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the front be close and well covered, and the rear perfectly open.

CAMPAIGN. The period in each year during which an Army keeps the Field.

CANTEEN. A small tin or circular wooden vessel, used by Soldiers on Active Service to carry liquor, &c. A small trunk or chest, containing culinary and other utensils for the use of Officers.

A kind of suttling house, kept in Garrisons, &c., for the convenience of the Troops.

CANTONMENTS. Troops are said to be in Cantonments when detached and quartered in the different Towns and Villages, lying as near as possible to each other.

CAPITAL. Is a line drawn from the angle of the Polygon to the point of the Bastion, or from this point to the middle of the Gorge.

CAPITULATE. To capitulate is to surrender a Fortress, or body of Troops, on stipulated conditions.

CAPONIERE. In Fortification, is a passage from the Body of the Place to an Outwork; it is usually sunk below the surface of the ground, and is called single or double, according as it is provided with a parapet on one or both sides, the superior slope of which is produced, until it meets the level ground. The Caponière placed in the Main Ditch, besides covering the communication between the enceinte and the Demilune, serves to defend the bottom of the Ditch by a raking fire, and is sometimes provided with a bomb-proof vault, with loopholes on each side for the musquetry, to protect the defenders from the plunging fire of the besiegers, when they have gained the crest of the Glacis. Vide Fortification Cut, a.

CARBINE. A species of fire-arms, used principally in Regiments of Cavalry, and smaller than the musquets of the Infantry. The length of the Stock of the common Carbine is 4ft. 44in., of the barrel 3ft. lin.,. of the bayonet 13 in., the total length 5ft. 54in., the total weight 8lbs. 5oz., and the calibre 61 of an inch.

CARCASSES. A composition of combustibles projected from Mortars. The only difference between the round carcasses now in general use and the common shells, consists in their having four fuze holes in one of their hemispheres.

CARRIAGE OF A GUN. The machine upon which

it is mounted.

CARRONADE.

A short piece of ordnance, invented by Mr. Gascoine, and originally made at Carron. CARRY. To carry is to obtain possession by force, as "to carry the outworks."

CARTE BLANCHE. A blank paper sent to a person, to fill up with such conditions as he may think proper to insert. In the general acceptation of the term, it implies an authority to act at discretion.

CARTEL. Ån agreement between two hostile powers for a mutual exchange of prisoners.

CARTRIDGE. A case of paper, parchment, or flannel, fitted to the bore of the piece, and containing its exact charge of gunpowder. Those for small arms are always made of paper, the cartridges for Service being distinguished from those for Exercise and Practice, by being made of whited brown paper, instead of blue. Supplies of the latter are issued from the Ordnance Stores in the Spring and Autumn, to every Regiment in the Service.

CASE OR CANISTER SHOT are discharged from heavy ordnance, and contain bullets, pieces of iron, &c., enclosed in a circular tin case.

CASEMATE, is a chamber made within the Ramparts of a Fortification, to contain a number of guns, embrazures being cut for them, through the revêtement ; in some Systems, their particular use is to defend the passage of

the Ditch.

Casemated batteries are sometimes used in the seafaces of works, and in defending the entrance of harbours, in which case they consist of a bomb-proof arch, open to the rear.

CASHIERED. When an Officer is ordered by His Majesty, or sentenced by a Court-Martial, to be dismissed the Service, he is said to be cashiered.

CASTRAMETATION, in a general sense, implies the art of planning and tracing an Encampment.

CASUALTIES. A word in military use, comprehending all men who die, desert, or are discharged.

CAUTION. An explanation to the Soldiers previous to the Word of command being given, in order to prepare them for executing a movement with facility and correctness,

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CAVALIER. Is a work constructed in the interior of a full Bastion. Its terrepleine is elevated from eight to twelve feet above that of the rampart, having a parapet eighteen feet thick and six feet high. Its object is to command some ground within cannon shot, and by its elevation effectually protect the adjacent curtains from being enfiladed. Vide Fortification Cut, b.

CERTIFICATE. Is a written testimony of the truth of any statements.

CHAIN-SHOT, consist of two balls connected by a chain, principally used in destroying the rigging of Ships. CHALLENGE. The Articles of War award the penalty of cashiering to any Officer who gives or sends. a challenge to fight. All seconds, promoters, and carriers of challenges are deemed as principals, and together with those who upbraid another with having refused a challenge, are directed to be punished as challengers. Non-Commissioned Officers and Soldiers guilty of this breach of Military Discipline are amenable to the sentence of a Court-Martial. A clause is added to the Articles of War, acquitting all Officers and Soldiers of any disgrace or opinion of disadvantage, in consequence of having done their duty in refusing to accept of challenges, having thus only acted in obedience to His Majesty's commands.

CHAMBER OF A MINE, is the place where the charge of Powder is lodged.

CHAMBER OF A MORTAR, is a cavity at the bottom of the bore to receive the charge.

CHARACTERS.

Are certain marks invented for shortening the process of Military or Mathematical calculations. The principal of these are:

+, plus, the sign of addition, and in Algebra, of a positive quantity, thus, 2+3 make 5.

-, minus, a sign of subtraction, and in Algebra, of a negative quantity: thus, 6-2 leave 4.

X, multiplied by, a sign of Multiplication: thus, 6×3 makes 18.

, divided by. A sign of division: thus, 14÷2 leaves 7.

=, equal to. A sign of equality. Thus in Algebra,

a=x means that a is equal to x.

>, equal to. A sign of equality, used by Descartes. ✔, the sign of radicality: thus, 144, means the square root of 144.

4

2√, 3√, ^√, &c., the sign of the 24 or square, 3d, 4th, &c., root of the quantity to which it is prefixed.

::::, a sign of proportion: thus, 2:4:: 8: 16, is read, as 2 is to 4 so is 8 to 16, in other words, 8 bears the same proportion to 16 that 2 does to 4.

a sign signifying the word "therefore."

(), the parenthesis, used as a vinculum by Girardè. - the vinculum, used by Vieta.

a square, a triangle, a rectangle, an angle, La right angle, a perpendicular, = a parallel, OO a

circle.

The following marks on the heads of barrels denote the kind of powder contained in each. LG large grain, FG fine grain, RA for rifle arms, RS restoved. The LG or FG, when marked in red, denotes powder made entirely from cylinder charcoal, when marked in blue, powder made from pitcoal.

CHARGE. In Gunnery, denotes the quantity of powder and ball with which a gun is loaded.

In Military Evolutions, the charge expresses the advance of a body of Infantry to the attack of an Enemy, in double time and with fixed bayonets; or the rapid attack of Cavalry.

In Military Law, it is an indictment or specification of the crime of which a Prisoner stands accused, and against which he is called upon to defend himself before a competent Court. It is essential in the framing of charges, that the crime should be clearly expressed, and the act, or acts, of guilt pointedly charged against the Prisoner; also that the time and place, when and where the Offence was committed, be set forth with every possible precision. A copy of the charges on which a Prisoner is to be tried, must be furnished to him by the Judge Advocate in sufficient time before the meeting of the Court, that he may have full opportunity of preparing himself for his defence. After the charges have been thus furnished, they cannot be altered, either in form or substance, when they come before the Court.

CHARGER. The horse rode by an Officer in the Field or in Action.

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CHEVAUX DE FRISE. An obstacle used in Fortification, consisting of a prismatic beam of timber, whose section is either a square or a hexagon. It is made from six to nine feet long, and from

five to six inches in diameter,
having pointed stakes fixed per-
pendicularly to each of its faces
at equal distances from each
other, and radiating from the
centre of the beam.
To pre-

vent their being removed by the

Enemy, several beams are linked together, so as to form lines of different extents. These lines are disposed sometimes at the bottom of the ditch, and sometimes on the surface of the ground. The principal uses of chevaux de frise, are for defending a passage, stopping a breach, or forming an impediment to Cavalry. "Those of the modern pattern are made of iron, whose barrel is six feet in length, and four inches in diameter, each carrying twelve spears, five feet nine inches long, the whole weighing sixty-five pounds." British Gunner.

CHEEKS. A general term among Mechanics for those pieces of timber, in any machine, which are double, and perfectly corresponding to each other.

CHEEKS OF A CARRIAGE. The strong planks which form the sides.

CHEEKS OF AN EMBRAZURE.

The interior

Faces or Sides of an Embrazure. (Vide Embrazure.) CHEVRONS. The distinguish

ing marks on the sleeves of NonCommissioned Officers' Coats.

CHORD. In Geometry, signifies a line which joins the extremities of any arc of a circle, as Ac in the circle ABD.

CIRCLE. A plane figure bounded by a line called the circumference, every where equally distant from a point within it, called the cen

tre.

B

The circumference of a circle, is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts called degrees, marked, each degree into sixty minutes, marked', and each minute into sixty seconds, marked".

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