baseness and meanness of spirit. 'Tis a cow- men would leave off their vices rather than me ardly and servile humour to hide and disguise a dergo the toil of practising them in private. man's self under a vizor, and not to dare to

Swift. shew himself what he is. By that our followers are train'd up to treachery. Being brought up

The making religion necessary to interest to speak what is not true, they make no con- |

con might increase hypocrisy; but if one in twenty science of a lye. A generous heart ought not to should be brought to true piety, and nineteen be belye its own thoughts, but will make it self seen only hypocrites, the advantage would still be within, all there is good, or at least manly. great.


It is possible for a man who hath the appear. Essays, Cotton's 3d ed., ch. lxxiv.

ance of religion to be wicked and an hypocrite; The favourable and good word of men comes but it is impossible for a man who openly deoftentimes at a very easy rate ; and by a few de. clares against religion to give any reasonable mure looks and affected whims, set off with some security that he will not be false and cruel. odd devotional postures and grimaces, and such

SWIFT. other little acts of dissimulation, cunning men

Whoever is a hypocrite in his religion mocks will do wonders.


God, presenting to him the outside, and reseryThe fawning, sneaking, and flattering hypoing the inward for his enemy. crite, that will do or be anything for his own

JEREMY TAYLOR. advantage.

STILLINGFLEET. It is hard to personate and act a part long; Hypocrisy is much more eligible than open for where truth is not at the bottom, nature will infidelity and vice: it wears the livery of re- always be endeavouring to return, and will pass ligion, and is cautious of giving scandal: nay, out and betray herself one time or other. continued disguises are too great a constraint;



Simple ideas, the materials of all our knowl. We cannot have a single image that did not

w edge, are suggested to the mind only by sensaenter through the sight; but we have the power

tion and reflection.

LOCKE. of altering and compounding those images into i These simple ideas the understanding can no all the varieties of picture.

more resuse to have, or alter, or blot them out, ADDISON : Spectator. than a mirror can refuse, aller, or obliterate the

images which the objects set before it produce. Those ideas which are in the mind of man

LOCKE. are a transcript of the world; to this we may add, that words are the transcripts of those ideas External material things, as the objects of which are in the mind of man, and that writing sensation; and the operations of our minds and printing are the transcript of words, within, as the objects of reflection; are the only

ADDISON. | originals from whence all our ideas take their beginning.

LOCKE, An idea, like a ghost (according to the common notion of ghosts), must be spoken to a little

1 If ideas be not innate, there was a time when before it will explain itself. DICKENS.

the mind was without those principles; for

where the ideas are not, there can be no knowl. In the philosophy of Locke the archetypes of edge.

edge, no assent, no mental or verbal proposiour ideas are the things really existing out of us. I tions about them.


Ideas, as ranked under names, are those that, In the Platonic sense, ideas were the patterns for the most part, men reason of within themaccording to which the Deity fashioned the phe. selves, and always those which they commune nomenal or ectypal world.

about with others.


It suffices to the unity of any idea that it be For ideas, in my sense of the word, are what I considered as one representation or picture; soever is the object of the understanding, when though made up of ever so many particulars, a man thinks; or whatsoever it is the mind can

LOCKE. be employed about in thinking. Locke.

What is now widea" for us? How inhnite Whatsoever the mind perceives in itself, or is the fall of this word since the time when Milton the immediate olject of perception, thought, or sang of the Creator contemplating his newly. understanding, that I call idea. LOCKE. I created world,

that b

"how it showed . ..

He has nothing to prevent him but too much Answering his great idea,”

idleness, which I have observed fills up a man's to its present use, when this person has an ideal time much more completely, and leaves him that the train has started," and the other “ had

less his own master, than any sort of employno idea that the dinner would be so bad"!

ment whatsoever.


To R. Shackleton, May 1, 1768. The original of sensible and spiritual ideas Idleness is the badge of gentry, the bane of may be owing to sensation and reflection; the body and mind, the nurse of naughtiness, the recollection and fresh excitation of them to stepmother of discipline, the chief author of all other occasions. Dr. I. Watts: Logic. mischief, one of the seven deadly sins, the

cushion upon which the devil chiefly reposes, Those are adequate ideas which perfectly

and a great cause not only of melancholy, but represent their archetypes or objects. Inade

of many other diseases : for the mind is naturally quate are but a partial or incomplete represen

active; and if it be not occupied about some tation of those archetypes to which they are

honest business, it rushes into mischief or sinks referred. DR. I. Watts: Logic. into melancholy.

ROBERT BURTON. The form under which these things appear to the mind, or the result of our apprehensions,

If you have but an hour, will you improve is called an idea. Dr. I. WATTS. I that hour, instead of idling it away?

CHESTERFIELD. Those inward representations of spirit, thought, love, and hatred, are pure and mental ideas, be. Some one, in casting up his accounts, put longing to the mind, and carry nothing of shape down a very large sum per annum for his idleor sense in them.

Dr. I. WATTS. ness. But ihere is another account more awful

than that of our expenses, in which many will -oo

find that their idleness has mainly contributed to

the balance against them. From its very inIDENTITY.

action, idleness ultimately becomes the most

active cause of evil; as a palsy is more to be Identity is a relation between our cognitions dreaded than a sever. The Turks have a proof a thing, not between things themselves, verb which says that the devil tempts all other Sir W. HAMILTON. men, but that idle men tempt the devil.

COLTON: Lacon. Since consciousness always accompanies think. ing, and it is that that makes every one to be Troubles spring from idleness, and grievous what he calls self, and thereby distinguishes toils from needless ease. B. FRANKLIN. himself from all other thinking beings, in this alone consists personal identity, i.e. the same. We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, ness of a rational being.

LOCKE. | three times as much by our pride, and four times The identity of the same man consists in

as much by our folly. B. FRANKLIN. nothing but a participation of the same con Children generally hate to be idle; all the tinued life by constantly fleeting particles of care then is, that their busy humour should be matter in succession vitally united to the same constantly employed in something of use to organized body. LOCKE.

LOCKE. If we take away consciousness of pleasure That period includes more than a hundred and pain, it will be hard to know wherein to sentences that might be writ to express multipli. place personal identity.

LOCKE. | cation of nothings, and all the fatiguing perpet. I cannot remember a thing that happened a

ual business of having no business to do. year ago, without a conviction, as strong as

РОРЕ. memory can give, that I, the same identical per:

In my opinion, idleness is no less the pest of son who now remember that event, did then

society, than of solitude. Nothing contracts the exist.

T. Reid.

mind, nothing engenders trifles, tales, back. biting, slander, and falsities, so much as being shut up in a room, opposite each other, and re.

duced to no other occupation than the necessity IDLENESS. Idleness is a constant sin, and labour is a duty.

they speak only when they have something to Idleness is but the devil's home for temptation,

say; but if you are doing nothing, you must

absolutely talk incessantly, which of all conand unprofitable, distracting musings.

straints is the most troublesome and the most

dangerous. I dare go even further, and mainSuch men lose their intellectual powers for tain, that to render a circle truly agreeable, every want of exerting them; and, having trified away one must be not only doing something, but someyouth, are reduced to the necessity of trifling thing which requires a little attention. away age. BOLINGBROKE.



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A thousand evils do afflict that man which native country. Rome gradually became the hath to himself an idle and unprofitable carcass. common temple of her subjects, and the freedom

SALLUST. 1 of the city was bestowed on all the gods of

mankind. It is no more possible for an idle man to keep

GIBBON: together a certain stock of knowledge, than it is

Decline and Fall, vol. i. possible to keep together a stock of ice exposed The religion of the nations was not merely a to the meridian sun. Every day destroys a fact, speculative doctrine, professed in the schools a relation, or an influence; and the only way of or preached in the temples. The innumerable preserving the bulk and value of the pile is by | deities and rites of polytheism were closely inconstantly adding to it.

terwoven with every circumstance of business Rev. SYDNEY SMITH. or pleasure, of public or of private life; and it Nor is excess the only thing by which sin

seemed impossible to escape the observance of

them without, at the same time, renouncing the breaks men in their health, and the comfortable

commerce of mankind. The important trans. enjoyment of themselves; but many are also brought to a very ill and languishing habit of

| actions of peace and war were prepared or conbody by mere idleness; and idleness is both

cluded by solemn sacrifices, in which the magis

trate, the senator, and the soldier were obliged itself a great sin, and the cause of many more.

to participate. GIBBON : Decline and Fall. SOUTH,

Idolatry is not to be looked upon as a mere An idle person is like one that is dead; un

speculative error respecting the object of worconcerned in the changes and necessities of the

ship, of little or no practical efficacy. Its hold world.


upon the mind of a fallen creature is most tena. So long as idleness is quite shut out from our cious, its operation most extensive. It is a corlives, all the sins of wantonness, softness, and rupt practical institution, involving a whole syseffeminacy are prevented; and there is but little tem of sentiments and manners which perfectly room for temptation.

moulds and transforms its votaries. It modifies

JEREMY TAYLOR. human nature under every aspect under which The idle, who are neither wise for this world

it can be contemplated, being intimately blended

and incorporated with all its perceptions of good nor the next, are emphatically fools at large.

and evil, with all its infirmities, passions, and TILLOTSON. lears,

ROBERT HALL: Idleness and luxury bring forth poverty and

Address to Rev. Eustace Carey. want; and this tempts men to injustice, and Idolatry is not only an accounting or worshipthat causeth enmity and animosity.

ping that for God which is not God, but it is TILLOTSON.

also a worshipping the true God in a way unThe contemplation of things that are imperti- suitable to his nature, and particularly by the nent to us, and do not concern us, are but a more mediation of images and corporal resemblances. specious idleness. TILLOTSON.

SOUTH. Idolatry is certainly the first-born of folly, Rua

the great and leading paradox; nay, the very IDOLATRY. abridgment and sum total of all absurdities.

SOUTH. I do find, therefore, in this enchanted glass,

Philosophers and common heathen believed four idols, or false appearances, of several dis

one God, to whom all things were referred; tinct sorts, every sort comprehending many

but under this God they worshipped many indivisions. The first sort I call idols of the nation

serior and subservient gods. or tribe; the second, idols of the den or cave;

STILLINGFLEET. the third, idols of the forum; and the fourth, idols of the theatre.

In this mania for foreign gods the nobles and BACON: Novum Organum, Book I. the emperors themselves set the most corrupting

examples. Germanicus and Agrippina devoted The deities of a thousand groves and a thou. themselves especially to Egyptian gods. So sand streams possessed in peace their local and also Vespasian. Nero served all gods, with the respective influence; nor could the Roman, who exception of the Dea Syra. Marcus Aurelius deprecated the wrath of the Tiber, deride the caused the priests of all foreign gods and nations Egyptian, who presented his offering to the to be assembled in order to implore aid for the beneficent genius of the Nile. Every virtue, Roman empire against the incursions of the and even vice, acquired its divine representa. Marcomanni. Commodus caused himself to be tive ; every art and profession its patron, whose initiated into the mysteries of the Egyptian Isis attributes, even in the most distant ages and and the Persian Mithras. Severus worshipped nations, were uniformly derived from the char. I especially the Egyptian Serapis ; Caracalla acter of their peculiar votaries. It was the cus. chiefly the Egyptian Isis; and Heliogabalus tom (of the Romans) to tempt the protectors of the Syrian deities; though he was desirous of besieged cities by the promise of more distin. becoming a priest of the Jewish, Samaritan, and guished honours than they possessed in their Christian religions.



Few consider into what degree of sottishness There is no slight danger from general igno

and confirmed ignorance men may sink themselves.

SOUTH. rance; and the only choice which Providence has graciously left to a vicious government, is

It is impossible to make people understand either to fall by the people, if they are suffered their ignorance, for it requires knowledge to to become enlightened, or with them, if they are perceive it; and therefore he that can perceive kept enslaved and ignorant. COLERIDGE. lit, hath it not.

JEREMY TAYLOR. To write or talk concerning any subject, with.

When complaints are made-often not alto

gether without reason-of the prevailing ignoout having previously taken the pains to under

rance of facts on such or such suljects, it will stand it, is a breach of the duty which we owe to ourselves, though it may be no offence against

often be found that the parties censured, though the laws of the land. The privilege of talking

possessing less knowledge than is desirable, yet and even publishing nonsense is necessary in a

possess more than they know what to do with.

Their deficiency in arranging and applying their free state; but the more sparingly we make use

knowlerige, in combining facts, and correctly of it the better.


deducing, and rightly employing, general princiRude and unpolished are all the operations ples, will be pernaps grea

ples, will be perhaps greater than their ignorance of the soul in their beginnings, before they are of facts. cultivated with art and study. DRYDEN.

WHATELY: Pref. to Bacon's Essays. Did we but compare the miserable scantness

so of our capacities with the vast profundity of things, truth and modesty would teach us wary

ILL-NATURE. language.


The ill-natured man gives himself a large I respect the man who knows distinctly what | field to expatiate in : he exposes those failings he wishes. The greater part of all the mischief in human nature which the other would cast a in the world arises from the fact that men do veil over.

ADDISON, not sufficiently understand their own aims. By indulging this fretful temper you alienate They have undertaken to build a tower, and

| those on whose affection much of your comfort spend no more labour on the foundation than


BLAIR. would be necessary to erect a hut.


But the greatest part of those who set man

kind at defiance by hourly irritation, and who Ignorance gives a sort of eternity to prejudice,

live but to infuse malignity and multiply eneand perpetuity to error. ROBERT Hall:

mies, have no hopes to foster, no designs to Advantages of Knowledge to the Lower

promote, nor any expectations of attaining Classes.

power by insolence, or of climbing to greatness Obstinate contemners of all helps and arts,

by trampling on others. They give up all such as, presuming on their natural parts, dare sweets of kindness for the sake of peevishness, deride all diligence, and seem to mock at the

petulance, or gloom; and alienate the world by terms when they understand not the things, neglect of the common forms of civility, and think that way to get off wittily with their igno- / breach of the established laws of conversation. rance.


Dr. S. JOHNSON: Rambler, No. 56. Things reflected on in gross and transiently Peevishness may be considered the canker of carry the show of nothing but difficulty in them. I life, that destroys its vigour, and checks its imand are thought to be wrapt up in impenetrable | provement; that creeps on with hourly depredaobscurity.

LOCKE. I tions, and taints and vitiates what it cannot

consume. Thousands of things which now either wholly

Dr. S. JOHNSON. escape our apprehensions, or which our short | Though it (peevishness] breaks not out in sighted reason having got some faint glimpse of, | paroxysms of outrage, it wears out happiness we, in the dark, grope after. LOCKE.

by siow corrosion.

Dr. S. JOHNSON. There is not so contemptible a plant or animal

Some natures are so sour and ungrateful that that does not confound the most enlarged under

| they are never to be obliged. L'ESTRANGE. standing.

LOCKE. Ill-nature ... consists of a proneness to do There never was any party, faction, sect, or

ill turns, attended with a secret joy upon the cabal whatsoever, in which the most ignorant

sight of any mischief that beralls another, and were not the most violent: for a bee is not a

| of an utter insensibility of any kindness done busier animal than a blockhead. However, such


SOUTH. instruments are necessary to politicians; and Wheresoever you see ingratitude, you may as perhaps it may be with states as with clocks, infaliibly conclude that there is a growing stock which must have some lead weight hanging at of ill-nature in that breast, as you may know them, to help and regulate the motion of the that man to have the plague upon whom you finer and more useful parts. Pope, see the tokens.


Anything that is apt to disturb the world, and satisfaction, and has two of its faculties gratified to alienate the affections of men from one an- at the same time, while the sancy is busy in other, such as cross and distasteful humours, is copying after the understanding, and transcribeither expressly, or by clear consequence and ing ideas out of the intellectual world into the deduction, forbidden in the New Testament. material.


ADDISON: Spectator, No. 421.

It is this talent of affecting the imagination IMAGINATION.

that gives an embellishment to good sense, and

makes one man's compositions more agreeable The sound and proper exercise of the imagi. than another's. It sets off all writings in gennation may be made to contribute to the cul. eral, but is the very life and highest perfection tivation of all that is virtuous and estimable in of poetry. Where it shines in an eminent dethe human character. ABERCROMBIE. I gree, it has preserved several poems for many

The truth of it is. I look upon a sound imagi. | ages, that have nothing else to recommend nation as the greatest blessing in life, next to

them; and where all the other beauties are a clear judgment, and a good conscience. In present, the work appears ary and insipid if th the mean time, since there are very few whose

single one be wanting. It has something in it minds are not more or less subject to these

like creation. It bestows a kind of existence, dreadful thoughts and apprehensions, we ought

and draws up to the reader's view several obto arm ourselves against them by the dictates of jects which are not to be found in being. It reason and religion, “to pull the old woman

makes additions to nature, and gives a greater out of our hearts” (as Persius expresses it in the

n the variety to God's works.
variety to

In a word, it is able motto of my paper) and extinguish those im- |

to beautify and adorn the most illustrious scenes pertinent notions which we imbibed at a time

in the universe, or to fill the mind with more that we are not able to judge of their absurdity.

glorious shows and apparitions than can be

found in any part of it. Or if we believe, as many wise and good men have done, that there are such phantoms and

ADDISON : Spectator, No. 421. apparitions as those I have been speaking of, let | By imagination, a man in a dungeon is capaus endeavour to establish to ourselves an inter- l ble of entertaining himself with scenes and est in Him who holds the reins of the whole l landscapes more beautiful than any that can be creation in his hands, and moderates them alter | found in the whole compass of nature. such a manner that it is impossible for one

ADDISON. being to break loose upon another without his knowledge and permission.

By the pleasures of the imagination or fancy Addison: Spectator, No. 12. I mean such as arise from visible objects when

we call up their ideas into our minds by paintA man of a polite imagination is let into a ings, statues, or descriptions. ADDISON, great many pleasures that the vulgar are not capable of receiving. He can converse with a

Men of warm imaginations neglect solid and picture, and find an agreeable companion in a substantial happiness for what is showy and statue. He meets with a secret refreshment in superficial.

ADDISON. a description, and often seels a greater satisfac

Though the presence of imaginary good cantion in the prospect of fields and meadows than

not make us happy, the absence of it may make another does in the possession. It gives him,

us miserable.

ADDISON. indeed, a kind of property in everything he sees, and makes the most rude incultivated

To fortify imagination there be three ways : parts of nature administer to his pleasures : so the authority whence the belief is derived, that he looks upon the world as it were in an- means to quicken and corroborate the imaginaother light, and discovers in it a multitude of tion, and means to repeat it and refresh it. charms that conceal themselves from the gen

LORD BACON, erality of mankind.

Imagination I understand to be the represen. ADDISON: Spectator, No. 411. Itation of an individual thought. Imagination The pleasures of the imagination are not is of three kinds: joined with belief of that wholly confined to such particular authors as which is to come; joined with memory of that are conversant in material objects, but are often which is past; and of things present, or as if to be met with among the polite masters of they were present: for I comprehend in this, morality, criticism, and other speculations ab- imagination feigned and at pleasure,-as if one stracted from matter, who, though they do not should imagine such a man to be in the vestdirectly treat of the visible parts of nature, , ments of a pope, or to have wings. often draw from them similitudes, metaphors,

LORD BACON. and allegories. By these allusions, a truth in

Imagination is like to work better upon sleepthe understanding is, as it were, reflected by the imagination; we are able to see something like

ing men than men awake. LORD BACON. colour and shape in a notion, and to discover The imagination of a poet is a thing so nice a scheme of thoughts traced out upon matter. and delicate that it is no easy matter to find out And here the mind receives a great deal of l images capable of giving pleasure to one of the

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