefly in signs, nodding the head, and an undistinct ratiling in the throat.
• The custom in regard to their old people is truly shocking: whenever they come to such an age as to be unable to support themselves, their relations convey them to some distance, and let them starve to death. In all other respects they are the most quiet inoffensive people in the world.
“ They sometimes become servants to the Dutch, and behave perfectly well; their honesty may be depended upon for any thing but liquor; but they have all, both men and women, such a frong natural propensity to intoxication, that it is never to be conquered: those who are fervants alter their appearance, and dress like slaves, but sometimes ļeturn among their own people and to their own manners."
It is a picturesque and pleasing description which Mrs. Kindersley gives of the several parts of the East Indies she visited, in her way to Calcutta ; nor is the narrative of her voyage up the Ganges less entertaining. Her accounts of the religion and manners of the different casts of Indians, accord with the best authorities. ---It was natural enough for a lady to be inquifitive about the customs of her own sex, and particularly concerning that very fingular and extraordinary practice of the Hindoo women, in burning themselves, on the decease of their husbands.
The result of her inquiries, nevertheless, seems to have been but little information.
“ The Hindoo women we can know little of, as none but the very loweit are visible : they are almost in their infancy married by the care of their parents to some of their own caft. Every Hindoo is obliged to marry once: and polygamy is allowed, but there is generally one wife who is held as superior to the rest. The women have no education given them, they live retired in the zanannabs, and amuse themselves with each other, smoaking the booker, bathing, and seeing their servants dance.
“ There is one well-known circumstance relative to these women, which is the most extraordinary and astonishing custom in the world; I mean their burning themselves with the dead bodies of their husbands : this custom is not at present fo frequent as formerly, they cannot burn without permission from the Nabob of the province: and it is much to be hoped, that the English will in future prevent those Nabobs we are in alliance with, from giving any such permission, but there has been within a very short time at least one instance.
“ I have endeavoured to find out what could give rise (if you'll permit me the expression) to such a barbarous exertion of virtue'; but it is difficult to find out the cause of institutions of so antient a date, therefore I do not depend on either of the following reasons, although they have each their advocates, who insist strongly that their opinion is the right one.