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as mentioned in the original charter; King Henry's final design comprising seventy scholars instead of twenty-five ; and adding also an usher for the school, a parish clerk and two more choristers; but reducing the number of the alm smen from twenty-five to thirteen.
“The school thus founded speedily was resorted to as a place of education by the sons of the higher orders, as well as by the class for whose immediate ada vantage the benefits of the foundation were primarily designed. The vicinity of Eton to Windsor, the usual place of royal residence and of the court, probably aided much to thus make Eton from its very commencement the first place of education in the land. An interesting anecdote is cited in the MS. history to which I have referred, apparently first told by one of King Henry's chaplains, who was an eye-witness of what he relates, which shews both how early the school was frequented by the connexions of the King's attendants, and the gentle but earnest anxiety of the Founder for his young Alumni. When King Henry met some of the students in Windsor Castle, whither they sometimes used to go to visit the King's servants whom they knew, on ascertaining who they were, he admonished them to follow the path of virtue, and besides his words would give them money to win over their good-will, saying to them, • Be good boys; be gentle and docile, and servants of the Lord. Sitis boni pueri, mites et docibiles, et servi Domini.'-Kind and wise words from the Founder's own lips, which the Eton boy of the present day should cherish, as addressed to himself as well as to those who first enjoyed the Founder's bounty four hundred years ago.
“In the well-known collection called the Paston Letters there is preserved a curious document, which proves both how early the sons of the Engli. h gentry were educated at Eton, and also that from the very first period of the school's existence, skill in Latin versification was regarded as the crowning excellence of an Etonian. The letter I refer to, is one written on the 14th of February 1467, by William Paston, junior, from Eton, to his elder brother, John Paston, at the family seat in Norfolk. The young student, who seems at the date of the letter to have been about eighteen or nineteen, and who was evidently an Oppidan, thanks his brother for money sent him to pay for his board, and for some figs and raisins which he was expecting by the first barge, He then narrates a love affair, and describes the merits of a young gentlewoman to whom he had been introduced at a wedding-party in the neighbourhood by his Dame. The young gentleman seems even at that tender age to have been wary in his love, and does not omit to mention the money and plate that would form his fair Margaret's immediate dowry, and also her reversionary interests, which he wishes his brother to inquire further into. And, as if he distrusted his taste in beauty, he wishes his brother to see the young lady and judge for himself, and says, Specially behold her hands, for and if it be, as it is told me, she is disposed to be thick.' He seems impatient to leave Eton, and tries to convince his brother that he only lacks skill in versification to make his education complete. To shew what progress he is making in this requisite, he quotes with a good deal of self-satisfaction a Latin hexameter and pentameter distich of his own niaking, on a given theme which he also quotes. The verses are not calculated to impress us with a very high opinion of young Paston's knowledge of quantity, &c.; but they throw valuable light on the state of education then existing in England, and on the system pursued at Eton soon, if not immedi. ately, after its foundation."
It is gratifying to read the following account of the present condition of the Scholars on the foundation, or Collegers, as they are called:
" The next great improvement of recent years that claims attention, is the total reform that has taken place with respect to the selection and the treatment of the scholars on the foundation; and the increased care taken to make merit the test of a boy's chance of proceeding from Eton College to King's College, Cambridge.
“ The unsatisfactory manner in which the Collegers were lodged and the general objections to the system in force respecting them, have already been noticed a few pages above, Several efforts were made by the present College authorities a few years ago to remedy some of the grievances complained of. The quality of the diet was improved. The annual suin formerly received by the Head-master from the Collegers, as well as from the Oppidans, ceased to be taken from the boys on the foundation ; and the Provost and Fellows paid the Head-master an equivalent sum from the College funds. This annual payment, consisting of six guineas per year for each Colleger, Dr. Hawtrey, the present Head-master, has most liberally devoted to the College improvements. Other changes were introduced, all shewing the same desire on the part of the authorities to improve the position of the boys on the foundation. But no complete and effectual amelioration could be effected, so long as the old defective and objectionable system of lodging the boys remained unaltered. At last, in 1844, a decisive effort was made. By the combined exertions of a large body of old Etonians and other well-wishers to Eton, the College authorities were enabled to undertake and complete the erection of new buildings, and the alteration of the old ones, on a scale ample enough to provide for every scholar on the foundation those d. cencies and comforts, which in modern usages and manners are absolutely necessary, and also to provide the means of ensuring that proper and prompt superintendence, which is cssential for the due maintenance of discipline and decorum.
"There is now no hardship whatever in the life of an Eton Colleger. Indeed many of the Oppidans in the older boarding houses are not so com. fortably lodged as the boys on the foundation; and as sufficient accommodation for every purpose of study and quiet is now provided, besides the increased liberality and care shewn in providing for their meals, the education of a Colleger has been rendered really a cheap one, while at the same time his position has been freed from all its former unpleasant incidents.
“By means of the recent improveinents, each of the forty-nine senior students on the foundation has his separate apartment A portion of the old Long Chamber serves as a dormitory for the twenty-one younger boys of the seventy. But these are provided with studies; and there are also breakfast-rooms and livatories. Rooms are annexed for the servants whom the College now hires and employs 'o attend to the buildings, and to perf rm all those offices of domes:ic service which the boys formerly had to do for themselves. And that which is probably the greatest improveme t of all has been also attended to. Apartments for one of the assistant-masters have been built in communication with those occupied by the boys. One of these gentlemen now permanently resides there. And although the upper boys still are the vicegerents of authority, and are responsible for the preservation of order, the prompt superintendence of a higher power is ensured at all hours, and every desirable guarantee of discipline and quiet provided.
"Far greater liberality also is now shewn by the Colleger authorities in respect to the diet provided for the scholars on the foundation. The quality and number of the meals have been increased, and the system of serving them to the boys rendered consonant to modern usages. The parent of a boy on the foundation has now really very few things to provide for him in addition to the Collegte allowances. The fee of the tutor under whom he must be placed (for this system is now universal in the school) is ten guineas a year. A small annual payment will a.so be requisite for the care which will be paid to some oi the domestic arrangments respecting his son by one of the Dames. Each parent can best judge for himself what the pocket-money and clothing which he allows his son will cost him ; and he must add something for the yearly expenses of books, and for the journeys backwards and forwards at each of the three yacations."
NOTES ON THE NOBILITY, BY DAVID Ross. No. 1, THE HOUSE OF
RUSSELL—No. 2, THE HOUSES OF STANLEY AND SEFTON, London.
W. S. Orr and Co.: In the “ Liverpool Chronicle," an influential local Journal, a series of articles has recently appeared on the ancient aristocracy of the Empire, which has attracted so much public attention, that the learned Editor, Mr. David Ross, has been induced to republish these “ Notes on the Nobility” in a separate and more convenient form. The first two numbers comprise Memoirs of the eminent Houses of Russell, Stanley, and Molyneux, which are to be succeeded by those of Howard, Cecil, Gordon, Talbot, Paget, Grey, Lindsay, Gower, Grosvenor, &c. The plan is a good one, and the execution highly creditable to the historical learning and literary taste of Mr. Ross. The Memoir of the Russells deserves especial commendation : it is a theme of surpassing national interest, and most ably has the writer availed himself of its striking points. Few names on the records of England have been more illustrious than that of Russell, still fewer so interwoven with the brilliant events of our annals. It acquired historical renown under the rule of the Plantagenets, and from that turbulent era to our own comparatively tranquil times, no generation has passed without its eminent character. Soearly as the reign of Henry VI., Sir John Russell was speaker of the House of Commons. He was grand. father of the first Earl of Bedford, the most accomplished gentleman at the Courts of Henry VII. and Henry VIII., as his descendant Francis was acknowledged to have been at the Court of George III. Of this distinguished race, Mr. Ross's Memoir affords a most perfect history-full of biographical details, ably written, and public and personal anecdotes most amusingly told; for the Stanleys and the Molyneuxes Mr. Ross had a local regard, which must have rendered his task one of peculiar gratification. Admirably indeed has he entered on their eventful history.
This series, we may with truth say, will form, when completed, a most valuable addition to the genealogical literature of our country.
Adair, Charlotte Hamilton Hay, second 1
dau. of Major J. Adair, 27th April,
Pentonville, aged 52.
May, aged 78.
at Clapham New Park.
Esq., 24th April, aged 65. Anderson, Josephine Bartolozzi, wife of
J. R. Anderson, Esq., and sister of Madame Vestris, 30th April. Andrews, Anne, relict of T. R. Andrews,
Esq., late of Upper Bedford-place, 2nd May, at Dover. Andrews, Edward, Esq., of Sunbury,
Middlesex, 23rd April, aged 42. Ashburton, Lord, 12th May. Within one
short month, three eldest brothers of the great commercial family of Baring have passed off the scene of life. Lord Ashburton, the second of the three, died on the 12th of May, at Longleat. His lordship was born 27th October, 1774, and succeeded, at the decease of his father, the late Sir Francis Baring, Bart., to the chief management of the eminent mercantile firm, so well known throughout the world as “ Baring Brothers and Co." In early life, Mr. Alexander Baring travelled much in the United States, and even penetrated some distance into the primæval forests of America, amongst which he encountered the most distingnished wanderer of that age, Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans. Washington, too, was also among those with whom he had the good fortune to find favour during his first visit to the New World. While in America, Mr. Baring married, 23rd August, 1798, Anne Louisa, eldest dau. of William Bingham, Esq., of Philadelphia, a senator of the United States, and through this alliance acquired influential commercial connexions on the
other side of the Atlantic, which, in the sequel, aggrandized the importance of the London house. Mr. Baring's first entrance on the political arena was as member for the borough of Taunton, in 1806. That town he continued to represent until 1818. He next sat for Callington, and for Thetford, and finally was returned Knight of the Shire for Essex. In 1834, on the formation of Sir Robert Peel's short-lived administration, Mr. Alexander Baring became President of the Board of Traile, and in 1835 was raised to the Peerage of Baron Ashburton, of Ashburton, in Devon. This title his Lordship selected as having been borne by his first cousin, the famous lawyer, John Dunning, on his elevation to the Upper House. The last occasion in which Lord Ashburton was engaged in the service of the Crown, was the Embassy to America in 1842, which led to the adjustment of our differences with that country. His lordship is succeeded in his title and estates by bis eldest son, William Bingham, now Lord Ashburton. He leaves, besides, two other surviving sons, and two surviving daughters. We cannot better conclude our brief notice of this distinguished merchant and statesman, than by quoting the words of an eminent contemporary :-“ Although (said Lord Stanley in a recent debate) my noble friend, Lord Ashburton was not a frequent speaker or debater in your Lordships' House, yet those of your Lordships who have had the opportunity of knowing and hearing him will be aware of how much value and importance was his opinion; and you will appreciate far more than the powers of the highest eloquence, the loss which the country has sustained in that clear and impartial judgment, that candid consideration, that vast experience, which he brought to bear on all those questions, and the practical
knowledge which he brought to bear E q. formerly of Camberwell, 16th more especially on all mercantile sub April, at St. Helens, co. Lancaster. jerts-ubjeres to which he had devoted Bishop, John, E«. of Sunbury House, the study and observation of a long life Millesex, 10th May, aged 34.
and which clothed his opinion with Blair, Frederick Charles, 14, commanthe highest authenty. I am sure I may der R X., Inch May, aged 40. add, that the general amiability, the Bong. Mrs. Hannah, of Mount-street, 17th uniform kindness and courtesy, not Mar. only of manner but of heart, which Bokenham, Ellen, youngest daughter of characterised my noble friend, must the late George Bokenham, E., 27th have rendereditimposible that he could April. have left behind him a single enemy, Belton, Eliza Fanny, wife of Major A. public or personal. I am sure thouse Blon, Sth Dragoon Guards, 13th wlso have been admitted to the honour
say, of his friendship, even more than others, Banor, Charles Cliffc John, ouls child of must feel the loss which your landships Mayor Bonnor, Ceylon Rifles, 13 h and the country bave sustained."
May, aged 15.
Bonsoir, William, E., of Great Grimsby Baring. IIenry, of ('romer Hall, Norfolk, and Barnuldby-le-Beck, co. Lincoln,
Es Mr. Baring was the third son of 26th April, aki 176. Sir Francis Bariton, the first Baronet, Boord, licury Joon, Esq., of Park-hill, by Harriet, buss wite, daughter of Wale near Newton Abbott, aged 39. liam lierrine. ., of rurdon, cousin Botham, Anne, at Clapton, 5th May, and co-heir ot Dr. llera, Archbishop of Canterbury. As the period of his B arr, Sarah Faglee, wife of Thomas decease he had completed usioth year. Bisher, E-, Ist May, agrd 44. He married first, lith April, 102, Buwles, Mrs. George, at Bedford-place, Maria Matilda, second dan. of Willian, Thampstead-ruad, 12h May. Bingham, t... and by bus trum whom | Bovil, llugl Stuart, Ed.. late of Bally he was divorced) had two sons and two 1 Castle, Ireland. Toch inv. aged . daughters, VIL 1. Henry Bingham, Bridge, Samuel Southbr, eldest surviving M.P. tur Mariboruugh, who is married in of the late Thomas Brid, e. E .. to the Laly Augusta Brudenell, aster of London, goh March, at Montreal." of the Earlet Carlinan, 2. James Drum. Bright, Joseph, 14., of Dalston, Toch mond; 3. Anna Mana, wife of W aru Gondon (xsvelt, E. and 4. Frances Britemank, William, Esq., of Oddo, co. Emily, wite of Henry Briderman Sunp. krby, 23rd April, aged 4. son, E. Mr. llenry Banu's second Brooke, Jane, rhet of Laeut.-Colonel wife was Cera Anne, eldest daughter Francis Brookr, C.B. of the 4th Foot. of the late Vice-Admira Wm. Wynd. Awed 77. ham, and by ber he leaves seven 'sons Brighton, Sciphia, pline of Thomas and one dauxhter. 11. death mr arred Prisulton, E, of Walsoken llouse, on the 13th May, at his town resudence, Nurtulk. 24th pnl. Berkeley-square.
Bruwd, Elizabeth, relict of Thos Brown, Barclay. At sea, on the 11th of Dec. E", of Epsom, 14th May.
1847, on hus return vorage frotn India, Brown, Maria, wife of James Miller by the ship (othagwnd, R. D. ('raw. I Bruwn, of Basinghall-strect, 3rd May, ford, coumander, Thomas Tiek ll Bar Are 47. clay, E . in the 26th year of his a, e, Bruxtelin, Sarah, serond dan ghter of last surviving bruther of the pristat sir i Ribert Brurbalm, F o f Sunbury, Robert Ban ay. Bart, of t'vetetsvun, O lesen, 13th May. Aratine.
Bruce, Margaret Alex. Neilson, wife of Barun, Mn of Worthutaleriand-street, 6. Stuart Bruce. E lato of Coq93rd Mar, ed"I.
naught-sunre, 14th Mar. B... Eleanor L al th, relict of James Builery. Charles, 1 . formerly E.I.C.
2. bam Bam, b. 214 May, at t'pr Civil Serve, and means M.P. for 'Tuk llui, a ..
West Lane, 11th May, aged 74. Bavie,
k reid, rout of J. pła Barne, Bur***, Edward, the son of Jhn Oak. 14. ot kartmis on, 3rd day, at Braghe in Burg, Eq, of Ram-gate, 12th
March, 0n baril the lovath the Bedweil, Elizabeth, wife of Pilip Brd. Cape of
r e, azed 18. Well, E., of Clappkn ( utama, loch Brire, Henry G. E . of the Ord. Mar.
tiatin e P artient, eldest of the Besaj fue wdow of Samuri Dashop. laia II. W. Burn(se, L , of Sloane.