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CHURCH AND STATE.-CLASSIFICATION.-CLERGY. 115

state of the services of the ablest men. He is | Ranking all things under general and special to debase and enfeeble the community which he heads renders the nature or uses of a thing more governs, from a nation into a sect. In our own easy to be found out, when we seek in what country, for example, millions of Catholics, rank of being it lies. DR. I. WATTS. millions of Protestant Dissenters, are to be excluded from all power and honours. A great hostile fleet is on the sea; but Nelson is not to command in the Channel if in the mystery of

CLERGY. the Trinity he confounds the persons. An in

The essential point in the notion of a priest is vading army has landed in Kent; but the Duke

this: that he is a person made necessary to our of Wellington is not to be at the head of our forces is he divides the substance. And, after

intercourse with God, without being necessary

or beneficial to us morally,-an unreasonable, all this, Mr. Gladstone tells us that it would be wrong to imprison a Jew, a Mussulman, or a

unmoral, unspiritual necessity. T. ARNOLD. Budhist, for a day; because really a government By the secular cares and avocations which cannot understand these matters, and ought not accompany marriage the clergy have been surto meddle with questions which belong to the nished with skill in common life. Church. A singular theologian, indeed, the

ATTERBURY. government! So learned that it is competent to

The sacred function can never be hurt by their exclude Grotius from office for being a SemiPelagian, so unlearned that it is incompetent to

sayings, if not first reproached by our doings. fine a Hindoo peasant a rupee for going on a

ATTERBURY. pilgrimage to Juggernaut.

These are not places merely of favour, the LORD MACAULAY: charge of souls lies upon them; the greatest Gladstone on Church and State. | account whereof will be required at their hands.

LORD BACON. We think that government, like every other

He was a priest, and looked for a priest's recontrivance of human wisdom, from the highest

| ward ; which was our brotherly love, and the to the lowest, is likely to answer its main end

good of our souls and bodies. best when it is constructed with a single view to

LORD BACON. that end. Mr. Gladstone, who loves Plato, will not quarrel with us for illustrating our proposi

Supposing, however, that something like tion, after Plato's fashion, from the most familiar | moderation were visible in this political sermon, objects. Take cutlery, for example. A blade yet politics and the pulpit are terms that have which is designed both to shave and to carve | little agreement. No sound ought to be heard will certainly not shave so well as a razor, or | in the church but the healing voice of Christian carve so well as a carving-knife. An academy charity. The cause of civil liberty and civil of painting which should also be a bank would, government gains as little as that of religion by in all probability, exhibit very bad pictures and this confusion of duties. Those who quit their discount very bad bills. A gas company which proper character to assume what does not belong should also be an infant society would, we to them are, for the greater part, ignorant both apprehend, light the streets ill and teach the of the character they leave and of the character children ill. On this principle we think that they assume. Wholly unacquainted with the government should be organized solely with a world, in which they are so fond of meddling, view to its main end; and that no part of its and inexperienced in all its affairs, on which efficiency for that end should be sacrificed in they pronounce with so much confidence, they order to promote any other end, however ex- have nothing of politics but the passions they cellent.

LORD MACAULAY: | excite. Surely the church is a place where one Gladstone on Church and State. day's truce ought to be allowed to the dissensions and animosities of mankind.

BURKE:

Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1790. CLASSIFICATION.

From the indisposition of mankind to direct

their thoughts to a suturity; from their proneness What is set down by order and division doth to immerse themselves in present and sensible demonstrate that nothing is left out or omitted, objects, and the ignorance which follows of but all is there.

LORD BACON. course, it has been thought necessary to set apart

a particular order of men to inculcate its truths Hardly is there a similarity detected between

and lo exemplify its duties. two or three facts, than men hasten to extend it

ROBERT HALL: to all others. SIR W. HAMILTON.

Fragment, On Village Preaching. In nature it is not convenient to consider Recollect for your encouragement the reward every difference that is in things, and divide that awaits the faithful minister. Such is the them into distinct classes : this will run us into | mysterious condescension of divine grace, that particulars, and we shall be able to establish no though it reserves to itself the exclusive honour general truth.

LOCKE. I of being the fountain of all, yet, by the employment of human agency in the completion The ascendency of the sacerdotal order was of its designs, it contrives to multiply its gifts, | long the ascendency which naturally and propand to lay a founılation for eternal rewards. erly belongs to intellectual superiority. When the church, in the perfection of beauty,

LORD MACAULAY. shall be presented to Christ as a bride adorned! It is better that men should be governed by for her husband, the faithful pastor will appear

" appear | priestcraft than violence. as the friend of the bridegroom, who greatly re

Lord MACAULAY. joices because of the bridegroom's voice. His joy will be the joy of his Lord,-inferior in degree,

Bishops are now unfit to govern, because of but of the same nature, and arising from the their learning. They are bred up in another same sources : while he will have the peculiar law; they run to the text for something done happiness of reflecting that he has contributed among the Jews that concerns not England. to it; contributed, as an humble instrument, to Tis just as if a man would have a kettle and he that glory and felicity of which he will be con- would not go to our braziers to have it made as scious he is utterly unworthy to partake. To they would kettles, but he would have it made have been himself the object of mercy, to have as

as Hiram made his brass-work who wrought in been the means of imparting it to others, and of Solomon's Temple.

SELDEN, dispensing the unsearchable riches of Christ, God is the fountain of honour, and the conwill produce a pleasure which can never be ad- duit by which he conveys it to the sons of men equately selt or understood until we see him as

until we see him as are virtues and generous practices. Some, inhe is.

ROBERT Hail:

deed, may please and promise themselves high Discouragements and Supports of the

matters from full revenues, stately palaces, court Christian Minister.

interests, and great dependences. But that Ministers of the gospel in this quarter of the

which makes the clergy glorious, is to be knowglobe resemble the commanders of an army

ing in their profession, unspoited in their lives, stationed in a conquered country, whose inhab

active and laborious in their charges, bold and itants, overawed and subdued, yield a partial

resolute in opposing seducers, and daring to look obedience: they have sufficient employment in

vice in the face, though never so potent and

| illustrious; and, lastly, to be gentle, courteous, attempting to conciliate the affections of the natives, and in carrying into execution the orders

and compassionate to all. These are our robes and regulations of their Prince; since there is

and our inaces, our escutcheons and highest titles of honour.

SOUTH. much latent disaffection, though no open rebellion, a strong partiality to their former rulers, But as there are certain mountebanks and with few attempts to erect the standard of revolt. quacks in physic, so there are much the same ROBERT HALL: also in divinity.

SOUTH. Address to Rev. Eustace Carey. | It is a sad thing when men shall repair to the He fthe country parson] is not witty, or ministry not for preferment but refuge; like learned, or eloquent, but holy :—a character malesactors flying to the altar only to save their Hermogenes never dreamed of, and therefore

lives.

SOUTH. he could give no precepts thereof.

Faithful ministers are to stand and endure the GEORGE HERBERT.

brunt: a common soldier may fiy, when it is

the duty of him that holds the standard to die We hold that God's clergy are a state which hath been, and will be as long as there is a

upon the place.

SOUTH. church upon earth, necessary, by the plain word

Let the minister be low, his interest inconsidof God himself: a state whereunto the rest of erable, the word will suffer for his sake: the God's people must be subject as touching things message will still find reception according to that appertain to their souls' health.

the dignity of the messenger. SOUTH.

Hooker. The clergy prevent themselves from doing It cannot enter any man's conceit to think it much service to religion by affecting so much to lawful that every man which listeth should take converse with each other, and caring so little to upon him charge in the church; and therefore mingle with the laity.

SWIFT. a solemn admittance is of such necessity that

L A divine dares hardly show his person among without it there can be no church polity.

HOOKER.

the gentlemen; or, if he fall into such com

pany, he is in continual apprehension that some Let it therefore be required, on both parts, at pert man of pleasure should break an unmanthe hands of the clergy, to be in meanness of nerly jest, and render him ridiculous. estate like the apostles; at the hands of the

Swift. laity, to be as they who lived under the apostles.

HOOKER.

The clergy's business lies among the laity;

nor is there a more effectual way to forward the There is nothing noble in a clergyman but salvation of men's souls than for spiritual perburning zeal for the salvation of souls; nor any sons to make themselves as agreeable as they thing poor in his profession but idleness and can in the conversations of the world. worldly spirit. Law.

SWIFT.

If the clergy would a little study the arts of

COINS. conversation, ihey might be welcome at every party where there was the least regard for po

There is a great affinity between coins and liteness or good sense.

| poeiry, and your medallist and critic are much

nearer related than the world imagines. Neither is it rare to observe among excellent

ADDISON. and learned divines a certain ungracious man

Compare the beauty and comprehensiveness ner or an unhappy tone of voice, which they | of legends on ancient coins. ADDISON. never have been able to shake off. Swift.

Among the great variety of ancient coins It seems to be in the power of a reasonable which I saw at Rome I could not but take par. clergyman to make the most ignorant man com | ticular notice of such as relate to any of the prehend his duty. SWIFT. | buildings or statues which are still extant.

ADDISON. I cannot forbear warning you against endeav. oring at wit in your sermons; because many of

Till about the end of the third century I do your calling have made themselves ridiculous by

not remember to have seen the head of a Ro

man emperor drawn with a full face: they

SWIFT. attempting it.

| always appear in profile.

ADDISON. He (Bishop Atterbury] never attempts your old coins are like so many maps for explainpassions until he has convinced your reasoning the an All the objections which he can form are laid

| ing the ancient geography. ADDISON. open and dispersed before he uses the least I have seen an antiquary lick an old coin, vehemence in his sermon; but when he thinks among other trials, to distinguish the age of it be has your head, he very soon wins your heart; | by its laste.

ADDISON. and never pretends to show the beauty of holi. |

You will never, with all your medallic eloness until he hath convinced you of the truth

| quence, persuade Eugenius that it is better to of it.

have a pocketful of Othos than of Jacobuses. Would every one of our clergymen be thus

ADDISON. careful to recommend truth and virtue in their proper figures, and show so much concern for them as to give them all the additional force they were able, it is not possible that nonsense

COMEDY should have so many hearers as you find it has

Comedy was satirical. Satire is best on the in dissenting congregations, for no reason in the

| living. It was soon found that the best way to world but because it is spoken extempore : for ordinary minds are wholly governed by their

depress an hated character was to turn it into

ridicule; and therefore the greater vices, which eyes and ears, and there is no way to come at

in the beginning were lashed, gave place to the their hearts but by power over their imagina

contemptible. Its passion, therefore, became tions. Swift and STEELE: Tatler, No. 66.

ridicule. Every writing must have its charac

teristic passion. What is that of comedy, if The truth is, mankind have an innate pro

not ridicule ? Comedy, therefore, is a satirical pensity, as to other errors, so. to that of enden. / poem, representing an action carried on by dia.

logue, to excite laughter by describing ludicrous vouring to serve God by proxy ;-to commit to some distinct Order of men the care of their

characters. See Aristotle, BURKE: religious concerns, in the same manner as they

Hints for an Essay on the Drama. confide the care of their bodily health to the

Comedy . . . should be mere common life, physician, and of their legal transactions to the

and not one jot bigger. Every character should lawyer; deeming it sufficient to follow implicitly speak upon the stage, not only what it would their directions, without attempting themselves

uiter in the situation there represented, but in to become acquainted with the mysteries of the same manner in which it would express it. medicine or of law. For man, except when For which reason, I cannot allow rhymes in unusually depraved, retains enough of the image comedy, unless they were put into the mouth of his Maker to have a natural reverence for re

and came out of the mouth of a mad poet. ligion, and a desire that God should be wor

LORD CHESTERFIELD: shipped; but, through the corruption of his

Letters to his Son, Jan. 23, 1752. nature, his heart is (except when divinely purified) too much alienated from God to take de It is not so difficult to fill a comedy with good light in serving Him. Hence the disposition repartee as might be at first imagined, if we men have ever shown to substitute the devotion consider how completely both parties are in the of the priest for their own; to leave the duties power of the author. The blaze of wit in The of piety in his hands, and to let him serve God School for Scandal astonishes us less when we in their stead. This disposition is not so much remember that the wriier had it in his power to the consequence, as itself the origin, of priest-frame both the question and the answer; the craft

WHATELY:

reply and the rejoinder; the time and the place. Errors of Romanism. He must be a poor proficient who cannot keep up the game when both the ball, the wall, and itself not to have any beauty in it at the same the racket are at his sole command.

time that they would be considered as the greatCOLTON: Lacon. est men of the age for having interpreted it.

They will look with contempt on the most Comedy is a representation of common life,

| beautiful poems that have been composed by in low subjects.

DRYDEN.

any of their contemporaries; but will lock In comedy there is somewhat more of the themselves up in their studies for a twelvemonth worse likeness to be taken, because it is often together, to correct, publish, and expound such to produce laughter, which is occasioned by the trifles of antiquity, as a modern author would sight of some deformity.

DRYDEN. be condemned for

ADDISON: Tatler, No. 158. In the name of art as well as in the name of virtue, we protest against the principle that the Men of the strictest morals, severest lives, world of pure comedy is one into which no and the gravest professions, will write volumes moral enters. If comedy be an imitation, | upon an idle sonnet, that is originally in Greek under whatever conventions, of real life, how is or Latin ; give editions of the most immoral it possible that it can have no reference to the authors; and spin out whole pages upon the great rule which directs life, and to feelings various readings of a lewd expression. All which are called forth by every incident of life? that can be said in excuse for them is, that their If what Mr. Charles Lamb says were correct, works sufficiently show they have no taste of the inference would be that these dramatists did their authors, and that what they do in this not in the least understand the very first prin kind, is out of their great learning, and not out ciples of their crast. Pure landscape-painting of any levity or lasciviousness of temper. into which no light or shade enters, pure por

ADDISON: Taller, No. 158. trait-painting into which no expression enters, are phrases less at variance with sound criticism

Shallow pedants cry up one another much

more than men of solid and useful learning. than pure comedy into which no moral enters. But it is not the fact that the world of these

To read the titles they give an editor, or collator

of a manuscript, you would take him for the dramatists is a world into which no moral enters.

glory of the commonwealth of letters, and the Morality constantly enters into that world, a

wonder of his age, when perhaps upon examisound morality, and an unsound morality; the

nation you find that he has only rectified a Greek sound morality to be insulted, derided, asso

particle, or laid out a whole sentence in proper ciated with everything mean and hateful; the

commas. unsound morality to be set off to every advan.

They are obliged indeed to be thus lavish of tage, and inculcated by all methods, direct and

their praises, that they may keep one another in indirect. LORD MACAULAY:

countenance; and it is no wonder if a great deal Comic Dramatists of the Restoration, Jan. 1841.

of knowledge, which is not capable of making a The sentimental comedy still reigned, and man wise, has a natural tendency to make him Goldsmith's comedies were not sentimental.

vain and arrogant. LORD MACAULAY.

Addison: Spectator, No. 105. The vast and inexhaustible variety of knavery,

I have often fancied with myself how enraged folly, affectation, humour, etc., etc., as mingled

an old Latin author would be should he see the with each other, or as modified by difference

several absurdities in sense and grammar which of age, sex, temper, education, profession, and

are imputed to him by some or other of these habit of body, are all within the royalty of the

various readings. In one he speaks nonsense ; modern comic dramatist. ... The ancients

in another makes use of a word that was never were much more limited in their circle of ma

heard of; and indeed there is scarce a solecism terials. Sir WALTER SCOTT.

in writing which the best author is not guilty of, if we may be at liberty to read him in the words of some manuscript which the laborious editor has thought fit to examine in the prose

cution of his work. COMMENTATORS.

ADDISON: Spectator, No. 470. There is another kind of pedant, who, with We want short, sound, and judicious notes al Tom Folio's impertinences, hath greater | upon Scripture, without running into commonsuperstructures and embellishments of Greek places, pursuing controversies, or reducing those and Latin, and is still more insupportable than notes to artificial method, but leaving them quite the other, in the same degree as he is more loose and native. For, certainly, as those wines learned. Of this kind very often are editors, which flow from the first treading of the grape commentators, interpreters, scholiasts, and crit- | are sweeter and better than those forced out by ics; and, in short, all men of deep learning the press, which gives them the roughness of without common sense.

the husk and the stone, so are those doctrines These persons set a greater value on them- best and sweetest which flow from a gentle crush selves for having found out the meaning of a of the Scriptures, and are not wrung into conpassage in Greek, than upon the author for troversies and commonplaces. having written it; nay, will allow the passage!

LORD BACON.

Bentley wrote a letter ... upon the scriptural seem to consider all the Classics as contempoglosses in our present copies of Hesychius, which raries; just as I have known people in England, he considered interpolations from a later hand. deceived by the distance of place, take it for

DE QUINCEY. granted that all persons who live in India are Enlarging an author's sense, and building

neighbours, and ask an inhabitant of Bombay

about the health of an acquaintance at Calcutta. fancies of our own upon his foundation, we may

It is to be hoped that no barbarian deluge will call paraphrasing: but more properly, changing,

ever again pass over Europe. But should such adding, patching, piecing.

FELTON.

| a calamity happen, it seems not improbable that All these together are the foundation of all some future Rollin or Gillies will compile a those heaps of comments, which are piled so history of England from Miss Porter's Scottish bigh upon authors that it is difficult sometimes Chiess, Miss Lee's Recess, and Sir Nathaniel to clear the text from the rubbish.

Wraxall's Memoirs.
FELTON.

LORD MACAULAY :
The obscurity is brought over them by igno-

On the Athenian Orators, Aug. 1824. rance and age, made yet more obscure by their

They show their learning uselessly, and make pedantical elucidators.

FELTON. | a long periphrasis on every word of the book they explain.

Dr. I. WATTS. The best writers have been perplexed with notes and obscured with illustrations. .

The commentator's prosessed object is to exFELTON.

plain, to ensorce, to illustrate doctrines claimed as true.

WHEWELL. What a gist has John Harlebach, professor at Vienna, in tediousness! who, being to expound

The spirit of commentation turns to questions

of taste, of metaphysics, of morals, with far the prophet Isaiah to his auditors, read twenty

more avidity than to physics. one years on the first chapter, and yet finished |

WHEWELL. it not.

T. FULLER. Others spend their lives in remarks on language, or explanations of antiquities, and only

COMMERCE. afford materials for lexicographers and com

I am wonderfully delighted to see such a body mentators, who are themselves overwhelmed by

by of men thriving in their own private fortunes, and subsequent collectors, that equally destroy the

at the same time promoting the public stock; or, memory of their predecessors by amplification,

in other words, raising estates for their own fami

lies by bringing into their country whatever is tem of nature gives birth to a swarm of exposi.

wanting, and carrying out of it whatever is tors whose business is to explain and illustrate

superfluous. Nature seems to have taken a parit, and who can hope to exist no longer than the

ticular care to disseminate her blessings among founder of their sect preserves his reputation.

the different regions of the world with an eye Dr. S. JOHNSON: Rambler, No. 106.

10 this mutual intercourse and traffic among Scholiasts, those copious expositors of places, mankind, that the natives of the several parts pour out a vain overflow of learning on pas of the globe might have a kind of dependence sages plain and easy.

LOCKE.

upon one another, and be united together by

their common interest. or those scholars who have disdained to con

ADDISON: Spectator, No. 69. fine themselves to verbal criticism few have been successful. The ancient languages have, gener

There are not more useful members in a ally, a magical influence on their faculties.

commonwealth than merchants. They knit They were “fools called into a circle by Greek

mankind together in a mutual intercouse of invocations." The Iliad and Æneid were to

good offices, distribute the gifts of nature, find them not books, but curiosities, or rather rel.

work for the poor, and wealth to the rich, and iques. They no more admired those works for

magnificence to the great. ... Trade, without their merits than a yood Catholic venerates the enlarging the British territories, has given us a house of the Virgin at Loretto for its architecture.

kind of additional empire: it has multiplied the Whatever was classical was good. Homer was a

number of the rich, made our landed estates.

infinitely more valuable than they were formerly, great poet, and so was Callimachus. The epistles of Cicero were fine, and so were those of

and added to them an accession of other estates. Phalaris. Even with respect to questions of

as valuable as the lands themselves. evidence they sell into the same error. The

ADDISON. authority of all narrations, written in Greek or You will be convinced, Sir, that I am not Latin, was the same with them. It never crossed mistaken, if you reflect how generally it is true, their minds that the lapse of five hundred years, that commerce, the principal object of that office, or the distance of five hundred leagues, could flourishes most when it is left to it-elf. Interest, affect the accuracy of a narration ;-that Livy the great guide of commerce, is not a blind one. could be a less veracious historian than Poly- | It is very well able to find its own way; and its bius ;-or that Plutarch could know less about necessities are its best laws. BURKE: the friends of Xenophon than Xenophon him

Speech on the Plan for Economical Re. self. Deceived by the distance of lime, they !

form, Feb. 11, 1780.

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