trust in after death, must far exceed any enjoy- day her brother and she were at play on the ment which a longer life here could have af- green at a little distance, attended by a servant forded. It is otherwise with the prospect of of their father's, when a favourite terrier of duty to be done : these two little ones I leave Billy's happened to wander amongst the bushes to your tenderness and care; you will value where this nest was sheltered. Harriet, afraid life, as it gives you an opportunity of forming of the consequences, begged the servant to run, them to virtue.- -Lay me beside my Harriet !” and prevent his doing mischief to the birds.

The old man's prediction was but too well Just as the fellow came up, the dog had lightverified; he did not long survive this pathetic ed on the bush, and surprised the dam, but was declaration. His son-in-law was now exposed, prevented from doing her much harm by the alone and unassisted, to the cares of the world, servant, who laid hold of him by the neck, and increased by the charge of his boy and girl ; snatched his prey out of his mouth; the dog, but the mind will support much, when called resenting this rough usage, bit the man's finger into exertion by the necessity of things. His till it bled, who, in return, bestowed a hearty sorrow yielded by degrees to the thoughts of drubbing upon him, without regarding the enthat active duty he owed his children ; in time treaties or the threats of his little master. Billy, his fire-side was again cheered by their sports enraged at the sufferings of his favourite, rearound it; and, though he sometimes looked solved to wreak his vengeance where it was in upon them with a tear at the recollection of his power; and running up to the nest, threw the past, yet would he as often wipe it from his it down, with all its unfledged inbabitants, to eye, in silent gratitude to Heaven, for the en- the ground. « Cruel Billy !" cried his sister, joyment of the present, and the anticipation of while the tears ran down her cheeks. He turnthe future.

ed sullenly from her, and walked up to the house, while she, with the man's assistance, gathered

up the little flutterers, and having fas CHAP. III.

tened the nest as well as she could, replaced

them safely within it. The openings of two Characters, with which the When she saw her brother again, he pouted, Reader may afterwards be better acquainted. and would not speak to her ; she endeavoured

to regain his favour by kindness, but he refused His son had a warmth of temper, which the her caresses; she sought out the dog who had father often observed with mingled pleasure and suffered on her linnet's account, and stroking regret ; with pleasure, from considering the ge- him on the head, fed him with some cold meat nerosity and nobleness of sentiment which it be- from her own hand; when her brother saw it, spoke ; with regret, from a foreboding of the he called him away. She looked after Billy till many inconveniences to which its youthful pos- he was gone, and then burst into tears. sessor might naturally be exposed.

Next day they were down at the rivulet But Harriet was softness itself. The sprights again. Stili was Harriet endeavouring to be liness of her gayest moments would be checked reconciled, and still was her brother averse to a by the recital of the distress of a fellow-creature, reconciliation; he sat biting his thumb, and and she would often weep all night from soine' looking angrily to the spot where his favourite tale which her maid had told of fictitious disas- had been punished. ter. Her brother felt the representation of worth At that instant the linnet, in whose cause the ill-treated, or virtue oppressed, with indignation quarrel had begun, was bringing out her youngagainst the oppressor, and wished to be a man, lings to their first imperfect flight, and two of that he might, like Jack the Giant-killer, gird them, unfortunately taking a wrong direction, on his sword of sharpness, and revenge the fell short into the middle of the pool. Billy wrongs of the sufferer; while his sister pressed started from the ground, and without consider his hand in hers, and trembled for the dangering the depth, rushed into the water, where he to which she imagined him exposed ; nay, she was over head and ears the second step that he has been afterwards heard to cry out in her made. His sister's screams alarmed the servant, sleep, in a hurricd voice, “ You shall not go, who ran to his assistance; but before he got to my Billy, papa and I will die if you do !" the place, the boy had reached a shallower part

A triding incident, of which I find an account of the pool, and, though staggering from his first in one of their father's letters, will discriminate plunge, had saved both the linnets, which he their characters better than a train of the most held carefully above the water, and landed safelaboured expression.

ly on the opposite bank. He returned to his At the bottom of his garden ran a little rivu- sister by a ford below, and, presenting her the let, which was there dammed up to furnish wa- birds, flung his arms round her neck, and, blubter for a mill below. On the bank was a lin- bering, asked her, if she would now forgive his pet's nest, which Harriet had discovered in her unkindness. rambles, and often visited with uncommon an- Such were the minds which Annesly's tuixiety for the callow brood it contained. One tion was to form. To rep ess the warmth of

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temerity, without extinguishing the generous enough,” said Annesly, “ to put weapons into principles from which it arose, and to give firm- those hands which never have been taught the ness to sensibility where it bordered on weak- use of them; the reading, we recommend to ness, without searing its feelings where they led youth will store their minds with intelligence, to virtue, was the task he had marked out for if they attend to it properly; but to go a little his industry to accomplish. He owned, that his farther, we must accustom them to apply it,plan was frequently interrupted on both sides we must teach them the art of comparing the by the tenderness of paternal affection ; but he ideas with which it has furnished them.

In accustomed himself to remember, that, for his this view it was the practice, at those stated children, he was accountable to God and their times I have mentioned, for Billy, or his sister, country. Nor was the situation I have described to read a select passage of some classical author, without difficulties, from the delicacy of pre- on whose relations they delivered opinions, or venting inclinations in the extreme, which were on whose sentiments they offered a comment. laudable in degree ; “ but here also,” said An- Never was seen more satisfaction on a counte. nesly," it is to be remembered, that no evil is nance, than used to enlighten their father's, at so pernicious as that which grows in the soil the delivery of those observations, which his from which good should have sprung." little philosophers were accustomed to make;

indeed, there could scarcely, even to a stranger,

be a more pleasing exhibition ; their very errors CHAP. IV.

were delightful, because they were the errors of

benevolence, generosity, and virtue. A very brief Account of their Education. As punishments are necessary in all societies,

Annesly was obliged to invent some for the reANNEsly was not only the superintendant of gulation of his : they consisted only of cerhis children's manners, but their master in the tain modifications of disgrace. One of them several branches of education. Reading, wri. I shall mention, because it was exactly opposite ting, arithmetic, the elements of mathematics to the practice of most of our schools ; while and geography, with a competent knowledge of there, offences are punished by doubling the the French and Italian languages, they learned task of the scholar; with Annesly, the getting together; and while Billy was employed with of a lesson, or performing of an exercise, was a his father in reading Latin and Greek, his sise privilege, of which a forfeiture was incurred by ter received instruction in the female accom- misbehaviour ; to teach bis children, that he of plishments, from a better sort of servant, whom fered them instruction as a favour, instead of Annesly kept for that purpose, whose station pressing it as a hardship. had once been superior to servitude, and whom Billy had a small part of his father's garden he still treated more as a companion than a do- allotted him for his peculiar property, in which mestic. This instructress, indeed, she lost when he wrought himself, being furnished with no about ten years old; but the want was more other assistance from the gardener than directhan supplied by the assistance of another, to tions how to manage it, and parcels of the seeds wit, Mrs Wistanly, who devoted many of her which they enabled him to sow. When he had leisure hours to the daughter of Annesly, whom brought these to maturity, his father purchased she had then got acquainted with, and whom the produce. Billy, with part of the purchasereciprocal worth had attached to her with the money, was to lay in the stores necessary for sincerest friendship and regard. The dancing- bis future industry, and the overplus he had the master of a neighbouring town paid them a liberty of bestowing on charitable uses in the weekly visit for their instruction in the science village. The same institution prevailed as to he professed ; at which time also were held their his sister's needle-work or embroidery. “ For family concerts, where Annesly, who was es- it is necessary,” said Annesly, “ to give an idea teemed in his youth a first-rate player on the of property, but let it not be separated from the violin, used to preside. Billy was an excellent idea of beneficence.” second;

Mrs Wistanly, or her pupil, undertook Sometimes, when these sums were traced to for the harpsichord; and the dancing-master their disbursements, it was found that Harriet's played bass as well as he could. He was not a money did not always reach the village, but was very capital performer, but he was always very intercepted by the piteous recital of a wanderwilling; and found as much pleasure in his ing beggar by the way; and that Billy used to own performance as the best of them. Jack appropriate part of his to purposes not purely Ryland, too, would sometimes join in a catch, eleemosynary; as, when he once parted with though indeed he had but two, Christ Church two-thirds of his revenue, to reward a little boy Bells, and Jack, thou’rt a toper; and Annesly for beating a big one, who had killed his tame alleged that he was often out in the last, but sparrow; or another time, when he went the Jack would never allow it.

blameable length of comforting with a shilling Besides these, there were certain evenings ap- a lad who had been ducked in a horse-pond, for propriated to exercises of the mind. “ Jt is not robbing the orchard of a miser.

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It was chiefly in this manner of instilling where the hand of a parent and friend had hisentiments (as in the case of the charitable es- therto guided him in happiness and safety. The tablishment'I have mentioned,) by leading in- substance of what he delivered to his son and sensibly to the practice of virtue, rather than by daughter, (for she too was an auditor of his disdownright precept, that Annesly proceeded with courses,) I have endeavoured to collect from his children; for it was his maxim, that the some of the papers Mrs Wistanly put into my heart must feel as well as the judgment be con- hands; and to arrange, as far as it seemed ar. vinced, before the principles we mean to teach rangeable, in the two following chapters. can be of habitual service; and that the mind It will not, however, after all, have a perfecta will always be more strongly impressed with ly connected appearance; because, I imagine, ideas which it is led to form of itself, than with it was delivered at different times, as occasion those which it passively receives from another. invited, or leisure allowed him ; but its tenden, When, at any time, he delivered instructions, cy appeared to be such, that, even under these they were always clothed in the garb rather of disadvantages, I could not forbear inserting it advices from a friend, than lectures from a father; and were listened to with the warmth of friendship, as well as the humility of venera

CHAP. V. tion. It is, in truth, somewhat surprising, how little intimacy subsists between parents and Paternal Instructions Of Suspicion and Confitheir children, especially of our sex ; a circum- dence-Ridicule— Religion-True Pleasure stance which must operate, in conjunction with —Caution to the Femule Ser. their natural partiality, to keep the former in ignorance of the genius and disposition of the “ You are now leaving us, my son,” said latter.

Annesly, “ to make your entrance into the Besides all this, his children had the general world ; for, though from the pale of a college, advantage of a father's example: they saw the the bustle of ambition, the plodding of business, virtues he inculcated attended by all the conse- and the tinsel of gaiety, are supposed to be exquences in himself, which he had promised them cluded; yet, as it is the place where the persons as their reward ; piety in him was recompensed that are to perform in those several characters by peace of mind, benevolence by self-satisfac- often put on the dresses of each, there will not tion, and integrity by the blessings of a good be wanting, even there, those qualities that disconscience.

tinguish in all. I will not shock your imaginaBut the time at last arrived, when his son was tion with the picture which some men, retired to leave those instructions, and that example, for from its influence, have drawn of the world; the walks of more public life. As he was intend- nor warn you against enormities, into which, I ed, or, more properly speaking, seemed to have should equally affront your understanding and an inclination, for a learned profession, his fa- your feelings, did I suppose you capable of fallther sent him, in his twentieth year, to receive ing. Neither would I arm you with that susthe finishings of education necessary for that picious caution, which young men are somepurpose, at one of the universities. Yet he had times advised to put on: they who always susnot, I have heard him say, the most favourable pect will often be mistaken, and never be hapopinion of the general course of education there; py. Yet there is a wide distinction between the but he knew that a young man, might there confidence which becomes a man, and the simhave an opportunity of acquiring much know. plicity that disgraces a fool : he who never ledge, if he were inclined to it; and that good trusts, is a niggard of his soul, who starves himprinciples might preserve him uncorrupted, self, and by whom no other is enriched ; but he even amidst the dangers of some surrounding who gives every one his confidence, and every dissipation : besides, he had an additional in- one his praise, squanders the fund that should ducement to this plan, from the repeated request serve for the encouragement of integrity, and of a distant relation, who filled an office of some the reward of excellence. consequence at Oxford, and had expressed a very “ In the circles of the world, your notice may earnest desire to have his young kinsman sent be frequently attracted by objects glaring, not thither, and placed under his own immediate useful ; and your attachment won to characters, inspection.

whose surfaces are showy, without intrinsic Before he set out for that place, Annesly, value: in such circumstances, be careful not although he had a sufficient confidence in his own ways to imput knowledge to the appearance of son, yet thought it not improper to mark out acuteness, or give credit to opinions according to to him some of those errors to which the unex- the confidence with which they are urged. In perienced are liable. He was not wont, as I have the more importantarticles of belief or conviction, before observed, to press instruction upon his let not the flow of ridicule be mistaken for the children; but the young man himself seemed force of argument. Nothing is so easy as to exto expect it, with the solicitude of one who ven- cite a laugh, at that time of life when serioustured, not without anxiety, to leave that road, ness is held to be an incapacity of enjoying it;,

and no wit so futile, or so dangerous, as that light which the finer sensations produce, which which is drawn from the perverted attitudes of thrills in the bosom of delicacy and virtue. what is in itself momentous. There are in most “ Libertines have said, my Harriet, that the societies a set of self-important young men, who - smiles of your sex attend them; and that the borrow consequence from singularity, and take pride of conquesi, where conquest is difficult, precedency in wisdom from the unfeeling use of overcomes the fear of disgrace and defeat. Í the ludicrous: this is at best a shallow quality; hope there is less truth in this remark than is in objects of eternal moment, it is poisonous to generally imagined. Let it be my Harriet's besociety. I will not now, nor could you then, stand lief that it cannot be true, for the honour of her forth armed at all points to repel the attacks sex: let it be her care that, for her own honour, which they make on the great principles of your it may be false as to her. Look on those men, belief; but let one suggestion suffice, exclusive my child, even in their gayest and most alluring of all internal evidence, or extrinsic proof of re- garb, as creatures dangerous to the peace, and velation. He who would undermine those foun- destructive of the welfare, of society ; look on dations upon which the fabric of our future them as you would on a beautiful serpent, hope is reared, seeks to beat down that column, whose mischief we may not forget while we adwhich supports the feebleness of humanity :- mire the beauties of its skin. Í marvel indeed let him but think a moment, and his heart will how the pride of the fair can allow them to show arrest the cruelty of his purpose ;-would be a partiality to him, who regards them as beings pluck its little treasure from the bosom of po- merely subservient to his pleasure, in whose verty? would he wrest its crutch from the hand opinion they have lost all that dignity which of age, and remove from the eye of affliction the excites reverence, and that excellence which only solace of its woe? The way we tread is creates esteem. rugged at best; we tread it, however, lighter by “ Be accustomed, my love, to think respectthe prospect of that better country to which we fully of yourself. It is the error of the gay trust it will lead: tell us not that it will end in world to place your sex in a station somewhat the gulph of eternal dissolution, or break off in unworthy of a reasonable creature; and the insome wild, which fancy may fill up as she dividuals of ours,' who address themselves to pleases, but reason is unable to delineate; you, think it a necessary ingredient in their disa quench not that beam, which, amidst the night course, that it should want every solid property of this evil world, has cheered the despondency with which sense and understanding would inof ill-requited worth, and illumined the dark- vest it. The character of a female pedant is ness of suffering virtue.

undoubtedly disgusting; but it is much less “ The two great movements of the soul, common than that of a trifling or an ignorant which the moulder of our frames has placed in woman : the intercourse of the sexes is, in this them for the incitement of virtue and the pre- respect, advantageous, that each has a desire to vention of vice, are the desire of honour, and the please, mingled with a certain deference for the fear of shame, but the perversion of these qua- other: let not this purpose be lost on one side, lities, which the refinement of society is pecu- by its being supposed, that to please yours, we liarly unhappy in making, has drawn their in- must speak something, in which fashion has fluence from the standard of morality, to the sanctified folly, and ease lent her garb to insigbanners of its opposite: into the first step on nificance. In general it should never be forwhich a young man ventures, in those paths gotten, that, though life has its venial trifles, which the cautions of wisdom have warned him yet they cease to be innocent when they ento avoid, he is commonly pushed by the fear of croach upon its important concerns: the mind that ridicule which he has seen levelled at sim- that is often employed about little things, will plicity, and the desire of that applause which be rendered unfit for any serious exertion; and, the spirit of the profligate has enabled him to ac- though temporary relaxations may recruit its quire.

strength, habitual vacancy will destroy it." “ Pleasure is, in truth, subservient to virtue. When the first is pursued without those restraints which the last would impose, every

CHAP. VI. infringement we make on them lessens the enjoyment we mean to attain; and nature is thus In continuationOf Knowledge-Knowledge of wise in our construction, that, when we would the World - Politeness - Honour - Another be blessed beyond the pale of reason, we are Rule of Action suggested. blessed imperfectly. It is not by the roar of riot, or the shout of the bacchanal, that we are "As the mind may be weakened by the purto measure the degree of pleasure which he feels; suit of trivial matters, so its strength may be the grossness of the sense he gratifies is equal- misled in deeper investigations. ly unsusceptible of the enjoyment, as it is deaf " It is a capital error in the pursuit of knowto the voice of reason; and, obdurated by the ledge, to suppose that we are never to believe repetition of debauch, is incapable of that de what we cannot account for. There is no reason why we should not attempt to understand or temporary fashions create, yet that standard every thing; but to own in some instances our will ever remain, which alone is common to all. limited knowledge, is a piece of modesty in The ostentation of learning is indeed alwhich lies the truest wisdom.

ways disgusting in the intercourse of society; " Let it be our care, that our effort in its for even the benefit of instruction received cantendency is useful, and our effort need not be not allay the consciousness of inferiority, and repressed ; for he who attempts the impossible, remarkable parts more frequently attract adwill often achieve the extremely difficult; but miration than procure esteem. To bring forth the pride of knowledge often labours to gain, knowledge agreeably, as well as usefully, is what if gained would be useless, and wastes exer- perhaps very difficult for those who have attion upon objects that have been left unattained tained it in the secluded walks of study and from their futility. Men possessed of this de- speculation, and is an art seldom found but in sire, you may perhaps find, my son, in that seat men who have likewise acquired some knowof science whither you are going ; but remem- ledge of the world. ber, that what claims our wouder, does not al- “I would, however, distinguish betweer that ways merịt our regard; and in knowledge and knowledge of the world that fits us for interphilosophy be careful to distinguish, that the course with the better part of mankind, and purpose of research should ever be fixed on ma- that which we gain by associating with the worst king simple what is abstruse, not abstruse what “ But there is a certain learned rust which is simple; and that difficulty in acquisition will men as well as metals acquire ; it is, simply no more sanctify its inexpediency, than the art speaking, a blemish in both; the social feelings of tumblers, who have learned to stand on their grow callous from disuse, and we lose that spring heads, will prove that to be the proper posture of little affections, which sweeten the cup of life for man.

as we drink it. “ There is a pedantry in being master of “Even the ceremonial of the world, shallow paradoxes contrary to the common opinions of as it may appear, is not without its use: it may mankind, which is equally disgusting to the il- indeed take from the warmth

of friendship, but literate and the learned. The peasant, who en- it covers the coldness of indifference ; and if it joys the beauty of the tulip, is equally delighted has repressed the genuine overflowings of kindwith the philosopher, though he knows not the ness, it has smothered the turbulence of paspowers of the rays from which its colours are sion and animosity. derived ; and the boy who strikes a ball with Politeness, taught as an art, is ridiculous; his racket, is as certain whither it will be driven as the expression of liberal sentiment and courby the blow, as if he were perfectly conversant teous manners, it is truly valuable. There is a in the dispute about matter and motion. Va- politeness of the heart, which is confined to no nity of our knowledge is generally found in the rank, and dependant upon no education; the first stages of its acquirement; because we are desire of obliging, which a man possessed of this then looking back to that rank we have left, of quality will universally shew, seldom fails of such as know nothing at all. Greater advances pleasing, though his style may differ from that cure us of this, by pointing our view to those of modern refinement. I knew a man in Lonabove us; and when we reach the summit, we don, of the gentlest manners, and of the most begin to discover, that human knowledge is so winning deportment, whose eye was ever brightimperfect, as not to warrant any vanity upon it. ened with the smiles of good-humour, and In particular arts, beware of that affectation of whose voice was mellowed with the tones of speaking technically, by which ignorance is of- complacency ;-—and this man was a blackten disguised, and knowledge disgraced. They smith ! who are really skilful in the principles of sci- “ The falsehood of politeness is often pleadence, will acquire the veneration only of shallow ed for, as unavoidable in the commerce of manminds by talking scientifically; for, to simplify kind; yet I would have it as little indulged as expression, is always the effect of the deepest possible. There is a frankness without rustiknowledge, and the clearest discernment. On city, an openness of manner, prompted by goodthe other hand, there may be many who pos- humour, but guided by delicacy, which some sess taste, though they have not attained skill; are happy enough to possess, that engages every who, if they will be contented with the ex- worthy man, and gives not offence even to those, pression of their own feelings, without labour- whose good opinion, though of little estimation, ing to keep up the borrowed phrase of erudi- it is the business of prudence not wantonly to lose. tion, will have their opinions respected by all “ The circles of the gay, my children, would whose suffrages are worthy of being gained. smile to hear me talk of qualities which my reThe music, the painting, the poetry of the pas- tired manner of life has allowed me so little opsions, is the property of every one who has a portunity of observing ; but true good-breedheart to be moved ; and though there may be ing is not confined within those bounds to which particular modes of excellence which national their pedantry (if I may use the expression)

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