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former received opinions, requires, previous to its appearance, every fanétion the various experiments, successfully repeated, can poflibiy give it. The results of those experiments, made all in glais-hives, which carry with them an entire evidence, afford sufficient reasons to allert, that bees belong to that class of animals among which, although they have sexes, a true copulation cannot be proved; and that their ova, like the spawn of fishes, most probably owe their fecundation to an impregnation from the males, as will appear in the sequel of this narrative..
“ I am not a little pleased to find that the celebrated Maraldi had such a notion, and I lament his neglecting to confirm it. He says, in his Observations upon Bees, in the History of the Academy of Sciences for the year 1912, P: 332: Nous n'avons pu découvrir jusqu'à present de quelle maniere se fait cette fécondation, si c'est dans le corps de la femelle, ou bien fi c'est à la maniere des poissons, après que la femelle a posé les cufs : la matiere blanchâtre dont l'auf et environné au fond de l'alvéole peu de temps après sa naissance, semble conforme à la derniere opinion, ausi-bien que les remarques faites plufieurs fois d'un grand nombre d'æufs qui font reffés infeconds au fond de l'alvéole autour defquels nous n'avons point vá cette matiere. “ We never yet were able to discover in what manner " this fecundation is performed; whether it is in the body of the fe“ male, or whether it is after the manner of fishes, after the feinale or * queen-bee has deposited her eggs: thạc liquid whitish substance, “ with which each egg is furrounded at the bottom of the cell a little ** while after its being laid, seemingly establishing this last opinion, as “ well as the frequent remarks made of a great number of eggs re, s maining barren in the cell, round which we could not fee the above, « mentioned whitish substance."
" This ingenious naturalist, by a nice examination of the structure of the drones, had, as well as Swammerdam, discovered some resemblances to the male organs of generation; and from thence conjectured, they were the males of the bee-infect; but he owns, with the rest, that he never could discover them in the act of copulation.
“ Having stood the trials of so many prying eyes in every age, the bees, as has been observed by an ingenious author, had gained the character of an inviolable chastity, till Reaumur blasted their reputacion. He makes the queen no better than a Messalina * ; though he could see no more than what would raise a mere jealousy or generate fufpicions.
• In order to be the better understood in the relation of my own experiments on the fecundation of bees, I here premise the outlines of the opinions adopted by the above-mentioned naturalists on that head. They affert that the queen is the only female in the hive, and the mother of the next generation ; that the drones are the males by which she is fecundated ; and that the working bees, or bees that collect wax on the flowers, that knead it and form from it the combs ar' cells which they afterwards fill with honey, are of neither sex.
* But of lite Mr. Schirach, a German naturalist, has given us a very different view of the classes that constitute the republic of bees, in an ingenious publication in his own language, under the title of The * Yid. JUVENAL, Sat. vi. ver. 128,
Natural History of the Queen of the Bees, which has been fince trans lated into French; from which I beg leave to relate the author's doce trine with regard to the working-bees only; the quality and functions of the drones being points which do not appear to be yet settled by Mr Schirach himselt. He affirms, that all the common bees are fé. males in disguise, in which the organs that distinguish the sex, and particularly the ovaria, are obliterated, or at least, through their ex: ceffive minuteness, have not yet been observed: that every one of those bees in the earlier period of its existence is capable of becoming a queen-bee, if the whole community should think proper to nurse it in a particular manner, and raise it to that rank. In short, that the queen, bee lays oniy two kinds of eggs; viz. those that are to produce the drones, and those from which the working-bees are to proceed.
“ The trials made by Mr. Schirach seem to evince the truth of his conclusions in the most fatisfactory manner, singular as they appear to, be at first sight; and indeed in my own judgement, from the constant happy result of my numerous experiments, which I began near two, years before Mr. Schirach's publication, and repeated every season livce, I am enabled to pronounce on their reality.
“ Chance, I own, befriended me in that discovery, whilst I was mok anxiously endeavouring to ascertain the use of drones. It was in the 1pring of the year 1770, that I for the first time discovered what Ma. raldi had only conjectured, I mean the impregnation of the eggs by the males, and that I was made acquainted with the difference of lize in the drones or males observed by Maraldi in his Observations upon Bees, inserted in the History of the Royal Academy of Sciences for the year 1712, P: 333. in these words:
“ Nous avons trouvé depuis peu une grande quantité de bourdons, beaucoup plus petits que ceux que nous avions remarqué auparavant, et qui ne furo poljent point la grandeur des petites abeilles; de forte qu'il n'auroit pas été aile de les diftinguer dans cette ruche des abeilles ordinaires, sans le grand nombre que nous y en avons trouvé. Il se pourroit bien faire que dans les ruches où l'on n'a pas trouvé de gros bourdons, il y en ekt de ces petits, et qu'ils y aient été confondus avec le reste des abeilles, lorsque nous ne savions pas encore qu'il y en eût de cette taille.
“ We have of late found a great quantity
of drones much smaller than those we had formerly ob► ferved, and which do not exceed in fize the common bees; fo that
it would not have been easy to distinguish them in that hive froin “ the common bees, had not the quantity of thein been very confiders " able. It might certainly have happened that in those hives, where ! we have not been able to discover large drones, there were a great “ number of those little ones, which may have been intermixed among ç common bees when we were yet ignorant that any such finall drones “ were existing."
“ Reaumur himself, p. 591. of his Natural History of Insects, says, . We have likewise fourid drones that were no bigger than the com
“ They have notwithstanding escaped the observation of Mr. Schigach, and of his friend Mr. Hattort member of an Academy in Lusatia, who, in a memoir he presented in the year 1769, annihilates entirely the ofe of drones in a hive; and advances this finguiar opinion, that
the queen-bee of a hive lays eggs which produce young ones, without having any communication with the drones. For what purpose fhould wise nature then have furnished the drones with that large quantity of seminal liquor? To what use so large an apparatus of fecundating organs, so well described by Reaumur and Maraldi?
“ But I beg leave to remark, that those gentlemen seem to have drawn too hatty conclusions from their experiments, in rejecting the drones as bearing no share in the propagation of those insects. Their observations, that hives are peopled at a time of the year when there are no drones in being, is no ways conclufive; as it is evident, that they had seen none but drones of a large fize, their silence on the difference in the size of them juttifying my remark. But to resume the narrative of my experiments: I had watched my glass-hives * with indefatigable attention from the moment the bees, among which I had taken care to leave a large number of drones, were put into them, to the time of the queen laying her eggs, which generally happens the fourth or fifth day. I observed the first or second day (always before the third) from the time the eggs are placed in the cells, that a great number of bees, fastening themtelves to one another, hung down in the form of a curtain from the top to the bottom of the hive, in a similar manner they had done before at the time the queen depofited her eggs; an operation which (if we may conjecture at the instincts of infects) seems contrived to hide what is tranfacting: be that as it will, it anfwered the purpose of informing me that something was going forward. In fact, I presently after perceived several bees, the lize of which through this thick veil (if I may so express myself). I could not rightly diftinguish, inserting the pofterior part of their bodies each into a celí, and linking into it, where they continued but a little while. After they had retired, I saw plainly with the naked eye a small quantity of a whitish liquor left in the angle of the bafis of each cell, containing an egg: it was less liquid chan honey, and had no tweet taste ai all. Within day after, I found this liquor absorbed into the embryo, which on the fourth day is converted into a sinail worm, to which the working-bees bring a little honey for nourishment, during the first eight or ten days after its birth. After that time they cease to feed them; for they shut up the cells, where these embryos continue inclosed for ten days more, during which time they undergo various changes tog tedious here describe.”
Art. 4. Contains an account of a Portrait of Copernicus, presented to the Royal Society by Dr. Wolf of Dantzick.
“ The history of his portrait is as follows. It was formerly in the collection of Saxe Gotha, where it was always considered as an original, which is even said to appear from the archives of that court, and is the more probable, as the prince-bishop of Warmia, who obtained it from the late duke of Saxe Gotha, was too good a connoisseur and too çautious to be deceived in this respect. That bishop being at Gotha in the year 1735, observed this portrait in the gallery of that palace; the proofs that were produced of its authenticity
made him very delirous to Glass-hives were used in preference to boxes, for a purpose too obvious Bo need explaining. ş
acquire it. He at length obtained it by a kind of theft which it was beceflary to conunit on the cathedral of Warmia, in which there was a very old portrait of one of the ancestors of the dukes of Saxe Gotha, who had been bishop of that fee, and whose picture was wanting in zire duke's collection of the portraits of his family. An exchange was accordingly made of the two originals, and the bifhop has fince bequeathed that of Copernicus to his favourite Mr. Hutlarzewiki."
Art. s. Is the relation of a journey into Africa, from the Lape of Good Hope ; by Dr. Andreas Sparrinan of Stockholm: from which we shall select an account of a curious bird; whose inftinat leads it to the detection of the wild-bee hives, whole honey, however, it is of itself incapable to plunder. The History of the HONEY-GUIDE, or CUCULUS
INDICATOR. • This eurious species of Cuckow is found at a considerable distance from the Cape of Good Hope, in the interior parts of Africa, being entirely upknown at that settlement. The first place where I heard of is was in a wood, called the Groot Vaader's Bosch, the Grand Father's Wood, fituated in a desart near the river which the Hottentots call 9'kaut’kai. The Dutch sertlers thereabouts have given this bird the Dame of Honig-wyzer, or Honey-guide, from its quality of discovering wild-honey to travellers. Its colour has nothing ftriking or beautiful, as will appear from the description and drawing annexed; and its fize is considerably imaller than that of our Cuckow in Europe : but in return, the instinct which prompts it to seek its food in a singular manner, is truly admirable. Not only the Dutch and Hottentots, but like. wile a species of quadruped, which the Dutch name a Ratel *, are free quentiy conducted to wild bee-hives by this bird, which as it were pilots them to the very spot. The honey being its favourite food, its own intereft prompts it to be instrumental in robbing the hive, as some fcraps are commonly left for its support. The morning and evening are its times of feeding, and it is then heard calling in a Thrill tone cherr, cherr, which the honey-hunters carefully attend to as the summons to the chace. From time to time they answer with a soft whistle, which the bird hearing, always continues its note. As soon as they are in fight of each other, the bird gradually, flutters towards the place where the hive is situated, continually repeating its former call of cberr, cherr. nay, if it should happen to have gained a considerable way before the men (who may easily be hindered in the pursuit by bushes, rivers, and zhe like), it returns to them again, and redoubles its note, as if to reproach them with their inactivity. At last the bird is observed to hover for a few moinents over a certain spot, and then filently retiring to a neighbouring bush or other resting-place, the hunters are sure of finding the bees-nest in that identical ipot, whether it be in a tree, or in the crevice of a rock, or (as is most commonly the case) in the earth. Whilit the hunters are busy in taking the honey, the bird is seen looking on attentively to what is going forward, and waiting for its shara of the spoil. The bee-hunters never fail to leave a small portion for * Probably a new species of badger,
their conductor, but commonly take care not to leave fo much as would fatisfy its hunger. The bird's appetite being only whetted by this parfimony, it is obliged to commit a second treason, by discovering another bees-nett, in hopes of a better falary. It is further observed, that the nearer the bird approaches the hidden hive, the more frequently it repeats its call, and seems more impatient.
"" I have had frequent opportunities of seeing this bird, and have been witness of the destruction of several republics of bees, by means of its treachery. I had however but iwo opportunities of shooting it, which I did to the great indignation of my Hottentots. From those specimens (both of which
are supposed to be females) I have made the labsequent description. The inhabitants in general accufe the same bird of fometimes conducting its followers where wild beasts and venomous ferpents have their places of abode: this however I never had an opportunity of ascertaining myself; but am apt to believe such cafes 10-be accidental, when dangerous animals happen to be in the neighbourhood of a bees-neit.
" Whilit I staid in the interior parts of Africa, a nest was shewn to me, which fome peasants assured me was the nest of a Honey-guide. It was woven of slender filaments or fibres of bark, in the form of a bottle. The neck and opening hung downwards, and a string in an arched shape was suspended across the opening, faftened by the two ends, perhaps for the bird to perch upon.
Art. 6. An Account of some new Electrical Experiments. By Mr. Tiberius Cavallo,
These experiments are curious, but not apparently important, nor can they be well understood without the plates des scriptive of the Electrometer, with which they were made.
Art. 7. Contains a Third Effay on Sea-Anemonies. By the Abbé Dicquemare.
The partitions, which divide the animal and the, vegetable creation, are fo very thin, according to the Abbé Dicquemare, that it remains a doubt with him, whether the concurrence of two sexes may not be dispensed with in their propagation. Convinced, at least, he declares himself to be, by his obfervations on the sea-anemonies, that “ there certainly are ania mated beings which multiply, as it were, by pips.”—He remarks, in particular, of one species of the fea-anemonies, that' it affords a fingularity which is not observable in the freshWater polypi, that of multiplying by tearing off, of its own accord, small shreds from its body. His experiments on these, animals are curious.
“ Towards the end of the year 1774,” says he, “ I cut in two, in a perpendicular direction, an anemony of the firit species, which had been forned from a moiety of one I had cut before, so that each half was then only a quarter of the primitive anemony. These two halves had the fainé fate as the firit sections; and one of thein, after having been thus restored, and having been always kept by itself, produced, on the ift of June 1775, a young anemony as perfect as thole that are