military character. Men grew old in camps, The study of art possesses this great and peand acquired the highest renown by their war. culiar charm, that it is absolutely unconnected like achievements, without being once required with the struggles and contests of ordinary life to face serious danger.

By private interests, by political questions, men LORD MACAULAY :

are deeply divided and set at variance; but Machiavelli, March, 1827. beyond and above all such party strifes they are

attracted and united by a taste for the beautiful in art. It is a taste at once engrossing and un

selfish, which may be indulged without effort, ARROGANCE.

and yet has the power of exciting the deepest

emotions,-a taste able to exercise and to grat. Life is, in fact, a system of relations rather ify both the nobler and softer parts of our nathan a positive and independent existence; and ture,-the imagination and the judgment, love he who would be happy himself, and make | of emotion and power of reflection, the enthuothers happy, must carefully preserve these rela siasm and the critical faculty, the senses and tions. He cannot stand apart in surly and the reason,

GUIzOT. haughty egotism: let him learn that he is as much dependent on others as others are on him. The natural progress of the works of men is A law of action and reaction prevails, from from rudeness to convenience, from convenience which he can be no more exempt than his more to elegance, and from elegance to nicety. modest fellow-men; and, sooner or later, arro

Dr. S. JOHNSON. gance, in whatever sphere of the intellectual or moral development it may obtain, will, nay The enemy of art is the enemy of nature. must, meet its appropriate punishment. The Art is nothing but the highest sagacity and exlaws of nature, and the demonstrations of math-ertion of human nature; and what nature will ematics, are not more certain than those of our he honour who honours not the human? spiritual life, whether manifested in the individ

LAVATER. ual or in society. Household Words.

In no circumstance whatever can man be But this evil of isolation belongs not exclu- comfortable without art. The butterfly is indesively to the one transcendent genius, or to the pendent of art, though it is only in sunshin favoured few who have gained the highest emi- , that it can be happy. The beasts of the field nences of thought or labour. Those who have

can roam about by day, and couch by night on advanced only a little way beyond their acquaint the cold earth, without danger to health or sense ance in literary, artistic, or scientific attainments, of misfortune. But man is miserable and speedare not a little proud of their acquisitions, and ily lost so soon as he removes from the precincts sometimes set up for much greater people than

of human art, without his shocs, without his they really are. They claim privileges to which

clothes, without his dog and his gun, without they have but a very slender title, if any, and

an inn or a cottage to shelter him by night. become boastful, presumptuous, and overbearing.

Nature is worse to him than a stepmother,-he Alas! in the crudity of their knowledge, they

cannot love her; she is a desolate and howling are unaware of the lamentable extent of their

wilderness. He is not a child of nature like a ignorance, as also of the fatal boundary which

hare. She does not provide him a banquet and necessarily limits the information of the most a bed upon every little knoll, every green spot learned and the most knowing. They have not of earth. She persecutes him to death if he do been taught with how much truth Socrates

not return to that sphere of art to which he bemade the celebrated affirmation that “ All he

longs, and out of which she will show him no knew was that he knew nothing."

mercy, but be unto him a demon of despair and Household Words. a hopeless perdition.


The power, whether of painter or poet, to

describe rightly what he calls an ideal thing, ART.

depends upon its being to him not an ideal but

| a real thing. No man ever did or ever will There is a great affinity between designing work well, but either from actual sight, or sight and poetry; for the Latin poets, and the design- of faith.

RUSKIN. ers of the Roman medals, lived very near one another, and were bred up to the same relish Necessity and common sense produced all for wit and fancy.

Addison. the common arts, which the plain folks who

practised them were not idle enough to record. Arts and sciences in one and the same cen.

HORACE WALPOLE. tury have arrived at great perfection; and no wonder, since every age has a kind of universal The object of science is knowledge; the genius, which inclines those that live in it to objects of art are works. In art, truth is the some particular studies; the work then, being means to an end; in science, it is the only end. pushed on by many hands, must go forward. Hence the practical arts are not to be classed DRYDEN. | among the sciences,


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Their skill in astronomy dwindled into that

which, by a great catachresis, is called judicial Yes, Man is the slave of association; and if | astrology.

STILLINGFLEET. there ever once has existed an argumentum ad hominem for or against a thing or a person, it is Astrological prayers seem to me to be built more than probable that, in exact accordance to on as good reason as the predictions. the personal argument, we shall love or hate

STILLINGFLEET. that thing or person forever after. An infantine

Astrologers with an old paltry cant, and a few surfeit of oysters may so extend its influence

pot-hooks for planets, to amuse the vulgar, have

pot-hooks for planets. 1o amuse over a whole life as to make us forever regard

too long been suffered to abuse the world. with a version that admirable mollusc; a whip

SWIFT. ping at school, while we were learning Greek or English history, may, according to the period

I know the learned think of the art of asit was inflicted in, impart to us doubts of the trology that the stars do not force the actions or justice of Aristides, or absolute nausea respect

wills of men.

SWIFT. ing the patriotic virtue of Hampden. On the A wise man shall overrule his stars, and have other hand, it may be questioned whether the l a greater influence upon his own content than eulogists of Saint Dunstan, of Bloody Queen all the constellations and planets of the firmaMary, and other execrated notabilities, may not ment.

JEREMY TAYLOR: have had holidays and sugar-plums, or a plum

Rule of Holy Living. cake from home, just at the moment when they were successfully getting over the Dunstan or

Whenever the word influence occurs in our Mary period.

Household Words.

English poetry, down to comparatively a modern date, there is always more or less remote allusion to the skyey or planetary influences sup.

posed to be exercised by the heavenly bodies ASTROLOGY.

upon men.


We speak of a person as jovial, or saturnine, This considered together with a strict account or mercurial. Yovial, as being born under the and critical examen of reason, will also distract | planet Jupiter or Yove, which was the joyfulthe witty determinations of astrology.

lest star and the happiest augury of all. A SIR T. BROWNE.

| gloomy person was said to be saturnine, as be. He strictly adviseth not to begin to sow be.

ing born under the planet Saturn, who was confore the setting of the stars; which, notwith

sidered to make those that owned his influence, standing, without injury to agriculture cannot

and were born when he was in the ascendant,

grave and stern as himself. Another we call be observed in England. Sir T. BROWNE: Vulgar Errors.

mercurial, that is light-hearted, as those born

under the planet Mercury were accounted to be. Towards the latter end of this month, Sep

R. C. TRENCH. tember, Charles will begin to recover his perfect health, according to his nativity, which, casting it myself, I am sure is true, and all things hith

ASTRONOMY. erto have happened accordingly to the very time that I predicted them. JOHN DRYDEN: When a man spends his life among the stars To his Sons, Sept. 3, 1697. and planets, or lays out a twelvemonth on the

spots of the sun, however noble his speculations Astrology, however, against which so much

may be, they are very apt to fall into burlesque. of the satire (in Hudibras] is directed was not

ADDISON, more the folly of Puritans than of others. It had in that time a very extensive dominion. Let us pass to astronomy. This was one of Its predictions raised hopes and fears in minds the sciences which Plato exhorted his disciples which ought to have rejected it with contempt. / to learn, but for reasons far removed from comIn hazardous undertakings care was taken to mon habits of thinking. “Shall we set down begin under the influence of a propitious planet; | | astronomy," says Socrates, “ among the subjects and when the king was prisoner in Carisbrook of study ?” [Plato's Republic, Book VII. "I Castle, an astrologer was consulted what hour think so," answers his young friend Glaucon: would be found most favourable to an escape. “to know something about the seasons, the DR. S. JOHNSON : Life of Butler. | months, and the years is of use for military pur

poses, as well as for agriculture and navigation." Figure-flingers and star-gazers pretend to fore.

It amuses me," says Socrates, “ to see how tell the fortunes of kingdoms, and have no fore

afraid you are lest the common herd of men sight in what concerns themselves.


should accuse you of recommending useless

studies." He then proceeds, in that pure and Do not Christians and Heathens, Jews and magnificent diction which, as Cicero said, JuGentiles, poets and philosophers, unite in allow. piter would use if Jupiter spoke Greek, to ex: ing the starry influences ?

plain that the use of astronomy is not to add to Sir WALTER Scott. I the vulgar comforts of life, but to assist in raising


the mind to the contemplation of things which that I cannot but wonder, with many excellent are to be perceived by the pure intellect alone. writers, how it is possible for a man to outlive The knowledge of the actual motions of the the expectation of it. heavenly bodies Socrates considers as of little

ADDISON: Spectator, No. 381. value. The appenrances which make the sky beautiful at night are, he tells us, like the figures

A wise man, that lives up to the principles of which a geometrician draws on the sand, mere reason and virtue, if one considers him in his examples, mere helps to feeble minds. We solitude, as in taking in the system of the unimust get beyond them; we must neglect them;

verse, observing the mutual dependence and we must attain to an astronomy which is as in

harmony by which the whole frame of it hangs dependent of the actual stars as geometrical

together, beating down his passions, or swelling truth is independent of the lines of an ill-drawn

his thoughts with magnificent ideas of Provi. diagram. This is, we imagine, very nearly, if dence, makes a nobler figure in the eye of an not exactly, the astronomy which Bacon com

intelligent being, than the greatest conqueror pared to the ox of Prometheus (De Augmentis,

amidst all the pomps and solemnities of a Lib. 3. cap. 47, a sleek, well-shaped hide, stuffed | triumph. On the contrary, there is not a more with rubbish, goodly to look at, but containing

ridiculous animal than an atheist in his retire. nothing to eat. He complained that astronomy

ment. His mind is incapable of rapture or had, to its great injury, been separated from

elevation. He can only consider himself as an natural philosophy, of which it was one of the

insignificant figure in a landscape, and wandernoblest provinces, and annexed to the domain ing up and down in a field or a meadow, under of mathematics. The world stood in need, he

the same terms as the meanest animals about said, of a very different astronomy, of a living

him, and as subject to as total a mortality as astronomy (Astronomia viva], of an astronomy

they; with this aggravation, that he is the only which should set forth the nature, the motion,

one amongst them who lies under the apprehenand the influences of the heavenly bodies, as

sion of it! they really are. [“ Que substantiam et motum

In distresses, he must be of all creatures the et influxum cælestium, prout re vera sunt, pro

most helpless and forlorn; he feels the whole ponat." Compare this language with Plato's,

| pressure of a present calamity, without being "Ta 8'ÉV TẬ oupavý cudojev."]

relieved by the memory of anything past, or the LORD MACAULAY : prospect of anything that is to come. AnnihiLori Bacon, July, 1837.

| lation is the greatest blessing that he proposes

to himself, and a halter or a pistol ihe only Against filling the heavens with fluid me-refuge he can fly to. But, if you would behold diums, unless they be exceeding rare, a great one of these gloomy miscreants in his poorest objection arises from the regular and very last figure, you must consider him under the terrors ing motions of the planets and comets in all | or at the approach of death. manner of courses through the heavens.


I had rather believe all the fables in the legend, and the Talmud, and the Alcoran, than

that this universal frame is without a mind : ATHEISM.

and therefore God never wrought miracles to

convince atheism, because his ordinary works After having treated of these false zealots in

convince it. It is true, that a little philosophy religion, I cannot forbear mentioning a mon

inclineth man's mind to atheism, but depth in strous species of men, who one would not think

philosophy bringeth men's minds about to rehad any existence in nature, were they not to

ligion : for while the mind of man looketh upon be met with in ordinary conversation - I mean

second causes scattered, it may sometimes rest the zealots in atheism. One would fancy that

in them, and go no farther; but when it bethese men, though they fall short, in every other

holdeth the chain of them confederate, and respect, of those who make a profession of re. ligion, would at least outshine them in this par

te linked together, it must needs fly to providence

LORD BACON: ticular, and be exempt from that single fault which seems to grow out of the imprudent fer

Essay XVII.: Of Atheism. vours of religion. But so it is, that infidelity is They that deny a God destroy a man's nopropagated with as much fierceness and conten bility; for certainly man is of kin to the beasts tion, wrath and indignation, as is the safety of by his body; and if he be not of kin to God mankind depended on it.

by his spirit, he is a base and ignoble creature. ADDISON: Spectator, No. 185. | Ii destroys, likewise, magnanimity, and the Atheism, by which I mean a disbelief of a

raising human nature. LORD BACON:

Essay XVII.: Of Atheism. Supreme Being, and consequently of a future state, under whatsoever titles it shelter itself, Not that we are so low and base as their may likewise very reasonably deprive a man of atheism would depress us; not walking statues this cheerfulness of temper. There is some of clay, not the sons of brute earth, whose final thing so particularly gloomy and offensive to | inheritance is death and corruption. human nature in the prospect of non-existence,



There are several topics used against atheism As when a man comes into a palace, built and idolatry; such as the visible marks of divine according to the exactest rule of art, and with wisdom and goodness in the works of the | an unexceptionable conveniency for the inhabcreation, the vital union of souls with matter, itants, he would acknowledge both the being and the admirable structure of animate bodies. and skill of the builder; so whosoever shall

BENTLEY. observe the disposition of all the parts of the The mechanical atheist, though you grant

world, their connection, comeliness, the variety him his laws of mechanism, is inextricably

of seasons, the swarms of different creatures, puzzled and baffled with the first formation of

and the mutual offices they render to one an

other, cannot conclude less, than it was conanimals.


trived by an infinite skill, effected by infinite We may proceed yet further, with the atheist; power, and governed by infinite wisdom. None and convince him that not only his principle is can imagine a ship to be orderly conducted absurd, but his consequences also as absurdly without a pilot; nor the parts of the world to deduced from it.

BENTLEY. perform their several functions without a wise Whatsoever atheists think on, or whatsoever

guide; considering the members of the body they look on, all do administer some reasons

cannot perform theirs, without the active pres. for suspicion and diffidence, lest possibly they

ence of the soul. The atheist, then, is a fool

to deny that which every creature in his constimay be in the wrong; and then it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God!

tution asserts, and thereby renders himself BENTLEY.

unable to give a satisfactory account of that

constant uniformity in the motions of the crea. No atheist, as such, can be a true friend, an tures.

CHARNOCK: Attributes. affectionate relation, or a loyal subject.


History doth not reckon twenty professed

atheists in all ages in the compass of the whole If the atheists would live up to the ethics of

world : and we have not the name of any one Epicurus himself, they would make few or no

absolute atheist upon record in Scripture : yet it proselytes from the Christian religion.

is questioned, whether any of them, noted in BENTLEY.

history with that infamous name, were downIt is well known, both from ancient and right deniers of the existence of God, but rather modern experience, that the very boldest athe because they disparaged the deities commonly ists, out of their debauches and company, when worshipped by the nations where they lived, as they chance to be surprised with solitude or being of a clearer reason to discern that those sickness, are the most suspicious, timorous, and qualities, vulgarly attributed to their gods, as despondent wretches in the world.

lust and luxury, wantonness and quarrels, were

unworthy of the nature of a god. All creatures ignorant of their own natures,

CHARNOCK: Attributes. could not universally in the whole kind, and in

Beyond all credulity is the credulousness of every climate and country, without any differ- atheists, who believe that chance could make ence in the whole world, tend to a certain end, I the world, when it cannot build a house. if some overruling wisdom did not preside over

Dr. S. CLARKE, the world and guide them: and if the creatures have a Conductor, they have a Creator; all | A blind or deaf man has infinitely more reathings are “turned round about by his counsel, son to deny the being, or the possibility of the that they may do whatsoever he commands being, of light or sounds than an atheist can them, upon the face of the world in the earth.” have to deny or doubt of the existence of God. So that in this respect the folly of atheism ap

DR. S. CLARKE. pears. Without the owning a God, no account can be given of those actions of creatures, that

An atheist, if you take his word for it, is a are an imitation of reason.

very despicable mortal. Let us describe bim CHARNOCK : Attributes. by his tenet, and copy him a little from his own

original. He is, then, no better than a heap of A secret atheism, or a partial atheism, is the organized dust, a stalking machine, a speaking spring of all the wicked practices in the world :) head without a soul in it. His thoughts are the disorders of the life spring from the ill dis- | bound by the laws of motion, his actions are all positions of the heart.

prescribed. He has no more liberty than the For the first, every atheist is a grand fool. If

current of a stream or the blast of a tempest; he were not a fool, he would not imagine a and where there is no choice there can be no thing so contrary to the stream of the universal merit.

JEREMY COLLIER. reason of the world, contrary to the rational dictates of his own soul, and contrary to the | Atheism is the result of ignorance and pride; testimony of every creature, and link, in the of strong sense and feeble reasons; of good chain of creation if he were not a fool, he eating and ill living. would not strip himself of humanity, and de. It is the plague of society, the corrupter of grade himself lower than the most despicable manners, and the underminer of property. brute. CHARNOCK : Attributes.




It is a fine observation of Plato in his Laws | The system, then, of reasoning from our own that atheism is a disease of the soul before it conjectures as to the necessity of the Most High becomes an error of the understanding.

doing so and so, tends to lead a man to proceed FLEMING. from the rejection of his own form of Chris

tianity to a rejection of revelation altogether. Atheists are confounded with Pantheists, such

But does it stop here? Does not the same as Xenophanes among the ancients, or Spinoza

system lead naturally. to Atheism also ? Expeand Schelling among the moderns, who, instead

rience shows that that consequence, which reason of denying God, absorb everything into him.

might have anticipated, does often actually take FLEMING. place.

WHATELY: Those that would be genteelly learned need

Annot. on Bacon's Essay, Of Atheism. not purchase it at the dear rate of being atheists.

GLANVILL. Those the impiety of whose lives makes them

ATHENS. regret a deity, and secretly wish there were none, will greedily listen to atheistical notions. Of remote countries and past times he [John

GLANVILL. son) talked with wild and ignorant presumption. Settle it therefore in your minds, as a maxim

“ The Athenians of the age of Demosthenes,” never to be effaced or forgotten, that atheism is

he said to Mrs. Thrale,“ were a people of brutes, an inhuman, bloody, ferocious system, equally

a barbarous people.” In conversation with Sir

Adam Ferguson he used similar language. hostile to every useful restraint and to every virtuous affection; that leaving nothing above

“ The boasted Athenians," he said, “ were barbaus to excite awe, nor round us to awaken ten

rians. The mass of every people must be barderness, it wages war with heaven and with

barous where there is no printing.” The fact

was this: he saw that a Londoner who could earth: its first object is to dethrone God, its next to destroy man.

not read was a very stupid and brutal sellow; Robert Hall: Modern Infidelity.

he saw that great refinement of taste and activ

ity of intellect were rarely found in a Londoner The atheists taken notice of among the an. who had not read much; and, because it was by cients are left branded upon the records of means of books that people acquired almost all

LOCKE. their knowledge in the society with which he Men are atheistical because they are first

was acquainted, he concluded, in defiance of vicious; and question the truth of Christianity

the strongest and clearest evidence, that the

human mind can be cultivated by means of because they hate the practice. South."

books alone. An Athenian citizen might pos. Though he were really a speculative atheist, sess very few volumes; and the largest library yet if he would but proceed rationally he could to which he had access might be much less not however be a practical atheist, nor live valuable than Johnson's bookcase in Bolt Court. without God in this world.

South. But the Athenian might pass every morning When men live as if there were no God, it

in conversation with Socrates, and might hear becomes expedient for them that there should

Pericles speak four or five times every month. be none; and then they endeavour to persuade

He saw the plays of Sophocles and Aristo. themselves so.

phanes : he walked amidst the friezes of Phidias TILLOTSON.

and the paintings of Zeuxis: he knew by heart The atheist can pretend no obligation of con the choruses of Æschylus: he heard the rhapso. science why he should dispute against religion. | dist at the corner of the street reciting the shield

TILLOTSON. of Achilles or the death of Argus; he was a . The true reason why any man is an atheist is

legislator, conversant with high questions of because he is a wicked man: religion would

alliance, revenue, and war : he was a soldier, curb him in his lusts; and therefore he casts it

trained under a liberal and generous discipline : ofi, and puts all the scorn upon it he can.

he was a judge, compelled every day to weigh TILLOTSON.

the effect of opposite arguments. These things

were in themselves an education; an education The atheist, in case things should fall out eminently fitted, not, indeed, to form exact or contrary to his belief or expectation, hath made profound thinkers, but to give quickness to the no provision for this case; if contrary to his perceptions, delicacy to the taste, fluency to the confidence it should prove in the issue that there expression, and politeness to the manners. All is a God, the man is lost and undone forever. this was overlooked. An Athenian who did not

TILLOTSON. improve his mind by reading was, in Johnson's If the atheist, when he dies, should find that

opinion, much such a person as a Cockney who his soul remains, how will this man be amazed

made his mark; much such a person as black and blanked !

Frank before he went to school; and far inferior TILLOTSON.

to a parish clerk or a printer's devil. It is the common interest of mankind to

LORD MACAULAY : punish all those who would seduce men to atheism.


Sept. 1831.

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