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As the passions are the springs of most of our
APOSTASY. actions, a state of apathy has come to signify a
Their sins have the aggravation of being sins sort of moral inertia, the absence of all activity
against grace, and sorsaking and departing from or energy. According to the Stoics, apathy
| God; which respect makes the state apostate, meant the extinction of the passions by the
as the most unexcusable, so the most despeascendency of reason.
HAMMOND. In this sullen apathy neither true wisdom nor true happiness can be found. Hume.
The ideal physician of Hippocrates is, in this
country, the apothecary of the present day. GaNor do apophthegms only serve for ornament len says that he had an apotheké in which his and delight, but also for action and civil use, as drugs were kept, and where his medicines were being the edge tools of speech, which cut and always made under his own eye, or by his hand. penetrate the knots of business and affairs. For one moment we pause on the word apo.
LORD BACON. theké, whence apothecary is derived. It meant The first and most ancient inquirers into
among the Greeks a place where anything is
put by and preserved,-especially, in the first truth were wont to throw their knowledge into
| instance, wine. The Romans had no wineaphorisms, or short, scattered, unmethodical |
cellars, but kept their wine-jars upon upper sentences.
Aoors, where they believed that the contents Julius Cæsar did write a collection of apoph would ripen faster. The small floors were thegms, as appears in an epistle of Cicero. It is a pity his book is lost, for I imagine they were apotheca, being a dry, airy place, became, of collected with judgment and choice.
course, the best possible store-room for drugs, LORD BACON : Apophthegms. and many apothecas became drug-stores, with We may magnify the apophthegms, or reputed
an apothecarius in charge. It is a misfortune
then-if it be one-attached to the name of replies of wisdom, whereof many are to be seen
apothecary that it has in it association with the in Laertius and Lycosthenes. Sir T. BROWNE: Vulgar Errors.
e shop. But, to say nothing of Podalirius and
Machaon, Cullen and William Hunter dispensed Exclusively of the abstract sciences, the their own medicines. Household Words. largest and worthiest portion of our knowledge consists of aphorisms, and the greatest and best! In the year one thousand three hundred and of men is but an aphorism. COLERIDGE.
| forty-five, Coursus de Gangeland, called an
apothecary of London, serving about the person Every man who has seen the world knows of King Edward the Third, received a pension that nothing is so useless as a general maxim. of sixpence a day as a reward for his attendance If it be very moral and very true, it may serve
on the king during a serious illness which he for a copy to a charity boy. If, like those of
had in Scotland. Henry the Eighth gave forty Rochefoucault, it be sparkling and whimsical,
marks a year to John Soda, apothecary, as a it may make an excellent motto for an essay. medical attendant on the Princess Mary, who But few indeed of the many wise apophthegms was a delicate, unhealthy young woman; so that which have been uttered, from the time of the we thus have the first indications of the position Seven Sages of Greece to that of Poor Richard,
of an English apothecary, as one whose calling have prevented a single foolish action.
| for two hundred years maintained itself, and LORD MACAULAY: continued to maintain itself till a few years after
Machiavelli, March, 1827. the establishment of the College of Physicians, In a numerous collection of our Saviour's | as that of a man who might be engaged even apophthegms there is not to be found one ex: | by kings in practice of the healing art. But in ample of sophistry or of false subtilty, or of any | the third year of Queen Mary's reign. thirty. thing approaching thereunto. PALEY. seven years after the establishment of the Col
The word parable is sometimes used in Scrip lege of Physicians, both surgeons and apothe. ture in a large and general sense, and applied
| caries were prohibited the practising of physic. to short, sententious sayings, maxims, or aphor- / In Henry the Eighth's time it had been settled.
on the other hand, that surgery was an especial isms.
part of physic, and any of the company or felIt is astonishing the influence foolish apo
lowship of physicians were allowed to engage thegms have upon the mass of mankind, though
Household Words. they are not unfrequently fallacies.
REV. SYDNEY SMITH. / About one hundred and fifty years ago, talkBy ... scattering short apothegms and little | ing like an apothecary was a proverbial phrase pleasant stories, ... his son was, in his infancy for talking nonsense; and our early dramatists taught to abhor ... vice.
when they produced an apothecary on the stage WALTON. I always presented him as a garrulous and foolish
man. It was in what may be called the middle It is good in discourse to vary and intermingle period of the history of the apothecary's calling speech of the present occasion with arguments; in this country that it had thus fallen into grave for it is a dull thing to tire and jade anything contempt. At first it was honoured, and it is too far.
LORD BACON. now, at last, honoured again. At first there Some in their discourse desire rather commenwere few of the fraternity. Dr. Freind men- I dation of wit in being able to hold all arguments, tions a time when there was only one apothecary / than of judgment in discerning what is true. in all London. Now (August, 1856] there are
LORD BACON. in England and Wales about seven thousand gentlemen who, when tyros, took their freedom
Whereas men have many reasons to persuade, out to kill (or cure)
to use them all at once weakeneth them. For
it argueth a neediness in every one of the reaWhere stands a structure on a rising hill Nigh where Fleet Ditch descends in sable streams sons, as if one did not trust to any of them, but To wash his sooty Naiads in the Thames,
fied from one to another. LORD BACON. namely, at the Hall of the Worshipful Society
Avoid disputes as much as possible. In order of Apothecaries in Blackfriars. Of course apoth
to appear easy and well-bred in conversation, ecaries do not monopolize the license to kill, or
you may assure yourself that it requires more we never should have heard of that country in
wit, as well as more good humour, to improve which it was a custom to confer upon the public
than to contradict the notions of another: but executioner, after he had performed his office on
if you are at any time obliged to enter on an a certain number of condemned people, the de
argument, give your reasons with the utmost gree of doctor apothecary.
coolness and modesty, two things which scarce ever fail of making an impression on the hearers. Besides, if you are neither dogmatical,
nor show either by your actions or words that ARGUMENT.
you are full of yourself, all will the more heart
ily rejoice at your victory. Nay, should you be I have sometimes amused myself with con- pinched in your argument, you may make your sidering the several methods of managing a retreat with a very good grace. You were never debate which have obtained in the world. positive, and are now glad to be better informed.
The first races of mankind used to dispute, as This has made some approve the Socratic way our ordinary people do now-a-days, in a kind of of reasoning, where, while you scarce affirm wild logic, uncultivated by rules of art.
anything, you can hardly be caught in an abSocrates introduced a catechetical method of surdity; and though possibly you are endeavourarguing. He would ask his adversary question ing to bring over another to your opinion, which upon question, till he had convinced him out is firmly fixed, you seem only to desire informaof his own mouth that his opinions were wrong. tion from him.
BUDGELL: This way of debating drives an enemy up into
Spectator, No. 197. a corner, seizes all the passes through which he
Lastly, if you propose to yourself the true end can make an escape, and forces him to surrender
of argument, which is information, it may be a at discretion.
seasonable check to your passion; for if you Aristotle changed this method of attack, and
search purely after truth, it will be almost indif. invented a great variety of little weapons, called
ferent to you where you find it.
I cannot in syllogisms. As in the Socratic way of dispute
dispute this place omit an observation which I have you agree to everything your opponent advances,
often made, namely, That nothing procures a in the Aristotelic you are still denying and con
man more esteem and less envy from the whole tradicting some part or other of what he says. |
company, than if he chooses the part of moderSocrates conquers you by stratagem, Aristotle | ator, without engaging directly on either side in by force. The one takes the town by sap, the La dispute.
BUDGELL: other sword in hand. ADDISON :
Spectator, No. 197. Spectator, No. 239. When arguments press equally in matters in- |
| Passionate expressions and vehement asserdifferent, the safest method is to give up ourselves
|tions are no arguments, unless it be of the to neither.
weakness of the cause that is defended by them, ADDISON.
or of the man that defends it. Insignificant cavils may be started against
CHILLINGWORTH. everything that is not capable of mathematical demonstration.
He could not debate anything without some The terms are loose and undefined; and, what
| commotion, even when the argument was not less becomes a fair reasoner, he puts wrong and
EARL OF CLARENDON. Invidious names on everything to colour a false When you have nothing to say, say nothing : way of arguing
ADDISON. a weak defence strengthens your opponent, and It is not to be expected that every one should
silence is less injurious than a weak reply. guard his understanding from being imposed on
COLTON: Lacon. by the sophistry which creeps into most of the As the physical powers are scarcely ever books of argument.
LOCKE. I exerted to their utmost extent but in the ardour of combat, so intellectual acumen has been dis Hunting after arguments to make good one played to the most advantage and to the most side of a question, and wholly to refuse those effect in the contests of argument. The mind which favour the other, is so far from giving of a controversialist, warmed and agitated, is truth its due value, that it wholly debases it. turned to all quarters, and leaves none of its
LOCKE. resources unemployed in the invention of argu
An ill argument introduced with deference ments, tries every weapon, and explores the
will procure more credit than the profoundest hidden recesses of a subject with an intense vigilance, and an ardour which it is next to im
science with a rough, insolent, and noisy management.
LOCKE. possible in a calmer state of mind to command. ROBERT HALL:
The fair way of conducting a dispute is to Preface to Hall's Help to Zion's Travellers. exhibit, one by one, the arguments of your
opponent, and, with each argument, the precise A metaphysical argument might have been
| and specific answer you are able to make to it. printed from the mouth of Sir J. Mackintosh,
PALEY. unaltered and complete. That arrangement of the parts of an abstruse subject which to others
He cannot consider the strength, poise the would be a laborious art was to him a natural weight, and discern the evidence of the clearest suggestion and pleasurable exercise. In no in argumentations where they would conclude stance have I seen an equal power of distrib. against his desires,
SOUTH. uting methodically a long train of argument,
If your arguments be rational, offer them in adhering to his scheme, and completing it in all
as moving a manner as the nature of the subits parts. SIR HENRY HOLLAND:
ject will admit; but beware of letting the Mackintosh's Life.
pathetic part swallow up the rational. They that are more fervent to dispute be not
SWIFT. always the most able to determine.
The skilful disputant well knows that he
HOOKER. | never has his enemy at more advantage than Our endeavour is not so much to overthrow
when, by allowing the premises, he shows him them with whom we contend, as to yield them
arguing wrong from his own principles.
WARBURTON. just and reasonable causes of those things which, for want of due consideration heretofore, they While we are arguing with others, in order misconceived.
HOOKER. to convince them, how graceful a thing is it, As for probabilities, what thing was there ever
when we have the power of the argument on
our own side, to keep ourselves from insult and set down so agreeable with sound reason but
triumph! how engaging a behaviour toward our some probable show against it might be made ?
opponent, when we seem to part as though we
were equal in the debate, while it is evident to The dexterous management of terms, and all the company that the truth lies wholly on being able to fend and prove with them, passes our side! for a great part of learning; but it is learning Yet I will own there are seasons when the distinct from knowledge.
LOCKE. obstinate and the assuming disputant should be
made to feel the force of an argument by displayIn arguing, the opponent uses comprehensive
ing it in its victorious and triumphant colours. and equivocal terms, to involve his adversary in
| But this is seldom to be practised so as to insult
Bo ihis is seldon the doubtfulness of his expression, and there. the
| the opposite party, except in cases where they fore the answer on his side makes it his play to
I have shown a haughty and insufferable insodistinguish as much as he can. LOCKE. I lence. Some persons perhaps can hardly be
I do not see how they can argue with any one | taught humility without being severely humbled; without setting down strict boundaries,
and yet where there is need of this chastisement LOCKE. I had rather any other hand should be em.
ployed in it than mine. It carries too great an imputation of igno
DR. I. Warts: Christian Morality. rance, or folly, to quit and renounce former tenets upon the offer of an argument which Academical disputation gives vigour and cannot immediately be answered. LOCKE. briskness to the mind thus exercised, and re
lieves the languor of private study and meditaMen of fair minds, and not given up to the
Dr. I. WATTS. overweening of self-flattery, are frequently guilty of it; and in many cases one with amazement By putting every argument, on one side and hears the arguings, and is astonished at the the other, into the balance, we must form a obstinacy, of a worthy man who yields not to judgment which side preponderates. the evidence of reason. LOCKE.
Dr. I. WATTS. The multiplying variety of arguments, es- / We should dwell upon the arguments, and pecially frivolous ones, is not only lost labour, / impress the motives of persuasion upon our but cumbers the memory to no purpose.
own hearts, till we feel the force of them. LOCKE.
DR. I. WATTS.
Let not the proof of any position depend on Neither you, nor I, nor any fair man, can the positions that follow, but always on those believe that a whole nation is free from honour which precede.
Dr. I. Warts. and real principle; or that if these things exist
in it, they are not to be found in the men the A disputant, when he finds that his adversary best born, and the best bred, and in those posis too hard for him, with slyness turns the dis- sessed of rank which raises them in their own course,
Dr. I. WATTS. esteem, and in the esteem of others, and pos
sessed of hereditary settlement in the same Affect not little shifts and subterfuges to avoid
place, which secures, with an hereditary wealth, the force of an argument. Dr. I. Watts.
an hereditary inspection. That these should be If the opponent sees victory to incline to his
all scoundrels, and that the virtue, honour, and side, let him show the force of his argument,
public spirit of a nation should be only found without too importunate and petulant demands in its attorneys, pettisoggers, stewards of manors, of an answer.
DR. I. WATTS.
discarded officers of police, shop-boys, clerks
of counting-houses, and rustics from the plough, There are persons whom to attempt to con- is a paradox, not of false ingenuity, but of envy vince by even the strongest reasons, and most and malignity. It is an error, not of the head, cogent arguments, is like King Lear putting a but of the heart.
BURKE: letter before a man without eyes, and saying,
To W. Weddell, Jan. 31, 1792. "Mark but the penning of it!" to which he
I love nobility. I should be ashamed to say answers, “Were all the letters suns, I could not
so if I did not know what it is that I love. He see one." But it may be well worth while
alone is noble that is so reputed by those who, sometimes to write to such a person much that
by being free, are capable of forming an opin. is not likely to influence him at all, if you have
ion. Such a people are alone competent to an opportunity of showing it to others, as a proof
bestow a due estimation upon rank and titles. that he ought to have been convinced by it.
He is noble who has a priority amongst freeWHATELY:
men; not he who has a sort of wild liberty Annot. on Bacon's Essay, Of Negotiating.
Amongst the masses-even in revolutions-
aristocracy must ever exist; destroy it in no
bility, and it becomes centred in the rich and You, if you are what you ought to be, are in powerful House of the Commons. Pull them my eye the great oaks that shade a country, and down, and it still survives in the master and perpetuate your benefits from generation to | foreman of the workshop.
Guizot. generation. The immediate power of a Duke of Richmond, or a Marquis of Rockingham, is not so much of moment; but if their conduct and example hand down their principles to their
ARISTOTLE. successors, then their houses become the public repositories and offices of record for the consti
The celebrity of the great classical writers is tution; not like the Tower, or Roll-Chapel, confined within no limits except those which where it is searched for, and sometimes in vain, separate civilized from savage man. Their in rotten parchments under dripping and perish works are the common property of every poling walls, but in full vigour, and acting with
ished nation; they have furnished subjects for vital energy and power, in the character of the
the painter, and models for the poet. In the leading men and natural interests of the coun
minds of the educated classes throughout EuBURKE:
rope, their names are indissolubly associated To the Duke of Richmond, Nov. 17, 1772.
with the endearing recollections of childhood,
—the old school-room,—the dog.eared gramTurbulent, discontented men of quality, in mar,-the first prize,-the tears so often shed proportion as they are puffed up with personal and so quickly dried. So great is the veneration pride and arrogance, generally despise their
with which they are regarded, that even the own order. One of the first symptoms they editors and commentators who pert
editors and commentators who perform the lowdiscover of a selfish and mischievous ambition est menial offices to their memory are consid. is a profligate disregard of a dignity which they ered, like the equerries and chamberlains of partake with others.
sovereign princes, as entitled to a high rank in Rrflections on the Revolution in France, 1790. the table of literary precedence. It is, therefore,
somewhat singular that their productions should When men of rank sacrifice all ideas of dig- so rarely have been examined on just and philonity to an ambition without a distinct object, and sophical principles of criticism. work with low instruments and for low ends, The ancient writers themselves afford us but the whole composition becomes low and base. little assistance. When they particularize, they Does not something like this now appear in are commonly trivial: when they would generalFrance?
BURKE: |ize, they become indistinct. An exception must, Reflections on the Revolution in France. Tindeed, be made in favour of Aristotle. Both
in analysis and in combination, that great man When war becomes the trade of a separate was without a rival. No philosopher has ever class, the least dangerous course left to a gov. possessed, in an equal degree, the talent either ernment is to form that class into a standing of separating established systems into their pri- army. It is scarcely possible that men can pass mary elements, or of connecting detached phe- | their lives in the service of one state, without nomena in harmonious systems. He was the feeling some interest in its greatness. Its vicgreat fashioner of the intellectual chaos; he | tories are their victories. Its defeats are their changed its darkness into light, and its discord defeats. The contract loses something of its into order. He brought to literary researches mercantile character. The services of the sol. the same vigour and amplitude of mind to which dier are considered as the effects of patriotic both physical and metaphysical science are so zeal, his pay as the tribute of national gratitude. greatly indebted. His fundamental principles To betray the power which employs him, to be of criticism are excellent. To cite only a single even remiss in its service, are in his eyes the instance :-the doctrine which he established, most atrocious and degrading of crimes. that poetry is an imitative art, when justly under When the princes and commonwealths of Italy stood, is to the critic what the compass is to the began to use hired troops, their wisest course navigator. With it he may venture upon the would have been to form separate military estabmost extensive excursions. Without it he must lishments. Unhappily, this was not done. The creep cautiously along the coast, or lose himself mercenary warriors of the Peninsula, instead of in a trackless expanse, and trust, at best, to the being attached to the service of different powers, guidance of an occasional star. It is a discov- | were regarded as the common property of all. ery which changes a caprice into a science, The connection between the state and its desend.
The general propositions of Aristotle are val. ers was reduced to the most simple and naked uable. But the merit of the superstructure bears traffic. The adventurer brought his horse, his no proportion to that of the foundation. This weapons, his strength, and his experience, into is partly to be ascribed to the character of the the market. Whether the King of Naples or philosopher, who, though qualified to do all that the Duke of Milan, the Pope, or the Signory could be done by the resolving and combining of Florence, struck the bargain, was to him a powers of the understanding, seems not to have matter of perfect indifference. He was for the possessed much of sensibility or imagination. I highest wages and the longest term. When the Partly, also, it may be attributed to the deficiency campaign for which he had contracted was finof materials. The great works of genius which ished, there was neither law nor punctilio to then existed were not either sufficiently numer prevent him from instantly turning his arms ous or sufficiently varied to enable any man to against his late masters. The soldier was altoform a perfect code of literature. Tó require gether disjoined from the citizen and the subject. that a critic should conceive classes of compo. The natural consequences followed. Left to sition which had never existed, and then inves- the conduct of men who neither loved those tigate their principles, would be as unreasonable whom they defended, nor hated those whom they as the demand of Nebuchadnezzar, who ex opposed, who were often bound by stronger ties pected his inagicians first to tell him his dream to the army against which they fought than to and then to interpret it.
the state which they served, who lost by the With all his deficiencies, Aristotle was the termination of the conflict, and gained by its most enlightened and profound critic of an- | prolongation, war completely changed its chartiquity. Dionysius was far from possessing the acter. Every man came into the field of battle same exquisite subtilty, or the same vast compre impressed with the knowledge that, in a few hension. But he had access to a much greater days, he might be taking the pay of the power number of specimens; and he had devoted him. | against which he was then employed, and fightself, as it appears, more exclusively to the studying by the side of his enemies against his assoof elegant literature. His peculiar judgments | ciates. The strongest interests and the strongest are of more value than his general principles. | feelings concurred to mitigate the hostility of He is only the historian of literature." Aristotle those who had lately been brethren in arms, and is its philosopher. LORD MACAULAY: who might soon be brethren in arms once more. On the Athenian Orators, Aug. 1824. Their common profession was a bond of union
not to be forgotten even when they were engaged in the service of contending parties.
Hence it was that operations, languid and indeARMIES.
cisive beyond any recorded in history, marches Number itself importeth not much in armies,
and counter-marches, pillaging expeditions and
blockades, bloodless capitulations and equally where the people are of weak courage: for, as
bloodless combats, make up the military history Virgil says, it never troubles a wolf how many
of Italy during the course of nearly two centhe sheep be.
turies. Mighty armies fight from sunrise to sunIf a state run most to noblemen and gentle. | set. A great victory is won. Thousands of men, and that the husbandmen be but as their | prisoners are taken; and hardly a life is lost. work-folks and labourers, you may have a good | A pitched battle seems to have been really less cavalry, but never good stable foot.
dangerous than an ordinary civil tumult. CourLORD BACON. age was now no longer necessary even to the